Test Bank Exploring Psychology 12th Edition by David G. Myers ##TestBank

$60.00
Test Bank Exploring Psychology 12th Edition by David G. Myers ##TestBank

Test Bank Exploring Psychology 12th Edition by David G. Myers ##TestBank

$60.00
Test Bank Exploring Psychology 12th Edition by David G. Myers ##TestBank

Test Bank Exploring Psychology 12th Edition by David G. Myers #TestBank

1. The type of thinking that examines assumptions, appraises the source, discerns hidden biases, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions is called

a.

critical thinking.

b.

introspection.

c.

speculation.

d.

gut-level reasoning.

ANSWER:

a

2. Surveys indicate that people are more likely to support “gun safety laws” than “gun control laws.” These survey results best illustrate the importance of

a.

random sampling.

b.

wording effects.

c.

the placebo effect.

d.

naturalistic observation.

ANSWER:

b

3. Questioning whether conclusions are warranted by the existing evidence best illustrates

a.

critical thinking.

b.

functionalism.

c.

the biopsychosocial approach.

d.

introspection.

ANSWER:

a

4. In their research on people’s perception of how prisoners accused of terrorism are questioned, Dr. Pedersen and Dr. MacDonald have found that people are more approving of “enhanced interrogation” than “torture.” This finding demonstrates which of the following?

a.

survey

b.

naturalistic observation

c.

wording effects

d.

case study

ANSWER:

c

5. Patricia recently read an online article about the meaning of horoscopes, which explained how the locations of the stars at one’s birth determines one’s personality and life course. Patricia is skeptical of this information. She concludes that the assumptions and conclusions of this article are faulty, the writer is biased and lacks credibility, and the evidence to support this claim does not justify a cause-effect conclusion. Patricia has engaged in

a.

critical thinking.

b.

introspection.

c.

speculation.

d.

emergent thinking.

ANSWER:

a

6. People often fail to make accurate generalizations because they are unduly influenced by ________ cases.

a.

randomly selected

b.

vivid

c.

representative

d.

operationally defined

ANSWER:

b

7. Checking on the credibility of the sources of information you use in a class report is most indicative of

a.

a biopsychosocial approach.

b.

critical thinking.

c.

introspection.

d.

functionalism.

ANSWER:

b

8. Sixteen-year-old Marc would like to learn to drive, but his parents won’t let him. When he asks why, they remind him about two family members who were involved in collisions with younger drivers. “Teenagers are always getting into accidents,” his father tells him. Marc’s parents’ reasoning best illustrates the danger of

a.

replication.

b.

random assignment.

c.

the placebo effect.

d.

generalizing from vivid cases.

ANSWER:

d

9. Reasoning that does not blindly accept available arguments and conclusions illustrates

a.

introspection.

b.

critical thinking.

c.

the psychodynamic perspective.

d.

an empirical approach.

ANSWER:

b

10. When people generalize from a few vivid but unrepresentative cases, they are falling prey to

a.

operational definitions.

b.

hypothesizing.

c.

hindsight bias.

d.

sampling bias.

ANSWER:

d

11. Critical thinking most clearly involves

a.

a biopsychosocial approach.

b.

introspection.

c.

evaluating evidence.

d.

the psychodynamic perspective.

ANSWER:

c

12. A representative sample is one that accurately reflects a larger

a.

control group.

b.

correlation coefficient.

c.

dependent variable.

d.

population.

ANSWER:

d

13. A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates

a.

behaviorism.

b.

critical thinking.

c.

introspection.

d.

Freudian psychology.

ANSWER:

b

14. All those in a group being studied make up the

a.

population.

b.

sample.

c.

case study.

d.

survey.

ANSWER:

a

15. Jennifer was worried that the wording of the questions in a diet and exercise survey may have encouraged respondents to express unusually positive levels of health. Jennifer’s concern best illustrates

a.

behavior genetics.

b.

skepticism.

c.

critical thinking.

d.

the neuroscience perspective.

ANSWER:

c

16. To learn about the gaming habits of all the children attending Eastchester High School, Professor Matteo randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the school’s students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a(n)

a.

population.

b.

representative sample.

c.

independent variable.

d.

control condition.

ANSWER:

a

17. Shane is discussing climate change with Brandon. Shane is convinced that climate change is not real because it has been an unusually cold summer. Brandon believes that climate change is real but is open to the possibility that he could be wrong. Who would be most likely to engage in critical thinking?

a.

Shane

b.

Brandon

c.

both Shane and Brandon

d.

neither Shane nor Brandon

ANSWER:

b

18. When every individual in a large population has a small but equal chance of being included in a survey, researchers are using a procedure known as

a.

the case study.

b.

the double-blind procedure.

c.

random sampling.

d.

naturalistic observation.

ANSWER:

c

19. Which of the following is NOT associated with critical thinking?

a.

debunking popular presumptions

b.

making factual claims based on one’s gut

c.

revealing surprising findings

d.

identifying effective policies

ANSWER:

b

20. Which of the following is most useful for helping survey researchers avoid false generalizations?

a.

the case study

b.

naturalistic observation

c.

random sampling

d.

operational definitions

ANSWER:

c

21. Janice is concerned about pollution and its effects on the planet. She has read several news articles, paying careful attention to the content in the articles and the sources of the information. She has also reviewed information that seems contrary to her view. She is involved in

a.

critical thinking.

b.

skepticism.

c.

making assumptions.

d.

sharing false information.

ANSWER:

a

22. Senator Scott always held his political rallies at large stadiums because of the big, enthusiastic crowds that attended. As a result, he became falsely confident of his chances of re-election. In this instance, the senator needs to be alerted to the value of

a.

replication.

b.

random sampling.

c.

experimental control.

d.

naturalistic observation.

ANSWER:

b

23. When you question the claim that hypnosis helps people to recall memories more accurately, you are most clearly demonstrating

a.

introspection.

b.

the neuroscience perspective.

c.

an empirical approach.

d.

critical thinking.

ANSWER:

d

24. To assess opinions about a planned student walkout at her school, Aaliyah sent a questionnaire to every tenth person in the registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Aaliyah is ensuring that her survey results are accurate by using

a.

random assignment.

b.

naturalistic observation.

c.

replication.

d.

random sampling.

ANSWER:

d

25. Who speculated that a meal makes us sleepy by causing gas and heat to collect around our heart?

a.

Aristotle

b.

Plato

c.

Skinner

d.

Darwin

ANSWER:

a

26. Suppose you want to find out which candidate women will vote for in an upcoming national election. To be sure the sample you survey is representative of the nation’s population of women, you should survey

a.

only a small sample of women.

b.

only politically informed women.

c.

every woman in the country.

d.

a large representative sample of the population of women.

ANSWER:

d

27. Aristotle suggested the source of our personality is the

a.

brain.

b.

throat.

c.

heart.

d.

stomach.

ANSWER:

c

28. In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that

a.

the participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying.

b.

there will be a large number of participants in the research study.

c.

the study will not be influenced by the researcher's personal values.

d.

the same number of participants will be assigned to each of the experimental conditions.

ANSWER:

a

29. Who developed the first psychological laboratory?

a.

Wundt

b.

Plato

c.

Freud

d.

James

ANSWER:

a

30. To accurately generalize study results, researchers need

a.

a good population base.

b.

a highly reliable survey.

c.

naturalistic observation.

d.

a representative sample.

ANSWER:

d

31. Wilhelm Wundt developed the first ________ used in psychology, which measured how long it took people to press a telegraph key after hearing a ball hit a platform.

a.

developmental study

b.

theoretical perspective

c.

experimental apparatus

d.

subfield

ANSWER:

c

32. Dr. Dimitrov would like to study marijuana use among young adults. To generalize her findings to all young adults, she needs a representative sample. To obtain such a sample, Dr. Dimitrov should

a.

offer a reward to young adults who complete her questionnaire.

b.

use naturalistic observation in her study.

c.

seek a random sample of participants.

d.

exhibit sampling bias when selecting participants.

ANSWER:

c

33. Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of

a.

animal intelligence.

b.

personality development.

c.

social influence.

d.

mental processes.

ANSWER:

d

34. Which two research designs often show that one trait or behavior tends to correlate with another?

a.

case study and experiment

b.

survey and correlation

c.

naturalistic observation and survey

d.

experiment and correlation

ANSWER:

c

35. The birth of psychology is often attributed to Wilhelm Wundt because he pioneered the investigation of mental processes using

a.

a biopsychosocial perspective.

b.

an evolutionary perspective.

c.

positive psychology.

d.

scientific methods.

ANSWER:

d

36. Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two factors

a.

vary together.

b.

are random samples.

c.

influence each other.

d.

are dependent variables.

ANSWER:

a

37. Which school of thought in psychology focused on the structure of the human mind?

a.

functionalism

b.

behaviorism

c.

structuralism

d.

humanism

ANSWER:

c

38. During the COVID-19 pandemic, higher rates of mask-wearing predicted fewer reported COVID-19 symptoms. We could also say that

a.

mask-wearing correlated negatively with reported COVID-19 symptoms.

b.

mask-wearing correlated positively with reported COVID-19 symptoms.

c.

there is a direct relationship between mask-wearing and reported COVID-19 symptoms.

d.

there is likely some third variable involved.

ANSWER:

a

39. Edward Titchener and others attempted to reveal the basic elements of the mind by asking people to look inward. They were using a method known as

a.

functionalism.

b.

empiricism.

c.

introspection.

d.

conditioning.

ANSWER:

c

40. To study how religious beliefs may predict political preferences, Professor Steele and his colleagues are most likely to use

a.

the case study approach.

b.

naturalistic observation.

c.

correlational measures.

d.

experimental research.

ANSWER:

c

41. Which early psychologist aimed to discover the mind's structure?

a.

Edward Bradford Titchener

b.

William James

c.

Charles Darwin

d.

Wilhelm Wundt

ANSWER:

a

42. Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables?

a.

a correlation coefficient

b.

a random sample

c.

a double-blind procedure

d.

an independent variable

ANSWER:

a

43. Introspection was the basic research tool used by ________ in order to study people's inner sensations and mental images.

a.

John B. Watson

b.

Charles Darwin

c.

Edward Titchener

d.

B. F. Skinner

ANSWER:

c

44. To determine whether students’ intelligence scores are related to their later professional achievements, researchers would most likely employ

a.

case studies.

b.

correlational research.

c.

experimentation.

d.

naturalistic observation.

ANSWER:

b

45. Looking inward and reporting your immediate sensations, images, and feelings is called

a.

cognitive neuroscience.

b.

introspection.

c.

behaviorism.

d.

humanistic psychology.

ANSWER:

b

46. Professor Stevens wants to examine the relationship between false news and negative attitudes about refugees. Professor Stevens’ research would be an example of

a.

correlational research.

b.

naturalistic observation.

c.

a case study.

d.

an experiment.

ANSWER:

a

47. Antonio and other research participants are asked to report elements of their experience as they look at differently shaped objects. This research involves a technique known as

a.

behavior genetics.

b.

psychoanalysis.

c.

functionalism.

d.

introspection.

ANSWER:

d

48. Professor Terrance has conducted a study that examined the relationship between level of physical activity and academic performance among children. He is most likely to use ________ to determine if a relationship exists.

a.

meta-analysis

b.

preregistration

c.

a correlation coefficient

d.

experimental research

ANSWER:

c

49. The unreliability of ________ led to the waning popularity of structuralism.

a.

introspection

b.

behavior genetics

c.

behaviorism

d.

humanistic psychology

ANSWER:

a

50. A direct relationship in which two factors increase together or decrease together represents

a.

a dependent variable.

b.

an independent variable.

c.

a positive correlation.

d.

a negative correlation.

ANSWER:

c

51. Edward Titchener is to William James as structuralism is to

a.

behaviorism.

b.

humanistic psychology.

c.

functionalism.

d.

psychoanalytic psychology.

ANSWER:

c

52. The weakest degree of relationship between two variables is expressed in which of the following correlation coefficients?

a.

–.15

b.

–.99

c.

+.20

d.

–.65

ANSWER:

a

53. Edward Titchener is to structuralism as William James is to

a.

behaviorism.

b.

humanistic psychology.

c.

cognitive neuroscience.

d.

functionalism.

ANSWER:

d

54. A positive correlation indicates

a.

a direct relationship in which two sets of scores increase together or decrease together.

b.

an inverse relationship in which scores for one variable increase as scores for another variable decrease.

c.

one of the variables causes the other.

d.

the independent and dependent variables are indirectly related.

ANSWER:

a

55. William James was a prominent American

a.

psychoanalyst.

b.

behaviorist.

c.

functionalist.

d.

psychiatrist.

ANSWER:

c

56. Dr. Abe is an expert in weight-loss management and techniques. He repeatedly finds that as consumers eat fewer calories, they also lose weight. This is an example of a

a.

positive correlation.

b.

negative correlation.

c.

confounding variable.

d.

neutral relationship.

ANSWER:

a

57. Which early psychologist aimed to study the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings?

a.

Edward Bradford Titchener

b.

William James

c.

Charles Darwin

d.

Wilhelm Wundt

ANSWER:

b

58. Professor Schmidt is a developmental psychologist who examines external influences on the parent-child relationship. She has found that as parental work pressure decreases, the level of parental stress decreases, which then increases the level of parent-child interaction. The relationship between parental work pressure and parental stress is a

a.

positive correlation.

b.

negative correlation.

c.

confounding variable.

d.

neutral relationship.

ANSWER:

a

59. Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the

a.

adaptive value of thoughts and behaviors.

b.

component elements of sensory experience.

c.

disruptive effects of unconscious motives.

d.

treatment of psychological disorders.

ANSWER:

a

60. Professor Madigan’s research would most likely show a positive correlation between

a.

education and income.

b.

poverty and physical health.

c.

self-esteem and depression.

d.

school grades and school absences.

ANSWER:

a

61. Which early school of thought in psychology focused on how the mind functions?

a.

behaviorism

b.

functionalism

c.

structuralism

d.

humanism

ANSWER:

b

62. An inverse relationship in which one factor increases as another factor decreases represents

a.

a dependent variable.

b.

an independent variable.

c.

a positive correlation.

d.

a negative correlation.

ANSWER:

d

63. Late in the nineteenth century, Kumar was interested in studying how mental and behavioral processes enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish. Kumar’s school of thought was called

a.

behaviorism.

b.

functionalism.

c.

structuralism.

d.

humanism.

ANSWER:

b

64. A negative correlation between degree of wealth and likelihood of suffering from a psychological disorder would indicate that

a.

poverty makes people vulnerable to psychological disorders.

b.

wealthy people are less likely to have a psychological disorder than are non-wealthy people.

c.

psychological disorders usually prevent people from accumulating wealth.

d.

all of these statements are correct.

ANSWER:

b

65. Which theorist most clearly influenced William James' efforts to understand the adaptive functions of thinking and consciousness?

a.

John B. Watson

b.

Sigmund Freud

c.

Carl Rogers

d.

Charles Darwin

ANSWER:

d

66. Stan is reading peer-reviewed research studies that have found that as the amount of corporal punishment increases, the physical health of the child decreases. This demonstrates a(n)

a.

positive correlation.

b.

neutral relationship.

c.

absence of cause and effect.

d.

negative correlation.

ANSWER:

d

67. Who was the American philosopher-psychologist who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?

a.

Wilhelm Wundt

b.

John B. Watson

c.

Sigmund Freud

d.

William James

ANSWER:

d

68. If Professor Juan discovered that people with lower incomes are more satisfied with their lives than people with higher incomes are, this would indicate that wealth and life satisfaction are

a.

causally related.

b.

negatively correlated.

c.

independent variables.

d.

positively correlated.

ANSWER:

b

69. The psychology textbook that William James authored was titled

a.

The New Science.

b.

Psychology.

c.

Principles of Psychology.

d.

The Abstract Mind.

ANSWER:

c

70. If the correlation between adolescents’ sugar consumption and their athletic ability is –1.00, this would indicate that

a.

there is very little statistical relationship between adolescents’ sugar consumption and their athletic ability.

b.

adolescents’ sugar consumption has a negative effect on their athletic ability.

c.

among adolescents, better athletic ability is associated with lower sugar consumption.

d.

adolescents’ sugar consumption has no causal influence on their athletic ability.

ANSWER:

c

71. Who was a student of William James and the first female president of the American Psychological Association?

a.

Jean Piaget

b.

Margaret Floy Washburn

c.

Rosalie Rayner

d.

Mary Whiton Calkins

ANSWER:

d

72. Which research method assesses how well one variable predicts another without demonstrating a cause-effect relationship between the variables?

a.

naturalistic observation

b.

correlational research

c.

the case study

d.

the experimental method

ANSWER:

b

73. Which psychologist was the first woman to officially earn a doctorate degree and was the author of the influential book, The Animal Mind?

a.

Margaret Floy Washburn

b.

Mary Whiton Calkins

c.

Anna Freud

d.

Marla Wundt

ANSWER:

a

74. Suppose that people who see a lot of violent movies are also more likely to be aggressive. This relationship would NOT necessarily indicate that watching violent movies increases aggressive behavior, because

a.

we most readily notice associations that confirm our beliefs.

b.

association does not prove causation.

c.

sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations.

d.

the sample may have been randomly selected.

ANSWER:

b

75. In the United States, Canada, and Europe, which of the following is true regarding gender and psychology today?

a.

Most published psychological research is authored by women.

b.

Women are especially likely to have their research published in top journals.

c.

Most psychology doctorates are earned by women.

d.

Psychology continues to be a male-dominated discipline.

ANSWER:

c

76. A large survey revealed that children with relatively high self-esteem tend to view their teachers as kind and helpful, whereas those with lower self-esteem tend to view their teachers as hostile and unsupportive. The researchers concluded that the children's self-esteem had influenced their views of their teachers. This conclusion best illustrates the danger of

a.

failing to use operational definitions.

b.

generalizing from vivid examples.

c.

being influenced by a confounding variable.

d.

assuming that association proves causation.

ANSWER:

d

77. Between 1997 and 2020, more than ________ percent of the elected presidents of the Association for Psychological Science were women.

a.

10

b.

25

c.

50

d.

75

ANSWER:

c

78. If psychologists discovered that older parents tend to have children with higher intelligence scores than do younger parents, this would demonstrate that

a.

intelligence is inherited.

b.

older parents provide their children with greater educational opportunities than do younger parents.

c.

the age of parents is positively correlated with the intelligence scores of their children.

d.

all of these statements are correct.

ANSWER:

c

79. Early psychologists such as Wilhelm Wundt and William James focused on the study of

a.

mental processes.

b.

clinical psychology.

c.

unconscious motives.

d.

conditioned responses.

ANSWER:

a

80. Dr. Mirza has found that adults who watch more television are more likely to be obese. Which conclusion can he reach?

a.

Watching television leads to obesity.

b.

Adults who are obese enjoy watching television.

c.

Watching a lot of television is correlated with obesity.

d.

There is likely some third variable that triggers both increased television-watching and obesity.

ANSWER:

c

81. Beginning in the 1920s, American psychologists such as John B. Watson emphasized the study of

a.

genetic influences.

b.

self-esteem.

c.

conscious thoughts and feelings.

d.

observable behavior.

ANSWER:

d

82. Dr. Dundon has researched the effects of sexual media content for the past four years and has repeatedly found that teenagers who view more sexual media are also more likely to report engaging in unprotected sex, having sex with several partners, and consuming alcohol or drugs prior to having sex. What does this mean?

a.

Exposure to sexual content in the media causes risky sexual behaviors.

b.

College students who engage in risky sexual behaviors are drawn to sexually explicit media.

c.

Exposure to sexual content in the media is correlated with risky sexual behaviors.

d.

Dr. Dundon cannot come to a conclusion.

ANSWER:

c

83. The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as

a.

behaviorism.

b.

cognitive neuroscience.

c.

humanistic psychology.

d.

positive psychology.

ANSWER:

a

84. Based on a recent survey indicating that people who smoke regularly report having less energy, a news article includes the headline “Smoking Makes You Sleepy!” What is wrong with this conclusion?

a.

It was derived from a survey study.

b.

Correlation does not prove causation.

c.

The experiment that reached this conclusion cannot be replicated.

d.

This finding is not problematic.

ANSWER:

b

85. Early behaviorists such as John B. Watson would have considered the introspective study of self-esteem to be

a.

applied research.

b.

a positive psychology.

c.

an unscientific method.

d.

a biopsychosocial approach.

ANSWER:

c

86. To support her argument that corporal punishment during childhood leads to criminal behavior in adulthood, Shaistha cites a recent report stating that “Eighty percent of prisoners in the United States were spanked as children.” This is problematic because

a.

it was derived from a survey study.

b.

correlation does not prove causation.

c.

the experiment that reached this conclusion cannot be replicated.

d.

This finding is not problematic.

ANSWER:

b

87. Behaviorists dismissed the value of

a.

science.

b.

introspection.

c.

neuroscience.

d.

applied research.

ANSWER:

b

88. What do the parallel research findings of “Eighty percent of prisoners in the United States were spanked as children” and “Seventy-five percent of college students in the United States were spanked as children” demonstrate?

a.

The survey method leads to causal results.

b.

Correlation does not prove causation.

c.

Experimental designs cannot be replicated.

d.

These statements do not demonstrate any problem.

ANSWER:

b

89. John B. Watson was an American

a.

psychiatrist.

b.

behaviorist.

c.

cognitive neuroscientist.

d.

structuralist.

ANSWER:

b

90. Which of the following methods is most helpful for clarifying cause-effect relationships?

a.

the survey

b.

the experiment

c.

correlational research

d.

naturalistic observation

ANSWER:

b

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