Test Bank For Deviance and Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L. Inderbitzin

$35.00
Test Bank For Deviance and Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L. Inderbitzin

Test Bank For Deviance and Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L. Inderbitzin

$35.00
Test Bank For Deviance and Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L. Inderbitzin

Test Bank For Deviance and Social Control A Sociological Perspective 2nd Edition by Michelle L. Inderbitzin

Chapter 6

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

  1. Which theorist is considered the pioneer of sociological criminology and known for the significant contribution, differential association theory?
  2. a) Robert Merton
  3. b) Edwin Sutherland
  4. c) Ronald Akers
  5. d) Robert Burgess

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is not one of Sutherland’s Nine Propositions of differential association theory?
  2. a) Differential association may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.
  3. b) The same mechanisms are involved in learning crime as involved in other learning.
  4. c) Criminal behavior is inherent.
  5. d) Criminal behavior is learned through interaction and communication with others.

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Differential association and social learning theories are most likely to emphasize studies that examine social learning through communication with ________ others.
  2. a) stranger
  3. b) political
  4. c) formal
  5. d) intimate

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. _____________________ refers to the likelihood of rewards and punishments that will reinforce or diminish behaviors.
  2. a) Differential association
  3. b) Imitation observation
  4. c) Differential reinforcement
  5. d) Reproachful behavior

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. In the early 1950s, the ____________Project, offered delinquent boys the opportunity to leave their residential treatment facility during the day to go to work or school and then return to what was referred to as Guided Group Interaction where group sessions were led by trained staff, and the boys could discuss problems they were experiencing with their families, in school, or in their jobs.
  2. a) Highland
  3. b) DARE
  4. c) Chicago School
  5. d) Greenbrier

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In the research study by Pamela Hunt on the ___________ Subcultures, the “passion” philosophy refers to sharing resources in communal living, the aversion to status and authority, and promoting such behaviors to others
  2. a) Differential
  3. b) Jamband
  4. c) Hippie
  5. d) Biker Gang

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Akers et al (1998) conducted a Midwest self-report study on drug use, finding that social learning variables were predictive of which substance use and problems?
  2. a) Heroin and methamphetamine
  3. b) Smoking and alcohol
  4. c) Alcohol and marijuana
  5. d) Cocaine and heroin

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Which of the following includes incidence of sexual aggression as deviance?
  2. a) Sexual aggression
  3. b) Passive sexuality
  4. c) Property crime
  5. d) Aggravated robbery

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. In the history of social learning theories, they are criticized for a tendency to focus on ______________.
  2. a) drug addicts
  3. b) juvenile delinquents
  4. c) geriatrics patients
  5. d) new borns to toddlers

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

TRUE/FALSE

  1. A video online that provides “tips and tricks” on bulimia and anorexia is considered a learned deviant act because it includes sharing skills for deviant acts of body modification.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Edwin Sutherland stated that conventional theories about crime and criminality are valid because they explain only the crimes of the lower class.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Differential location in the social structure refers to the social and demographic characteristics of individuals defining roles in larger social structure.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Social learning theories argue social behavior is observed and imitated.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. According to Akers (1998), definitions are attitudes, beliefs, and rationalizations that define a behavior as good or bad, right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate; definitions can be general or specific.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Today, even those interested in biological predictors of crime and deviance do not argue that behavior is inherited, but rather they say that there may be predispositions that make some folks more likely to engage in behavior.

Ans: TRUE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Cultural deviance has not been very influential in the study of deviance.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Differential association theories best describe subgroups like serial killers and schizophrenics.

Ans: FALSE

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

Short Answer

  1. What three things must be present in order for deviance to be learned?

Ans:

Presence of availability in instruction, opportunities to act out deviance, and encouragement to conduct deviant acts.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. List four concepts of social learning theory provided by Ron Akers? Provide a brief explanation of each.

Ans:

Definitions of attitudes, beliefs, rationalizations of good/bad, and right/wrong

  • can be general or specific
  • can be favorable , neutralizing, or reproachful of behavior

Differential association

  • definitions are learned through contact with others

Differential reinforcement

  • “balance of anticipated and actual rewards and punishments”
  • Likelihood of rewards and punishments will reinforce or diminish

Imitation

  • observing modeled behavior and repeating
  • ex: candy cigarettes

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Conceptions of Deviance

Difficulty Level: Difficult

  1. Is differential association reinforcement theory strictly focused on the individual, the environment, or social world around them or both? Why or why not?

Ans:

This theory attempted to introduce the psychological concepts of operant conditioning to the original theory. The notion behind operant conditioning is that learning is enhanced by both social and nonsocial reinforcement. Their collaboration led to a seven-proposition integration of differential association and operant conditioning concepts. Ultimately, it incorporates both.

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