Test Bank For Essentials of Sociology 4th Edition Giddens- Carr

$30.00
Test Bank For Essentials of Sociology 4th Edition Giddens- Carr

Test Bank For Essentials of Sociology 4th Edition Giddens- Carr

$30.00
Test Bank For Essentials of Sociology 4th Edition Giddens- Carr

Test Bank For Essentials of Sociology 4th Edition Giddens- Carr

CHAPTER 6: Conformity, Deviance, and Crime

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. The term used to describe modes of action that do not conform to the norms or values held by most members of a group or society is:
a.anomie
b.alienation
c.conformity
d.social construction
e.deviance

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Page 165 TOP: Defining Deviance (I.A)

MSC: Factual

  1. According to your textbook authors, which statement concerning deviance is NOT true?
a.All law breakers are deviants in all social contexts.
b.Some people choose to be deviant.
c.Some people are deviant because they are incapable of following the rules.
d.Most of us, on some occasions, violate generally accepted rules of behavior.
e.We are all rule creators.

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 164–66

TOP: Defining Deviance (I.A) MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which of the following statements concerning hackers is true?
a.Hackers now have a largely positive public reputation.
b.Hackers see themselves as criminals.
c.Most activities that hackers engage in are criminal.
d.The hacker community largely agrees with how it is perceived by the public.
e.Kevin Mitnick has been described as the “world’s most celebrated computer hacker.”

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 166 TOP: Defining Deviance (I.A)

MSC: Factual

  1. A subculture whose members hold values that differ substantially from those of the majority is called:
a.a social control group
b.a deviant subculture
c.a median subculture
d.a normative subculture
e.an aggregate

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 166 TOP: Deviant Subcultures (I.B)

MSC: Factual

  1. What did the Heaven’s Gate cult and the computer hacker community have in common?
a.Both are religious groups.
b.Both groups believed that the end of the world is near.
c.Both groups struggled financially.
d.Both groups restricted their membership to men.
e.Both groups are considered deviant subcultures.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 166 TOP: Deviant Subcultures (I.B)

MSC: Factual

  1. The term that describes rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of situations is:
a.value
b.belief
c.sanction
d.norm
e.institutionalization

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 164 TOP: Norms and Sanctions (I.C)

MSC: Factual

  1. A mode of reward or punishment that reinforces socially expected forms of behavior is called a:
a.conditioned response
b.symbolic response
c.sanction
d.norm
e.deviation

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 167 TOP: Norms and Sanctions (I.C)

MSC: Factual

  1. A veteran police officer’s criticism of a rookie police officer for not acting aggressively enough during an altercation with a suspect is an example of a:
a.positive formal sanction
b.negative formal sanction
c.positive informal sanction
d.negative informal sanction
e.legal sanction

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 167 TOP: Norms and Sanctions (I.C)

MSC: Applied

  1. __________ are norms defined by governments as principles that their citizens must follow; a __________ is any type of behavior that violates these norms.
a.Laws; crime
b.Informal codes; breach
c.Taboos; sin
d.Guidelines; deviation
e.Negative reinforcements; positive reinforcement

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 167 TOP: Norms and Sanctions (I.C)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements related to the biological view of deviance is true?
a.Some of the first attempts to explain crime emphasized biological factors.
b.Cesare Lombroso’s claims have been supported by a large body of subsequent research.
c.Nearly all studies claiming a relationship between body type and delinquency have used samples that are representative of the general population.
d.A correlation between body type and delinquency shows that one’s body type “causes” criminal behavior.
e.Fragile-looking skinny children almost never engage in delinquent behavior.

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 168 TOP: Biological View (II.A)

MSC: Conceptual

  1. Referring to the recent study mentioned in your textbook of New Zealand children that investigated whether a child’s propensity for aggression was linked to biological factors present at birth, with which statement would those researchers most likely agree?
a.There is no such thing as genes; it is a social construction.
b.There is no such thing as a genetic predisposition.
c.There are genetic predispositions, but they have no impact on human behavior.
d.A baby with a genetic predisposition for alcoholism would not likely become a problem drinker if his or her social environment provided few opportunities to drink.
e.There is a genetic predisposition for alcoholism that will cause those with that predisposition to become alcoholics, regardless of environment.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 168 TOP: Biological View (II.A)

MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT true about psychopaths?
a.Psychopaths are withdrawn, emotionless characters who delight in violence for its own sake.
b.Psychopaths lack the moral sense and concern for others held by most normal people.
c.Psychopaths are inevitably criminal.
d.People with psychopathic characteristics might be explorers, spies, or gamblers.
e.Nearly all studies of people said to possess psychopathic characteristics have been of convicted prisoners.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 168–69

TOP: Psychological View (II.B) MSC: Conceptual

  1. Theorizing that terrorists have a certain personality profile is an example of which view of deviance?
a.biological view
b.psychological view
c.sociological view
d.evolutionary view
e.rational choice view

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 169 TOP: Psychological View (II.B)

MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following disciplines does NOT place the source of deviant behavior within an individual?
a.neuroscience
b.genetics
c.biology
d.psychology
e.sociology

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Page 169

TOP: Sociological Perspectives on Deviance (III) MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following statements does NOT represent the sociological perspective on deviance?
a.Behavior varies according to social context.
b.Definitions of deviance vary based on social context.
c.Crime depends on the social institutions of a society.
d.Crime results from lack of moral regulation within society.
e.Crime is a personal choice that is not shaped by social context.

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Page 169

TOP: Sociological Perspectives on Deviance (III) MSC: Conceptual

  1. A concept brought into wide usage in sociology by Émile Durkheim, __________ refers to a situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior.
a.egoism
b.altruism
c.fatalism
d.anomie
e.postmodernism

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 169 TOP: Émile Durkheim (III.A.i)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements would Émile Durkheim DISAGREE with?
a.People in the modern age are highly controlled by social expectations.
b.Deviance is necessary for society.
c.Deviance can contribute to the stability of society.
d.Deviance in an innovative force.
e.Deviance promotes boundary maintenance.

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 170 TOP: Émile Durkheim (III.A.i)

MSC: Conceptual

  1. According to Robert Merton, at a time when society as a whole is becoming more affluent, why do crime rates continue to rise?
a.a sense of relative deprivation among those at the bottom
b.inadequate socialization of the poor
c.the rise of deviant subcultures
d.the ability of communities to afford more police officers
e.the presence of more material goods to steal

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 171 TOP: Robert Merton (III.A.ii)

MSC: Factual

  1. In Robert Merton’s typology, drug dealers would be:
a.conformists
b.innovators
c.ritualists
d.retreatists
e.rebels

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 170 TOP: Robert Merton (III.A.ii)

MSC: Applied

  1. In Robert Merton’s typology, the majority of people in society are:
a.conformists
b.innovators
c.ritualists
d.retreatists
e.rebels

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 170 TOP: Robert Merton (III.A.ii)

MSC: Applied

  1. Which researcher found that boys in the lower working class who are frustrated with their positions in life often joined together in delinquent subcultures that rejected middle-class values and replaced them with norms that celebrate defiance?
a.Albert Cohen
b.Robert Merton
c.Émile Durkheim
d.Kingsley Davis
e.Talcott Parsons

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 172

TOP: Subcultural Explanations (III.A.iii) MSC: Factual

  1. A survey of homeless youth in Canada shows a strong correlation between hunger, lack of shelter, and unemployment, on the one hand, and theft, prostitution, and even violent crime on the other. Whose theory of delinquency would best explain this relationship?
a.Émile Durkheim
b.Richard A. Cloward and Lloyd E. Ohlin
c.Edwin H. Sutherland
d.Travis Hirschi
e.Howard Becker

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 172

TOP: Subcultural Explanations (III.A.iii) MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which theory proposes that we become deviant when exposed to a higher level of deviant persons and influences, compared to conventional influences?
a.anomie theory
b.strain theory
c.differential association theory
d.control theory
e.labeling theory

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 173

TOP: Differential Association (III.B.i) MSC: Factual

  1. According to differential association theory, who is more likely to be a delinquent?
a.a poor person whose friends do not commit crime
b.a middle-class person whose friends frequently commit crime
c.a person with high aspirations but few opportunities
d.a person with low aspirations but many opportunities
e.a person who has been labeled a delinquent

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 173

TOP: Differential Association (III.B.i) MSC: Applied

  1. Which theory views crime as the outcome of an imbalance between impulses toward criminal activity and controls that deter it?
a.anomie theory
b.strain theory
c.differential association theory
d.control theory
e.labeling theory

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 173 TOP: Control Theory (III.B.ii)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT reflective of control theory?
a.You have a strong attachment to friends who value good grades and hard work, therefore you value good grades and hard work.
b.You are a high school dropout, so you have little to lose by being arrested.
c.School and work keep you constantly busy, so you have little time to spend engaged in deviant activities.
d.You believe in honesty and hard work.
e.You engage in deviance as a political act.

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Page 173 TOP: Control Theory (III.B.ii)

MSC: Applied

  1. Which theory would Karl Marx agree with the most?
a.strain theory
b.differential association theory
c.control theory
d.conflict theory
e.labeling theory

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 173 TOP: Conflict Theory (III.C)

MSC: Conceptual

  1. From the perspective of the new criminology, laws:
a.are neutral
b.are applied evenly across the population
c.are used by the powerful to maintain their own privileged positions
d.protect the working class from being exploited by the capitalist elite
e.are social constructions that emerge through democratic processes

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 174 TOP: Conflict Theory (III.C)

MSC: Factual

  1. From the perspective of labeling theory, deviance is seen as:
a.a process of interaction between deviants and nondeviants
b.a set of characteristics of individuals or groups
c.freely chosen
d.a component of personality
e.an act that is universally wrong

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 174 TOP: Labeling Theory (III.D)

MSC: Factual

  1. Two groups of boys, one working class and the other middle class, engage in equal amounts of delinquent activities. One group is considered “just boys being boys,” and the other is considered “troublemakers.” Which of the following theories best explains this difference?
a.strain theory
b.differential association theory
c.control theory
d.conflict theory
e.labeling theory

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 174 TOP: Labeling Theory (III.D)

MSC: Applied

  1. Fifteen-year-old Diego is arrested and spends thirty days in juvenile detention. He begins to see himself as a delinquent while there. When he is released, he commits more crimes. The crimes that he commits after being released would be considered by Edwin Lemert as:
a.primary deviance
b.secondary deviance
c.tertiary deviance
d.anomic deviance
e.structural strain deviance

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 175 TOP: Labeling Theory (III.D)

MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the Uniform Crime Reports is NOT true?
a.The reports contain official data reported to law enforcement agencies.
b.The reports focus on “index crimes.”
c.The reports accurately reflect crime rates.
d.The reports include only those crimes reported to law enforcement agencies.
e.The reports exclude fraud and embezzlement.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 176

TOP: Sources of Crime Data (IV.A) MSC: Factual

  1. The National Crime Victimization Survey has found that crime rates are:
a.functional, serving many positive functions
b.social constructions
c.actually higher than those reported by official agencies
d.actually lower than those reported by official agencies
e.about the same as those reported by official agencies, confirming the accuracy of those reports

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Pages 177–78

TOP: Sources of Crime Data (IV.A) MSC: Factual

  1. Violent crime is more common:
a.in suburbs than in cities or small towns
b.in small towns than in cities or suburbs
c.today than in the early 1990s
d.in the United States than in Switzerland
e.in countries where handguns and other firearms are banned

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 178 TOP: Crime Trends (IV.B)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which factor was NOT mentioned in your textbook as contributing to the decline of crime rates in the 1990s?
a.aggressive law enforcement
b.a declining market for crack cocaine
c.the stigmatization of crack among young urban dwellers
d.the booming economy of the 1990s
e.changes in welfare laws

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 178 TOP: Crime Trends (IV.B)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements concerning victims and perpetrators of crime is true?
a.Men are more likely to be victims and perpetrators of crime compared to women.
b.Older persons are more likely to be victims and perpetrators of crime compared to young persons.
c.Whites are more likely to be victims and perpetrators of crime compared to African Americans.
d.Residents of the suburbs are more likely to be victims and perpetrators of crime compared to inner-city residents.
e.There are no gender, age, race, or residential area differences in rates of victimization or perpetration.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 180 TOP: Gender and Crime (V.A)

MSC: Factual

  1. In 2009, what percent of people in jail were men?
a.12.2 percent
b.30.3 percent
c.45.4 percent
d.67.5 percent
e.87.8 percent

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 181 TOP: Gender and Crime (V.A)

MSC: Factual

  1. At what age is a person most likely to be arrested for a crime?
a.10 or 11
b.13 or 14
c.18 or 19
d.25 or 26
e.35 or 36

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 182 TOP: Youth and Crime (V.B)

MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which of the following statements concerning youth and crime is NOT true?
a.As young people gradually transition into adulthood, they acquire social attachments and commitments that make “conventional” behavior rewarding.
b.Most youthful deviants go on to become career criminals.
c.Trends in drug use have shifted away from hard drugs such as heroin and toward combinations of substances such as amphetamines, prescription drugs like OxyContin, alcohol, and the drug ecstasy.
d.Taking illegal drugs is often defined in racial, class, and cultural terms.
e.When crack cocaine appeared in the 1980s, it was quickly defined by the media as the drug of choice for black, inner-city kids who listened to hip-hop.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 182 TOP: Youth and Crime (V.B)

MSC: Factual

  1. Crime typically carried out by people in the more affluent sectors of society is called:
a.organized crime
b.white-collar crime
c.serial crime
d.index crime
e.negligent crime

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 184 TOP: White-Collar Crime (VI.A)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements concerning white-collar crime is NOT true?
a.The amount of money involved in crimes against property (robberies, burglaries, larceny, forgeries, and car thefts) is forty times greater than the amount involved in white-collar crimes.
b.Authorities regard white-collar crime in a more tolerant light than crimes of the less privileged.
c.Rarely do people caught committing white-collar crime go to jail.
d.The manufacture or sale of dangerous products is a type of white-collar crime.
e.Illegal environmental pollution is a type of white-collar crime.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 184–85

TOP: White-Collar Crime (VI.A) MSC: Factual

  1. Offenses committed by large corporations in society are called:
a.elite crime
b.bureaucratic crime
c.corporate crime
d.crime syndicate
e.index crime

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 186 TOP: Corporate Crime (VI.B)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of corporate crime?
a.A pesticide company dumps pollutants into the local river.
b.A food manufacturer puts false nutrition information on its product labels.
c.An automobile company manufactures and knowingly sells an SUV that rolls over easily.
d.Corporate executives lie about their company’s profits.
e.An organized crime group engages in sex trafficking.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 186 TOP: Corporate Crime (VI.B)

MSC: Applied

  1. Forms of activity that have some of the characteristics of orthodox business but are illegal are called:
a.white-collar crime
b.corporate crime
c.index crime
d.organized crime
e.bureaucratic crime

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 186 TOP: Organized Crime (VI.C)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following is an example of organized crime described by Manuel Castells?
a.Bernard Madoff’s Ponzi scheme
b.heroin networks that stretch across Asia
c.prison gangs
d.inner-city youth gangs
e.trainers who provide athletes with steroids

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 187 TOP: Organized Crime (VI.C)

MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following countries has the highest incarceration rate?
a.China
b.Japan
c.France
d.Mexico
e.United States

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 189 TOP: Prisons (VII.A)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following factors would sociologists consider to be LEAST related to crime?
a.widespread poverty
b.the conditions of the inner cities
c.the structure of society
d.the deteriorating life circumstances of many young men
e.the rising prison population

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Page 187 | Page 190

TOP: Prisons (VII.A) MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which of the following best describes Americans’ beliefs about capital punishment?
a.The majority of Americans have always supported capital punishment.
b.The majority of Americans have always opposed capital punishment.
c.Most adults supported capital punishment in 2010.
d.Most adults supported capital punishment in 1965.
e.Fewer Americans support capital punishment today than a generation ago.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 188 TOP: Prisons (VII.A)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements about prisons is true?
a.The cost to keep a prisoner in the federal prison system for one is year is very low, about $6,000 per year.
b.Spending time in prison makes it unlikely that the ex-felon will ever commit another crime.
c.Spending time in prison often makes the ex-felon a more hardened criminal.
d.The average convict serves most of his sentence.
e.Most African American men are either in prison or otherwise under the control of the penal system.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 187–88

TOP: The Impact of Spending Time in Prison (VII.B) MSC: Factual

  1. An experiment by sociologist Devah Pager showed that __________ is least likely to be hired.
a.a white man with no criminal record
b.a white man with a criminal record
c.a black man with no criminal record
d.a black man with a criminal record
e.none of the above; there was no difference among the four groups

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 190–91

TOP: The Impact of Spending Time in Prison (VII.B) MSC: Factual

  1. Traditionally, police work involved controlling crime. Increasingly, however, police officers are:
a.deviants who are committing rather than preventing crime
b.corrections officers who are herding criminals to prison
c.knowledge workers who are mapping and predicting risk within the population
d.safety patrollers who are guarding the health and welfare of citizens
e.security guards who are a visible presence but ineffective

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 191 TOP: Policing (VII.C)

MSC: Factual

  1. In the example given in the textbook about a car accident in Ontario, Canada, to which group did the police officer have to send information concerning the accident?
a.the provincial motor registry
b.the automobile industry
c.the insurance companies
d.the public health system
e.all of the above

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 191 TOP: Policing (VII.C)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which theory served as the basis for new policing strategies in the late 1980s and 1990s that aggressively focused on minor crimes such as traffic violations and drinking and using drugs in public?
a.control theory
b.broken windows theory
c.conflict theory
d.differential association theory
e.labeling theory

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 192

TOP: Broken Windows Theory (VII.D.i) MSC: Factual

  1. Which theory best explains why a neighborhood that had only minor problems such as abandoned cars and graffiti began to see an increase in other more serious types of property crime?
a.control theory
b.broken windows theory
c.conflict theory
d.differential association theory
e.labeling theory

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 192

TOP: Broken Windows Theory (VII.D.i) MSC: Applied

  1. A renewed emphasis on crime prevention rather than law enforcement to reintegrate policing within the community is called:
a.organized policing
b.corporate policing
c.community policing
d.target hardening
e.shaming

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 193

TOP: Community Policing (VII.D.ii) MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following best illustrates community policing?
a.taking seriously even minor crimes such as public drunkenness
b.community organizations, government agencies, and businesses working together to help repair urban decay
c.the installation of burglar alarms
d.public shaming of offenders
e.enacting get-tough-on-crime laws

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 193

TOP: Community Policing (VII.D.ii) MSC: Applied

  1. The term that describes practical measures used to limit a criminal’s ability to commit crime is:
a.deviance control
b.differential associating
c.broken windows fixing
d.target hardening
e.shaming

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 193 TOP: Target Hardening (VII.D.iii)

MSC: Factual

  1. Putting locks on mailboxes is an example of:
a.deviance control
b.differential control
c.New Left realism
d.target hardening
e.shaming

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 193 TOP: Target Hardening (VII.D.iii)

MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following is NOT a latent consequence of target hardening?
a.Because the wealthy are protected from crime, there is a declining interest in understanding the causes of crime.
b.Criminals target less affluent areas that cannot afford the protective measures to combat crime.
c.A “fortress mentality” develops among the wealthy to shield them from criminals.
d.The crime rates against the poor and the wealthy widen, with the burden of crime falling disproportionately on the poor.
e.Target hardening fixes the underlying causes of crime.

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Page 193 TOP: Target Hardening (VII.D.iii)

MSC: Conceptual

  1. A way of punishing criminal and deviant behavior based on rituals of public disapproval rather than incarceration is called:
a.deviance control
b.differential control
c.target hardening
d.outing
e.shaming

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Page 193

TOP: Shaming as Punishment (VII.D.iv) MSC: Factual

  1. How might shaming work to rehabilitate an offender?
a.It locks the offender in a permanent state of shame.
b.It lets the offender deny any wrongdoing.
c.It processes the shame in the offender in such a way that social bonds between the offender and the community can be rebuilt.
d.It processes the shame in the offender such that he or she will be much more fearful of committing another crime.
e.Shaming only works in collectivist societies such as Japan.

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Page 194

TOP: Shaming as Punishment (VII.D.iv) MSC: Conceptual

  1. Between 1987 and 2007, the adjusted for inflation spending on corrections increased by:
a.10 percent
b.35 percent
c.65 percent
d.95 percent
e.127 percent

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 195 TOP: The Costs of Crime (VIII.A)

MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the criminal justice system would your textbook authors most DISAGREE with?
a.The cost of the criminal justice system is increasing.
b.The number of people behind bars has increased in the past decade.
c.Few of us are affected by the high cost of crime.
d.To pay for the high cost of the criminal justice system, taxes may have to be raised.
e.To pay for the high cost of the criminal justice system, other important social services may have to be cut.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 195 TOP: The Costs of Crime (VIII.A)

MSC: Conceptual

  1. Those who study the functions of deviance would probably NOT refer to which example as a function that deviance performs?
a.Deviants help us to understand what is considered “right” and “wrong.”
b.We try very hard to avoid the sanctions that result from doing “wrong.”
c.We try to avoid deviance so that we will not be treated as social outcasts.
d.Public punishments prevent us from behaving in a similar way.
e.Noncriminals learn from experienced criminals how to commit crime.

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Page 195

TOP: The Functions of Deviance (VIII.B) MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which of the following is affected by our desire not to be socially ostracized?
a.the clothes we wear
b.the hobbies we engage in
c.the romantic partners we choose
d.our future careers
e.all of the above

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 195

TOP: The Functions of Deviance (VIII.B) MSC: Applied

ESSAY

  1. How is it possible that a person can be both a conformist and a deviant? Explain using examples.

ANS:

To answer this question, the student must understand the meaning of deviance and how it is socially constructed. Deviance refers to the modes of action that do not conform to the norms or values held by most members of a group or society. However, what is regarded as deviant is as variable as the norms and values that distinguish different cultures and subcultures from one another. Therefore, actions that one group defines as deviant are seen as conforming by another group.

DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 164–66 TOP: Defining Deviance (I.A)

MSC: Conceptual

  1. What is the biological view of deviance? What are some of the weaknesses of this approach?

ANS:

To answer this question, the student must explain the biological view of deviance as well as mention its weaknesses. The biological view of deviance emphasizes biological factors in explaining crime, for example, skull or body shape. There are several weaknesses to this approach. The first is methodological. Even if there were a correlation between body type and delinquency, this would not necessarily reveal that someone’s body type “causes” criminal behavior. Second, nearly all studies in this field have been restricted to delinquents in reform schools, and it may be that the tougher, athletic-looking delinquents are more liable to be sent to such schools than fragile-looking, skinny ones. Third, social environment may strengthen or weaken the link between genetics and deviant behavior. For instance, even if a baby were born with a genetic predisposition for alcoholism, that baby would not likely become a problem drinker if his or her social environment provided few opportunities to drink.

DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 167–68 TOP: Biological View (II.A)

MSC: Conceptual

  1. Compare and contrast differential association theory with control theory. Which theory do you think better explains crime? Explain.

ANS:

To answer this question, the student must first explain differential association theory and control theory. Differential association theory argues that we learn deviant behavior in precisely the same way we learn about conventional behavior: from our contacts with primary groups, such as peers, family members, and coworkers. The term differential refers to the ratio of deviant to conventional social contacts. We become deviant when exposed to a higher level of deviant persons and influences, compared to conventional influences. In a society that contains a variety of subcultures, some individuals have greater exposure to social environments that encourage illegal activities. Control theory argues that there are four types of bonds that link people to society and law-abiding behavior: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief. When sufficiently strong, these four elements help to maintain social control and conformity by rendering people unfree to break rules. If these bonds with society are weak, however, delinquency and deviance may result. The student should then point out that Edwin H. Sutherland’s focus on differential association is similar to Travis Hirschi’s focus on attachment to conventional others. For Sutherland, individuals are more likely to commit crime as they associate with criminals. For Hirschi, individuals are less likely to commit crime as they form attachments with conventional others. The student should also mention that Sutherland’s focus on learning is related to Hirschi’s focus on belief. For Sutherland, individuals are more likely to commit crime as they learn beliefs that tend them toward criminal behaviors. For Hirschi, individuals are less likely to commit crime as they learn beliefs that tend them toward conventional behaviors. The student can then argue which perspective better explains crime. The best answers will argue that which theory is best depends on the type of crime you are trying to understand. Answers will vary; however, research suggests that learning how to be a criminal is the critical intervening variable in predicting criminal behavior, which differential association theory emphasizes more.

DIF: Difficult REF: Page 173 TOP: Sociological Perspectives on Deviance (III)

MSC: Conceptual

  1. Compare and contrast labeling theory with the new criminology perspective. Which theory do you think better explains crime? Explain.

ANS:

To answer this question, the student should first explain labeling theory and the new criminology approach. Labeling theory begins from the assumption that no act is intrinsically deviant. Rather, to be “deviant,” one must be labeled as such. In the case of criminal activity, definitions of criminality are established by the powerful through the formulation of laws and their interpretation by police, courts, and correctional institutions. Theorists of the new criminology frame their analysis of crime and deviance in terms of the structure of society and the preservation of power among the ruling class. They reject the idea that laws are neutral and are applied evenly across the population. Instead, they claim that as inequalities increase between the ruling class and the working class, law becomes an ever more important instrument for the powerful to maintain order. The powerful also break laws but are rarely caught. The student should mention that both theories focus on the role of the powerful. The student can then argue which perspective better explains crime. The best answers will argue that which theory is best depends on the type of crime you are trying to understand.

DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 173–75

TOP: Sociological Perspectives on Deviance (III) MSC: Conceptual

  1. How does Robert Merton explain crime? How would Merton explain the crimes committed in the inner city?

ANS:

To answer this question, the student must explain Merton’s strain theory and apply it to the inner city. According to Merton, in American society, generally held values emphasize material success, and the means of achieving success are supposed to be self-discipline and hard work. Accordingly, it is believed that people who work hard can succeed no matter what their starting point in life. This idea is not in fact valid, because most people in the inner city have very few conventional opportunities for advancement, such as high-quality education. Yet those who do not “succeed” find themselves condemned for their apparent inability to make material progress. Therefore, in the inner city, there is great pressure to try to get ahead by any means, legitimate or illegitimate.

DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 170–71 TOP: Robert Merton (III.A.ii)

MSC: Applied

  1. Compare the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) with victimization surveys such as the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). Which method gives a better indication of the level of crime in the United States?

ANS:

To answer this question, the student must explain how the UCR collect data and how the NCVS collects data. The UCR contain official data on crime that is reported to law enforcement agencies across the country, who then provide the data to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The NCVS interviews households across the country to find out how many members were the victims of particular crimes during the previous six months. This procedure has confirmed that the overall rate of crime is higher than reported in the UCR. Thus, the NCVS gives a better indication of the level of crime in the United States.

DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 176–78

TOP: Sources of Crime Data (IV.A) MSC: Factual

  1. Apply control theory to explain why people in their late teens are more likely to commit crime than older people.

ANS:

Control theory has been used to explain this pattern, called the age-crime curve. As young people gradually transition into adulthood, they acquire those social attachments and commitments that make “conventional” behavior rewarding. As they marry, have children, find jobs, and set up their own homes, the “cost” of deviance is high; rational actors would not want to risk losing their families and homes and thus avoid deviant acts.

DIF: Moderate REF: Page 182 TOP: Youth and Crime (V.B)

MSC: Conceptual

  1. Why have efforts to significantly decrease the supply of illegal drugs in the United States failed?

ANS:

One reason is that the profit is simply too great. Farmers in Bolivia or Peru, members of the Colombian drug cartels, and low-level street dealers in the United States all receive substantial monetary rewards for their illegal activities. These rewards create a strong incentive to devise ways around antidrug efforts and to run the risk of getting caught. Another reason is that drug traffickers have been able to take advantage of globalization. First, in their attempts to evade the authorities, traffickers make use of all the communications technologies that are available in a global age. Second, the globalization of the financial sector has helped create an infrastructure in which large sums of money can be moved around the world electronically in a matter of seconds, which makes it relatively easy to “launder” drug money (i.e., to make it appear to have come from a legitimate business venture). Third, recent changes in government policy designed to allow the freer flow of persons and legitimate goods across international borders have increased the opportunities for smuggling.

DIF: Moderate REF: Page 185 TOP: Organized Crime (VI.C)

MSC: Conceptual

  1. How does crime affect the lives of people who have little contact with the criminal justice system as victim or offender? Explain using examples.

ANS:

Answers will vary. Corporate crime can affect everything, including the quality of the food we eat, the safety of the cars we drive, and the cleanliness of the air we breathe. Our lives also are affected by the high fiscal costs of street crime. Maintaining local, state, and national criminal justice systems is costly. Lawmakers have few options for footing this large bill. In the absence of tax hikes, lawmakers may find themselves forced to cut back on other important social programs that benefit most Americans, including transportation, education, and healthcare.

DIF: Moderate REF: Page 194 TOP: The Costs of Crime (VIII.A)

MSC: Factual

  1. Discuss the ways in which deviance is functional. Give examples.

ANS:

To answer this question, the student must explain the various ways in which deviance is functional. First, deviance has an adaptive function. By introducing new ideas and challenges into society, deviance is an innovative force. It brings about change. Second, deviance clarifies social norms and helps us to understand what is considered “right” and “wrong” among our peers, friends, and community members. Third, deviance can contribute to the stability of society. The text gives the example of prostitution contributing to the stability of marriage by providing a sexual outlet that carries less risk of emotional entanglement. Fourth, deviance clarifies what the penalties are, and we conform to avoid the penalties. Most of us know what the punishments are for even minor violations, such as speeding or running a red light. By learning about the fees and punishments levied on those who break the rules, most of us will behave in accordance with the law—to avoid a fate like suspension of a driver’s license or spending a night in jail. Fifth, deviants are often ostracized, and we conform to avoid the same fate. For example, most of us do not want to be socially ostracized, so we may choose clothes, hobbies, romantic partners, and even our future career paths so that we fit in with peers. To be considered “deviant” often means being treated as a social outcast. Sixth, when deviants are publicly punished, it makes us rethink whether it is really worthwhile to try to get away with a crime. Examples students might give for public punishment might include locking horse thieves into “stocks” in town squares and making an adulteress wear a scarlet letter “A” around her neck in the colonial United States or publicizing the names and addresses of registered sex offenders and televising “perp walks” in the contemporary United States. Seventh, a criminal act can ultimately enhance group solidarity and contribute to the stability of society. The student might use Davis’s example of prostitution here. In his classic essay on prostitution, functionalist theorist Kingsley Davis (1937) wrote that prostitution may be illegal, yet it is functional for society because it allows married men to fulfill their sexual urges with a new partner without threatening their marriages. By contrast, a married man who forms an emotional attachment with a woman with whom he is having a “legal” though clandestine extramarital relationship can threaten both his and her marriage. Prostitution, Davis argued, indirectly contributes to the stability of the family.

DIF: Difficult REF: Page 170 | Page 195

TOP: The Functions of Deviance (VIII.B) MSC: Conceptual

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