Test Bank for Gerontological Nursing, 4th Edition Patricia A. Tabloski

$35.00
Test Bank for Gerontological Nursing, 4th Edition Patricia A. Tabloski

Test Bank for Gerontological Nursing, 4th Edition Patricia A. Tabloski

$35.00
Test Bank for Gerontological Nursing, 4th Edition Patricia A. Tabloski

Test Bank for Gerontological Nursing, 4th Edition Patricia A. Tabloski

Gerontological Nursing, 4e (Tabloski)

Chapter 1 Principles of Gerontology

1) The nurse is preparing to discharge an older client with instructions on smoking cessation. The nurse states to a colleague, "This client has been smoking for years and isn't going to stop now." Which negative stereotype of aging does the nurse's statement most reflect?

1. Old people are expected to be sick.

2. Old people are set in their ways.

3. Old people do not value health promotion education.

4. Old people are a drain on societal resources.

Answer: 3

Explanation: 1. Many older adults have chronic disease but function well.

2. Often people characterize the elderly in a negative way, believing that after a certain age, things cannot be changed. Older people can learn new things and take up new hobbies they can enjoy and give life meaning and pleasure.

3. Although it may not be possible to reverse all the damage, it is never too late to stop smoking cigarettes. People who quit smoking at an older age enjoy better health outcomes.

4. Older people contribute greatly to society by volunteering, helping with grandchildren, mentoring others, and continue working.

Page Ref: 4

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub: High-Risk Behaviors

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 3. Identify common myths of aging and their contribution to ageism.

2) The nurse is planning to conduct education for older adult clients regarding preventative health screenings. Which type of screening does the nurse anticipate educating this population on?

1. Glaucoma

2. Nutrition

3. An annual mammogram

4. Prostate-specific antigen

Answer: 3

Explanation: 1. A glaucoma screening is recommended annually for those at risk for glaucoma.

2. Nutritional assessment and counseling are encouraged for those with diabetes or renal disease.

3. The nurse will discuss the importance of annual mammograms. Older women are the fastest growing population in the United States.

4. A prostate-specific antigen is recommended yearly for men under the age of 70.

Page Ref: 7

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub: Health Screening

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 1. Interpret demographic data according to race, gender, and age.

3) While completing an admission assessment, the nurse learns that a female adult patient has smoked a pack of cigarettes daily for 20 years and works at a chemical plant. From this information, what is this patient most at risk for?

1. Decline in muscle mass

2. Nutritional deficiencies

3. Depression and social isolation

4. Occupational hazard shortening life expectancy

Answer: 4

Explanation: 1. While muscle mass does naturally decline in older adults, there is no indication that she is not physically active.

2. In older adults, adequate nutrition can be a concern, yet there is no indication that she is not adequately nourished.

3. In older adults, depression and social isolation are a risk, yet there is no indication that she is not socially active.

4. Exposure to occupational risk factors has been known to affect life expectancy in men and will have the same effect on women given similar circumstances.

Page Ref: 8-17

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub: High-Risk Behaviors

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 2. Relate leading causes of morbidity and mortality among older adults.

4) The nurse is caring for an older adult with a chronic disease. Which is reflective of a tertiary intervention to help slow down the progression of the client's illness?

1. Assess the client's mobility

2. Integrate physical therapy

3. Discuss injury-prevention measures within the home

4. Obtain a referral for occupational therapy

Answer: 2

Explanation: 1. Assessment of the client's mobility is reflective of secondary prevention.

2. The integration of physical therapy for a client with chronic disease reflects a tertiary intervention to promote restoration and prevent or slow down further debilitation.

3. Discussing injury prevention is health promotion or primary prevention.

4. Obtaining a referral for an occupational therapist reflects a secondary measure of prevention in which there is an early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

Page Ref: 9

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub: Reduction of Risk Potential

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 4. Describe the effects of chronic disease.

5) The nurse is caring for an older client with heart disease that is experiencing fatigue. Which will the nurse initially implement to enhance the overall quality of life and functional ability of the client?

1. Assess the need for assistive devices

2. Provide education on health screenings

3. Reinforce the importance of rehabilitation

4. Instruct the client on techniques for self-management

Answer: 3

Explanation: 1. Assistive devices may be necessary to increase the independence of the client. The assessment for an assistive device occurs during the rehabilitation time.

2. Education regarding health screenings focuses on prevention of disease.

3. Rehabilitation after a chronic illness can enhance the quality of life and functional ability of the client. Managing chronic fatigue that occurs with heart disease can require rehabilitation.

4. Techniques of self-management can reduce pain and cost of chronic disease by teaching the client to manage their own chronic condition.

Page Ref: 8-13

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub: Support Systems

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 4. Describe the effects of chronic disease.

6) The nurse is assessing an older female patient admitted to the hospital for generalized weakness and a cough. Which assessment findings indicate normal changes of aging? Select all that apply.

1. Blood pressure of160/90

2. Needing to urinate every 3 hours

3. Needing to wear eye glasses for reading

4. Pulse rate 110 bpm

5. Respiratory rate 22 per minute after walking a short distance

Answer: 2, 3, 5

Explanation: 1. Even though the arteries stiffen with age, an elevation in blood pressure needs to be investigated and not assumed that it is a normal change related to aging.

2. With aging, bladder capacity declines. Needing to urinate every 3 hours would be evidence of reduced bladder capacity.

3. With aging, difficulty focusing up close would necessitate the need for reading glasses. This would be considered a normal change with aging.

4. Even though the heart muscle thickens with age, a pulse rate of 110 needs to be investigated and not assumed that it is a normal change related to aging.

5. Maximum breathing capacity may decline by about 40% between the ages of 40 and 70. A respiratory rate of 22 per minute after walking a short distance can be considered a normal change related to aging.

Page Ref: 17

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub: Aging Process

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

7) The family of an older male patient asks why the patient needs to be hospitalized for pneumonia when the youngest daughter had the same infection a few months ago and was treated at home. How should the nurse respond to the family?

1. "The patient has chronic illnesses that put him at risk."

2. "I don't think you can compare your grandfather to yourself."

3. "There are some differences between men and women and illness."

4. "Aging decreases the body's ability to restore balance to body systems with an infection."

Answer: 4

Explanation: 1. There is not enough information to determine if the patient has chronic illnesses.

2. This response does not address the issue that body systems return to balance slower after an illness as a part of aging.

3. This response does not address that the patient's age impacts the body's ability to fight an infection and return to homeostasis.

4. The loss of organ reserve that can occur with aging can lead to the concept of homeostenosis or inability of the body to restore homeostasis after even minor environmental challenges, such as trauma or infection. An older person may die from pneumonia, which may have only been a minor illness to a younger person.

Page Ref: 17

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

8) A patient takes herbal and vitamin supplements in order to "slow down" the aging process. The nurse realizes that the patient believes in the use of antioxidants to slow down cell damage. Which is associated with the biological theory of aging?

1. Cross-link

2. Wear-and-tear

3. Free radical

4. Emerging biological

Answer: 3

Explanation: 1. The cross-link theory states that cross-linked proteins resulting from binding of glucose to proteins causes various problems associated with nutrition.

2. The wear-and-tear theory sees the human body as a machine and cellular function slows down with time.

3. The free-radical theory states that accumulated damage caused by oxygen radicals causes cells, and eventually organs, to lose function and organ reserve. The use of antioxidants and vitamins is believed to slow this damage.

4. The emerging biological theory states that there are specific genes responsible for human aging.

Page Ref: 19

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub: Aging Process

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

9) Jung's theory of individualism focuses on the client's inner psychological state in regards to aging. When assessing an older client, the nurse might find which thoughts? Select all that apply.

1. Signs of sadness and depression

2. Questions about nutrition and vitamins

3. Regrets on not accomplishing more in life

4. A belief that past injuries have altered their abilities

5. Concerns that damaged cells are slowing down their body

Answer: 1, 3

Explanation: 1. Jung's theory of individualism states that with aging the focus is away from the external world and moves toward the inner experience. This is a psychosocial theory of aging and would be applicable to use for a patient experiencing these emotions.

2. The free-radical theory focuses on aging as a result of accumulated damage caused by oxygen radicals causes cells, and eventually organs, to lose function and organ reserve.

3. Jung's theory of individualism states that with aging the focus is away from the external world and moves towards the inner experience. This is a psychosocial theory of aging and would be applicable to use for a patient experiencing these emotions.

4. The wear-and-tear theory focuses on aging as a result of cells and organs wearing out after years of use. Proponents of this theory see the human body as a machine. They believe that a "master clock" controls all organs and that cellular function slows down with time.

5. The programmed longevity theory focuses on aging as a result of changes in gene function which is a biological theory. This patient is demonstrating psychosocial changes with aging.

Page Ref: 17-20

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub: Coping Mechanisms

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

10) A 62-year-old former professional football player is in the hospital for a total knee replacement as a result of wear and tear and a medical diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Which biological theory of aging would help explain this patient's current health problem?

1. Cross-link

2. Free radical

3. Wear-and-tear

4. Somatic DNA damage

Answer: 3

Explanation: 1. The cross-link theory is related to the accumulation of cross-linked proteins causing disease. This theory does not explain the damage done to the patient's joint from playing football.

2. The free-radical theory states that cell damage is a result of accumulation of oxygen radicals. This theory does not explain the damage done to the patient's joint from playing football.

3. Osteoarthritis is characteristic of degeneration that results from joint usage. This disease is characteristic of the aspects of the wear-and-tear theory, which states that there is a "master clock" that controls all organs and cellular functions, which becomes less efficient over time. Abusing one organ or bodily system through repeated injury that occurs with contact sports may result in premature aging and diseases such as osteoarthritis.

4. The somatic DNA damage theory states that genetic mutations occur and accumulate with increasing age. This theory does not explain the damage done to the patient's joint from playing football.

Page Ref: 19

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub: Coping Mechanisms

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

11) An older patient is refusing to receive the influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations because he believes he is "too old." How should the nurse respond to this patient?

1. "I understand your feelings."

2. "I will report your concerns to the physician."

3. "You are likely to get sick if you do not take the vaccines."

4. "It is never too late in life to begin health promotion activities."

Answer: 4

Explanation: 1. Telling the patient that the nurse understands the patient's feelings does not help the patient understand the importance of health promotion activities.

2. Reporting the concerns to the physician does not help the patient understand the importance of health promotion activities.

3. While the patient has an increased likelihood of developing an illness if the vaccines are not taken, stating this does little to meet the patient's voiced concerns.

4. Receiving vaccinations for communicable diseases is a form of health promotion. The patient should be advised that age should not restrict health-saving activities.

Page Ref: 9-10

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 6. Evaluate the natural history of disease using principles of epidemiology.

12) A nursing student is preparing a program to review health concerns for seniors. Which statement should the student include in the presentation?

1. "Heart disease is the leading cause of death for senior citizens."

2. "Decreases have been shown in the rate of Alzheimer's disease."

3. "The rate of heart-disease death for senior citizens is steadily increasing."

4. "Cancer is currently steady within the senior citizen population."

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the senior population, even though it has decreased by 2.4% between 2009 and 2010.

2. The death rate increased significantly from 2009 to 2010 for Alzheimer's disease.

3. The rate of heart disease in the senior population has decreased by 2.4% between 2009 and 2010.

4. Cancer is among the top causes of death but is not the number one cause of death.

Page Ref: 12

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 4. Describe the effects of chronic disease.

13) The nurse provides care to patients in a long-term care facility that embraces the Continuity Theory of Aging. Which actions will the nurse plan to promote this theory? Select all that apply.

1. Plan rest periods between activities.

2. Introduce patients to a wide variety of new activities.

3. Encourage family members to visit with the patients.

4. Suggest participating only in activities that bring satisfaction.

5. Remind patients that withdrawing from activities is expected.

Answer: 1, 3, 4

Explanation: 1. In the Continuity Theory of Aging, the pace of activities may be slowed, so rest periods between activities would be appropriate.

2. In the Continuity Theory of Aging, older age is not viewed as a time for major life readjustments but rather as a time to continue being the same person. Introducing patients to new activities does not support this theory.

3. In the Continuity Theory of Aging, successful aging involves maintaining family ties. Encouraging family members to visit with the patients would be appropriate.

4. In the Continuity Theory of Aging, activities pursued in life that did not bring satisfaction may be dropped. Suggesting that patients avoid activities that do not bring satisfaction would be appropriate.

5. In the Continuity Theory of Aging, successful aging involves maintaining values, habits, and preferences that formed the basic underlying structure of adult life. Reminding patients that withdrawing from activities is expected supports the Disengagement Theory.

Page Ref: 20

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub: Aging Process

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

14) A graduate nurse is nervous about caring for older adult patients because of the personality changes that occur with aging. How should the nurse's preceptor respond to this statement?

1. "Personality tends to stay stable through life, rarely showing signs of change during final years."

2. "The losses many elderly experience understandably will impact their personality."

3. "The personalities of the elderly do undergo some significant changes after the eighth decade of life."

4. "After retirement, feelings of disuse cause many elderly to begin demonstrating personality changes."

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. Personality is stable throughout adult life and rarely do healthy older people show signs of personality change during their final years.

2. Personality usually does not change radically even as a result of major lifestyle changes such as the death of a loved one.

3. Personality is stable throughout adult life and rarely do healthy older people show signs of personality change during their final years.

4. Personality usually does not change radically even as a result of major lifestyle changes such as retirement.

Page Ref: 17

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub: Mental Health Concepts

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

15) A patient voices concerns about her body weight despite diligently following a healthy diet. Which age-related change would explain this patient's issue with body weight?

1. Body fat increases until middle age.

2. Body weight increases after middle age.

3. Fat is redistributed to the hips after middle age.

4. Body fat promotes a pear-shaped appearance for aging women.

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. Body fat typically increases until middle age and then stabilizes until late life, when weight tends to decline.

2. Body weight stabilizes after middle age.

3. With aging, fat is redistributed to the deeper organs.

4. With aging, fat is redistributed to the abdomen rather than to the hips. This promotes an apple shape rather than a pear shape.

Page Ref: 17

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

16) A 60-year-old patient in good health has asked the nurse about what steps can be taken to build muscle mass. What information should be provided to the patient?

1. Exercise can slow the loss of muscle mass.

2. Increasing protein and fat intake will increase muscle mass.

3. Muscle mass declines by 40% between the ages of 30 and 70.

4. There is little that can be done to reduce the loss of muscle mass associated with aging.

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. Without exercise muscle mass declines 22% for women and 23% for men between the ages of 30 and 70. Exercise can slow this rate of loss.

2. Calories are burned more slowly during aging, and adding fats can promote fat build-up, not an increase in muscle mass.

3. Without exercise, muscle mass declines 22% for women and 23% for men between the ages of 30 and 70.

4. Without exercise, muscle mass declines 22% for women and 23% for men between the ages of 30 and 70. Exercise can slow this rate of loss.

Page Ref: 17

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Implementation

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

17) The nurse is planning a program about the Immunological Theory of Aging for a group of senior citizens. Which information should the nurse include in this program? Select all that apply.

1. Restrict spending time with others who are ill.

2. A healthy diet supports immune function.

3. An active lifestyle supports immune function in the older person.

4. Immune responses increase with aging.

5. Obtaining an annual influenza vaccination supports immune function.

Answer: 1, 2, 3, 5

Explanation: 1. Limiting exposure to pathogens can support immune function in the older person.

2. A healthy diet can support immune function in the older person.

3. A healthy, active lifestyle supports immune function in the older person.

4. Declines in immune function can affect the outcomes of illness such as urinary tract infections and pneumonia.

5. Preventive health measures such as a yearly influenza vaccination can support immune function in the older person.

Page Ref: 19

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub: Aging Process

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

18) Jung's theory focuses on a person's inability to accept past accomplishments and failures. When assessing a client, which statement supports this theory of a patient's belief?

1. "I am having trouble finding the right bowling league since I retired."

2. "I joined a sewing club with my older sister but don't always feel like going."

3. "I lost my husband to a younger, more attractive woman about 4 years ago."

4. "I still get up every morning to go walking, but I miss my dog since she died."

Answer: 3

Explanation: 1. The Continuity Theory of Aging supports the idea that after retirement, activities may slow but are still important to continue for satisfaction and happiness.

2. The Disengagement Theory considers the need of an individual to engage in society and maintain equilibrium.

3. A key focus of Jung's theory is the impact of an inability to accept past accomplishments and failures to promote successful aging. The client is having a hard time regarding the loss of her husband to another person.

4. Despite the loss of a pet/animal, the Continuity Theory of Aging supports that life must go on and routines must continue.

Page Ref: 20

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity

Client Need Sub: Mental Health Concepts

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 5. Contrast several major theories of aging.

19) The nurse at an assisted-living facility is planning secondary prevention activities for a group of residents at risk for cardiac problems. Which activities would be appropriate for this level of care? Select all that apply.

1. Blood pressure monitoring

2. Demonstration on the use of walkers and canes

3. Explanation on why the use of alcohol should be avoided

4. Discussion with a dietitian for elevated cholesterol levels

5. Discussion with a physical therapist on weight-bearing activities

Answer: 1, 4, 5

Explanation: 1. Blood pressure monitoring is a secondary prevention intervention and would be appropriate for the residents at risk for cardiac problems.

2. Demonstrating the use of walkers and canes is a tertiary prevention intervention and would not be appropriate for these residents.

3. Explanation on the avoidance of alcohol would be a primary prevention intervention and would not be appropriate for these residents.

4. Discussion with a dietitian for elevated cholesterol levels is a secondary prevention intervention and would be appropriate for these residents.

5. Discussion with a physical therapist on weight-bearing exercises is a secondary prevention intervention and would be appropriate for these residents.

Page Ref: 10

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 6. Evaluate the natural history of disease using principles of epidemiology.

20) A patient who is new to Medicare has been reviewing coverage for health screening tests. Which statements indicate the patient understands the recommendations provided by Medicare? Select all that apply.

1. "I can have a Pap smear once a year."

2. "I can have a mammogram once a year."

3. "I can have a colonoscopy every 15 years."

4. "I can have fecal occult blood testing every 2 years."

5. "I can have bone mass screening every 2 years if I'm at risk."

Answer: 1, 2, 5

Explanation: 1. Medicare recommends a Pap smear once a year.

2. Medicare recommends a mammogram once a year.

3. Medicare recommends a colonoscopy every 10 years for those with normal risk levels and every 2 years for those at high risk.

4. Medicare recommends fecal occult blood testing once a year.

5. Medicare recommends bone mass screening every 2 years for those at risk.

Page Ref: 10

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Evaluation

Learning Outcome: 6. Evaluate the natural history of disease using principles of epidemiology.

21) The nurse is preparing a care plan for an older African American patient at risk for colon cancer. What should be included in the plan of care?

1. Colonoscopy every 2 years

2. Serum cancer marker testing every year

3. Flexible sigmoidoscopy testing annually

4. Fecal occult blood screening every 2 years

Answer: 1

Explanation: 1. Currently, colonoscopy screening is recommended every 2 years for those at high risk.

2. Serum cancer markers are not a recommended screening test.

3. The flexible sigmoidoscopy is recommended every 4 years.

4. Fecal occult blood screening is recommended annually.

Page Ref: 10

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 6. Evaluate the natural history of disease using principles of epidemiology.

22) The nurse recognizes that clients admitted to the unit are associated with nationwide demographic trends. Which statement supports this observation?

1. Diabetes is most prevalent in the Caucasian community.

2. Hispanic patients have a greater incidence of obesity.

3. African-American patients have a lower incidence of hypertension.

4. Caucasians are more likely than African Americans to have limitations with ADLs when chronically ill.

Answer: 2

Explanation: 1. A growing number of Hispanic and African Americans are reporting diabetes.

2. There is an increasing rate of obesity in the Hispanic population.

3. Nearly 60% of older African Americans report high blood pressure.

4. African Americans are more likely than Caucasians to have limitations in ADLs when chronically ill.

Page Ref: 13

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub: Cultural Awareness/Cultural Influences on Health

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 1. Interpret demographic data according to race, gender, and age.

23) The nurse is planning a program for community members to highlight the Healthy People 2020 areas applicable to older people. Which topics would the nurse include in this program? Select all that apply.

1. The importance of performing monthly breast exams

2. How to cook healthy food safely

3. Tobacco and Smoking Cessation techniques

4. Employment and occupational hazards

5. Heart healthy lifestyle choices

Answer: 1, 2, 3, 5

Explanation: 1. Cancer is a focus area in Healthy People 2020 that is applicable to older people.

2. Food safety is a focus area in Healthy People 2020 that is applicable to older people.

3. Tobacco use is a focus area in Healthy People 2020 that is applicable to older people.

4. Employment is not a focus area in Healthy People 2020 that is applicable to older people.

5. Heart disease is a focus area in Healthy People 2020 that is applicable to older people.

Page Ref: 16

Cognitive Level: Applying

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Client Need Sub: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Planning

Learning Outcome: 4. Describe the effects of chronic disease.

24) The nurse is working on a care area that focuses on tertiary prevention. Which goal is most consistent with this focus?

1. Patients at risk for skin breakdown will be turned every 2 hours.

2. Patients with pressure ulcers will have whirlpool therapy as indicated.

3. Patients will be assessed for factors that place them at risk for skin breakdown.

4. Patients are instructed to change positions in bed every 2 hours to prevent skin breakdown.

Answer: 2

Explanation: 1. Turning a patient at risk for skin breakdown is an example of a primary prevention goal.

2. Treating a pressure ulcer is an example of a tertiary prevention goal.

3. Assessing a patient at risk for skin breakdown is an example of a primary prevention goal.

4. Teaching a patient how to prevent skin breakdown is an example of a primary prevention goal.

Page Ref: 10

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 6. Evaluate the natural history of disease using principles of epidemiology.

25) After completing an assessment, the nurse is concerned that a middle-aged patient is at risk for having a chronic illness later in life. What did the nurse assess in this patient? Select all that apply.

1. Has a blood pressure reading of 150/90

2. Goes out with friends for a drink once per week

3. Smokes 1 pack of cigarettes per day for the last 25 years

4. Has a history of lower back pain

5. Works as a laboratory technologist

Answer: 1, 3, 4

Explanation: 1. Atherosclerosis is considered one of the most common causes of disability in the United States. High blood pressure can be caused by atherosclerotic changes in the arteries.

2. Drinking alcohol on a daily/consistent basis can cause chronic illness; once a week is not consistent with chronic illness later in life.

3. Smoking 1 pack per day for 25 years can lead to a lung or respiratory problem, which is considered as being one of the most common causes of chronic illness in the United States.

4. Degenerative joint disease is considered one of the most common causes of disability in the United States. A history of lower back pain could be an indication of degenerative joint disease in the spine.

5. Employment history such as working as a laboratory technician is not considered a contributing factor to chronic illness later in life.

Page Ref: 8-13

Cognitive Level: Analyzing

Client Need: Physiological Integrity

Client Need Sub: Health Screening

Nurs/Integ Conc.: Nursing Process: Assessment

Learning Outcome: 2. Relate leading causes of morbidity and mortality among older adults.

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