Test Bank for Human Resource Management 16th Edition by Valentine A+

$35.00
Test Bank for Human Resource Management 16th Edition by Valentine A+

Test Bank for Human Resource Management 16th Edition by Valentine A+

$35.00
Test Bank for Human Resource Management 16th Edition by Valentine A+
  1. Which of the following statements is true of human resource management?
  2. It refers to auditing the finances of an organization.
  3. It involves generating business by identifying potential customers and ensuring customer satisfaction.
  4. It involves evaluating the external competition impacting an organization.
  5. It refers to designing formal systems in an organization to manage human talent for accomplishing organizational goals.

ANSWER: d

  1. Binkers Inc. is a start-up that believes in hiring only the best talent. The company has about 100 highly efficient and motivated employees. Given this information, it can be said that Binkers most likely understands the importance of

_____.

  1. human capital
  2. benchmarking
  3. contingency planning
  4. job enlargement

ANSWER: a

  1. Unit labor cost is computed by dividing:
  2. the total cost of workers by their average levels of output.
  3. the total level of output by the total cost of workers.
  4. the average level of output by the average cost of workers.
  5. the average cost of workers by their average levels of output.

ANSWER: d

  1. Big Drop Inc. plans to increase employee productivity by eliminating some layers of management and changing reporting relationships. The senior managers of the company decide to downsize the company and lay off some employees. This is an example of .
  2. organizational restructuring
  3. benchmarking
  4. aligning HR activities
  5. onboarding

ANSWER: a

  1. is a method to increase employee productivity by making changes to the way work gets done by focusing on the characteristics of jobs and altering how tasks are structured and coordinated.
  2. Organizational restructuring
  3. Benchmarking
  4. Onboarding
  5. Redesigning work

ANSWER: d

  1. is a method to increase employee productivity by ensuring that HR efforts and practices are consistent with organizational efforts to improve productivity and satisfy strategic goals.
  2. HR auditing
  3. Benchmarking
  4. Aligning HR activities
  5. Organizational restructuring

ANSWER: c

  1. In the context of improving employee productivity, which of the following activities is involved in organizational restructuring?
  2. Cutting staff through layoffs
  3. Implementing job enrichment programs
  4. Providing feedback to employees
  5. Providing training to new recruits

ANSWER: a

  1. In the context of improving employee productivity, which of the following activities is involved in redesigning work?
  2. Reshaping jobs because of technology changes
  3. Revising organizational structures
  4. Training, developing, and evaluating employees
  5. Outsourcing operations internationally

ANSWER: a

  1. In the context of improving employee productivity, which of the following activities is involved in aligning HR activities?
  2. Changing workloads and combining jobs
  3. Revising organizational structures
  4. Using domestic vendors instead of employees
  5. Training, developing, and evaluating employees

ANSWER: d

10.In the context of improving employee productivity, which of the following activities is involved in outsourcing analyses?

  1. Revising organizational structure
  2. Using domestic vendors instead of employees
  3. Changing workloads and combining jobs
  4. Attracting and retaining employees

ANSWER: b

11.Which of the following is true of organizational culture?

  1. It generally varies across an organization.
  2. It changes frequently over time.
  3. It provides members of an organization with rules of behavior.
  4. It is quickly established.

ANSWER: c

12.In the context of the seven HR management functions, which of the following is a component of employee and labor relations?

  1. HR policies
  2. Health and wellness
  3. HR effectiveness
  4. Affirmative action

ANSWER: a

13.In the context of the seven HR management functions, which of the following is a component of strategy and planning?

  1. Diversity
  2. HR retention
  3. HR policies
  4. Compensation

ANSWER: b

14.Which of the following is a component of the talent acquisition function of HR management?

  1. Recruiting
  2. Training
  3. Orientation
  4. Career planning

ANSWER: a

15.Which of the following is true of the administrative role of HR departments?

  1. It involves managing HR activities based on the strategies and operations identified by management.
    1. It helps define an organization's business strategy relative to human capital and its contribution to the organization's results.
    2. It involves identifying possible strategies to attract and retain talent with a focus on organizational growth.
    3. It focuses on recordkeeping, including essential legal paperwork and policy implementation.

ANSWER: d

16.Which of the following is true of the operational role of HR departments?

  1. It focuses on clerical administration and recordkeeping, including essential legal paperwork and policy implementation.
  2. It involves identifying possible strategies to attract and retain talent with a focus on organizational growth.
  3. It involves managing HR activities based on the strategies and operations identified by management.
  4. It helps define an organization's business and HR strategies relative to human capital and its contribution to the organization's results.

ANSWER: c

17.Which of the following has traditionally been the dominant role for human resources?

  1. Operational role
  2. Employee advocate role
  3. Administrative role
  4. Strategic role

ANSWER: c

18.Sara, an HR Manager at Comp Inc., is moving from an administrative role in the HR department to an operational role. Which of the following best describes the change in Sara's role?

  1. Moving from processing legal paperwork to serving as a “champion” for employee concerns
  2. Moving from managing strategic HR activities to helping management define strategies to manage human capital
    1. Moving from helping management define the strategy to manage human capital to serving as a “champion” for employee concerns
    2. Moving from helping management define the strategy to manage human capital to processing legal paperwork

ANSWER: a

19.Bob, an HR executive at Axis Inc., is moving from an operational role in the HR department to a strategic role. Which of the following best describes the change in Bob’s role?

  1. Moving from serving as "champion" for employee concerns to helping management define the business strategy relative to human capital
  2. Moving from helping management define the strategy to manage human capital to processing legal paperwork
  3. Moving from processing legal paperwork to serving as a “champion” for employee concerns
  4. Moving from processing legal paperwork to helping management define the strategy to manage human capital

ANSWER: a

20.David, an HR Manager at RedWall Inc., is moving from an administrative role in the HR department to a strategic role. Which of the following best describes the change in David's role?

  1. Moving from serving as a “champion” for employee concerns to processing legal paperwork
  2. Moving from helping management define the strategy to manage human capital to serving as "champion" for employee concerns
    1. Moving from processing legal paperwork to helping management define the business strategy relative to human capital
    2. Moving from helping management define the strategy to manage human capital to processing legal paperwork

ANSWER: c

21.Miguel, an HR Executive at Oyster Studios, is moving from an operational role in the HR department to an administrative role. Which of the following best describes the change in Miguel's role?

  1. Moving from processing legal paperwork to serving as a “champion” for employee concerns
  2. Moving from serving as "champion" for employee concerns to helping management define the strategy to manage human capital
  3. Moving from processing legal paperwork to helping management define the strategy to manage human capital
  4. Moving from serving as a “champion” for employee concerns to processing legal paperwork

ANSWER: d

22.Donna, an HR Manager at Loch Inc., is moving from a strategic role in the HR department to an operational role. Which of the following best describes the change in Donna's role?

  1. Moving from helping management define the strategy to manage human capital to serving as "champion" for employee concerns
  2. Moving from helping management define the strategy to manage human capital to processing legal paperwork
  3. Moving from processing legal paperwork to helping management define the strategy to manage human capital
  4. Moving from serving as "champion" for employee concerns to processing legal paperwork

ANSWER: a

23.Sunny, an HR Executive at FlyHi Inc., is moving from a strategic role in the HR department to an administrative role. Which of the following best describes the change in Sunny's role?

  1. Moving from processing legal paperwork to serving as "champion" for employee concerns
  2. Moving from serving as "champion" for employee concerns to helping management define the strategy to manage human capital
    1. Moving from helping management define the strategy to manage human capital to serving as "champion" for employee concerns
    2. Moving from helping management define the strategy to manage human capital to processing legal paperwork

ANSWER: d

  1. is the process whereby new ideas are generated that create value for an organization.
  2. Onboarding
  3. Innovation
  4. Recruitment
  5. Benchmarking

ANSWER: b

25.Which of the following is a component of the equal employment opportunity (EEO) function of HR management?

  1. Recruiting
  2. Training
  3. Affirmative action
  4. Career planning

ANSWER: c

26.Which of the following is the primary advantage of outsourcing the HR administrative function?

  1. HR personnel will no longer need to serve as "champions" for employee issues and can focus on recordkeeping.
  2. HR personnel can learn specialized skills by training under outsourced vendors.
  3. Organizations will no longer need to internally define and implement business strategies relative to human capital.
  4. Organizations can save money on HR staffing.

ANSWER: d

27.Raul, an HR Manager at Endetech, is tasked with conducting workforce planning to anticipate the retirement of employees at various levels in the organization. In this scenario, Raul is responsible for fulfilling the role of human resources.

  1. administrative
  2. operational
  3. employee advocate
  4. strategic

ANSWER: d

28.Jane, an HR Executive at YouBrain Consultants, is in charge of ensuring that all employees are treated equally regardless of their personal background. Jane is also required to ensure that the organization does not face lawsuits from employees. In this scenario, Jane is responsible for fulfilling the role of human resources.

  1. administrative
  2. strategic
  3. employee advocate
  4. employee advisor

ANSWER: c

29.The gig economy is an economy where:

  1. most work is performed by a group of shareholders rather than paid employees.
  2. work is carried out by a group of young workers who identify themselves as Generation Y workers.
  3. most work is performed by freelance workers rather than full-time employees.
  4. work is divided into stages and each stage is completed by different core teams.

ANSWER: c

30.Which of the following is an approach used by organizations to improve workforce skills?

  1. Providing retention bonuses to employees
  2. Creating apprenticeship programs
  3. Increasing ethnic diversity at the workplace
  4. Providing workplace flexibility

ANSWER: b

31.Janet, a new employee at Nalpot Inc., expects employers to utilize social media platforms as the primary communication method. Janet most likely belongs to a group of workers called .

  1. gig workers
  2. temporary workers
  3. Generation Z
  4. Generation X

ANSWER: c

32.In the context of organizations that have a global presence, which of the following statements is true?

  1. Companies feel they do not communicate their strategy clearly, finding it difficult to be flexible as they expand to other markets.
  2. Companies find it difficult to adapt to globalization as it involves shifting from integrating global operations to trade and investment.
  3. Sharing the cost of distant centers decreases the expense of local operations.
  4. Emerging market opportunities expose companies to unfamiliar risks that may be difficult to analyze.

ANSWER: d

33.Which of the following is a disadvantage of an aging workforce in economically developed countries?

  1. Having to implement new benchmarking strategies
  2. Having to decrease the span of control
  3. Having to increase power distance
  4. Having to replace experience and talent

ANSWER: d

34.Which of the following is true of Generation Y workers in organizations?

  1. They include the set of workers born since the mid-1990s.
  2. They are expected to retire in the near future.
  3. They are expected to represent 25 percent of the workforce by the year 2025.
  4. They value jobs that allow them to make a social impact.

ANSWER: d

35.Which of the following is true of a Human Resource Information System (HRIS)?

  1. It became extinct after the 1960s.
  2. It allowed HR to run its own reports and make changes without help from information technology staff.
  3. It functioned exclusively in the cloud and enabled self-service.
  4. It processed payroll, tracked employees and their benefits, and produced reports for HR managers.

ANSWER: d

36.Which of the following statements is true of PeopleSoft?

  1. It was popular until the 1970s.
  2. It allowed HR to run its own reports and make changes without help from information technology professionals.
  3. It functioned exclusively in the cloud and allowed self-service.
  4. It was used to ensure privacy of organizational data and provided security from third-party applications.

ANSWER: b

37.Which of the following is true of software as a service (SaaS)?

  1. It functions in a vendor's data center and allows self-service.
  2. It is software that allows HR to run its own reports and make changes with help from information technology staff.
  3. It is software that functions exclusively in the cloud.
  4. It requires firms to buy licenses rather than merely renting software packages from vendors.

ANSWER: a

38.Which of the following is a difference between a Human Resource Information System (HRIS) and PeopleSoft?

  1. PeopleSoft was popular in the 1970s, whereas HRISs gained popularity after 1989.
  2. PeopleSoft did not allow HR to run its own reports, whereas HRISs allowed it.
  3. HRISs were run by information technology staff, whereas PeopleSoft allowed HR to run its own reports.
  4. HRISs functioned exclusively in the cloud, whereas PeopleSoft functioned in vendors' data centers.

ANSWER: c

39.Which of the following is the difference between a Human Resource Information System (HRIS) and software as a service (SaaS)?

  1. HRISs enable firms to rent software packages from vendors, whereas SaaS requires firms to buy licenses.
  2. HRISs allowed HR to run its own reports, while SaaS functioned in vendors' data centers.
  3. SaaS was popular in the 1970s, whereas HRISs gained popularity after 1989.
  4. SaaS allows self-service, whereas HRISs require support from information technology staff.

ANSWER: d

40.Using technology to support HR activities increases:

  1. the workload for hiring managers.
  2. the efficiency of the administrative HR functions.
  3. costs for HR.
  4. privacy and security.

ANSWER: b

41.The organizational policy that encourages employees to bring their personal devices into the workplace so that they can be used to complete work is called the .

  1. employee personal device policy
  2. personal devices for productivity policy
  3. bring your own device policy
  4. workplace personal device policy

ANSWER: c

42.Which of the following programs developed by organizations focuses on the enhancement of stakeholder interests and the advancement of social good?

  1. Equal employment opportunity programs
  2. Corporate social responsibility programs
  3. Social etiquette and behavior programs
  4. Corporate social networking programs

ANSWER: b

43.Which of the following is a human resource competency outlined by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)?

  1. Technological expertise
  2. Business acumen
  3. Time management
  4. Deductive skills

ANSWER: b

44.Josh works in the HR department of AmPro Inc. He was recently promoted to a managerial role. In the context of the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) competency framework, which of the following skills does Josh most likely have to build to succeed in his new role?

  1. Administrative capabilities
  2. Recordkeeping
  3. Leadership and navigation
  4. Legal capabilities

ANSWER: c

45.Stanley is responsible for performing a variety of human resource activities such as posting job openings and reporting current employees' job satisfaction. He is most likely an .

  1. HR specialist
  2. HR planner
  3. HR strategist
  4. HR generalist

ANSWER: d

46.Which of the following is a prominent specialized HR organization?

  1. The WorldatWork Association
  2. The Organization for Economic Cooperation
  3. The Ethics Resource Center
  4. The U.S. Small Business Association

ANSWER: a

47.Evelyn, an HR Executive, used to handle a variety of tasks such as employee recruitment and compensation. She was recently promoted and is now responsible for reporting current employees' job satisfaction as well as handling employee recruitment, compensation, and benefits. Which of the following statements best describes her role?

  1. Evelyn's previous role and her new role are HR generalist roles.
  2. Evelyn's previous role and her new role are HR specialist roles.
  3. Evelyn moved from the role of an HR generalist to that of an HR specialist.
  4. Evelyn moved from the role of an HR specialist to that of an HR generalist.

ANSWER: a

48.Suzie, an HR Executive at ZedNet Inc., was responsible for employee recruitment and compensation. She was recently promoted and is now responsible only for recruitment. She is required to have in-depth knowledge of the activities involved in recruiting. Which of the following statements best describes Suzie's role?

  1. Suzie's previous role and her new role are HR generalist roles.
  2. Suzie's previous role and her new role are HR specialist roles.
  3. Suzie moved from the role of an HR specialist to that of an HR generalist.
  4. Suzie moved from the role of an HR generalist to that of an HR specialist.

ANSWER: d

49.Ramone, an HR Manager at TelVille Inc., was initially responsible only for recruitment. He was recently promoted and is now responsible exclusively for employee benefits. Which of the following statements best describes Ramone's role?

  1. Ramone's previous role and his new role are HR generalist roles.
  2. Ramone's previous role and his new role are HR specialist roles.
  3. Ramone moved from the role of an HR specialist to that of an HR generalist.
  4. Ramone moved from the role of an HR generalist to that of an HR specialist.

ANSWER: b

50.Max, an HR Executive at Axis Inc., was initially responsible only for recruitment. He was recently promoted and is now responsible for a variety of tasks such as recruitment, compensation, and benefits. Which of the following best describes Max's role?

  1. Max's previous role and his new role are HR generalist roles.
  2. Max's previous role and his new role are HR specialist roles.
  3. Max moved from the role of an HR specialist to that of an HR generalist.
  4. Max moved from the role of an HR generalist to that of an HR specialist.

ANSWER: c

51.Human resources professionals in some companies have been involved with mergers, acquisitions, and outsourcing.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

52.Human resource management involves designing formal systems in an organization to manage human talent for accomplishing organizational goals.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

53.Specialized research capabilities, patents, information systems, designs, operating processes, and copyrights are classified as intellectual property assets.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

54.Human capital is the collective value of the capabilities, knowledge, skills, life experiences, and motivation of an organization's workforce.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

55.A core competency is a unique capability that creates high value for a company.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

56.Using unit labor costs, one can see that relatively high wages will affect competitiveness if high productivity levels are achieved.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

57.Unit labor cost is computed by dividing the total cost of workers by their average levels of output.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

58.Some of the major ways of increasing employee productivity are organizational restructuring, redesigning work, aligning HR activities, and outsourcing analyses.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

59.Organizational culture consists of the shared values and beliefs that give members of an organization meaning and provide them with rules for behavior.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

60.Rules of behavior in an organization are perpetuated as newcomers learn organizational culture from senior employees.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

61.The operational role of HR involves focusing on clerical administration and recordkeeping, including essential legal paperwork and policy implementation.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

ANSWER: False

63.The administrative role of HR involves defining and implementing an organization's business strategy relative to human capital.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

64.The strategic role of HR involves recordkeeping and has given HR management the reputation of being "paper- pushers."

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

65.SaaS agreements require firms to buy licenses rather than merely renting software packages from vendors.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

66.Work–life integration is a key area of success for women in leadership roles.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

67.Replacing the experience and talents of long-service workers is a challenge facing employers in all industries.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

68.An increasing number of individuals characterize themselves as multiracial.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

ANSWER: True

70.Many states, including New Mexico, Arkansas, California, and Utah, have laws that enable organizations to obtain access to job applicants' social media accounts.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

71.Companies often rely on a number of programs to increase employees' awareness of ethical issues.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

72.A recruitment coordinator for a manufacturing plant and a regional HR manager for European operations in a global food company are examples of field and subsidiary HR professionals.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

73.Professional certification has decreased in importance for HR generalists and specialists.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

74.A person who has in-depth knowledge and expertise in a specific area of HR is known as an HR generalist.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

75.A person with the responsibility of performing a variety of HR activities is known as an HR specialist.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

76.The membership of HR professionals in the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) is more than 75 percent male.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

77.The Professional in Human Resources (PHR) certification is sponsored by the WorldatWork Association.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

78.Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR), an HR certification, is sponsored by the Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI).

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

79.The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) certification can be earned at three levels.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: False

80.Certified Compensation Professional (CCP), an HR certification, is offered by the WorldatWork Association.

  1. True
  2. False

ANSWER: True

81.Define human resource management.

Human resource management is designing formal systems in an organization to manage human talent for

ANSWER:


accomplishing organizational goals.

82.Define human capital.

ANSWER: Human capital is the collective value of the capabilities, knowledge, skills, life experiences, and motivation of an organization's workforce.

83.What is core competency?

ANSWER: Developing and implementing business strategies must be based on an organization's areas of strength.

Referred to as core competencies, those strengths are the foundation for creating the organization's competitive advantage. A core competency is a unique capability that creates high value for a company.

84.Define productivity.

ANSWER: Productivity is defined as a measure of the quantity and quality of work done, considering the cost of the resources used.

85.List the seven categories of HR functions.

ANSWER: The seven HR functions are as follows:

1.Strategy and planning

2.Employee and labor relations

  1. Risk management and worker protection
    1. Rewards

5.Talent management

6.Staffing

7.Equal employment opportunity

86.Briefly describe the ability-motivation-opportunity (AMO) model.

ANSWER: A useful framework to understand how HR practices serve as the foundation for human capital is called the ability-motivation-opportunity (AMO) model. The AMO model involves HR practices that lead to greater skill, greater motivation, and greater opportunity for workers to contribute to the organization. HR practices in high-performing organizations often focus on these elements of the employee experience to enhance the employees' sense of competence and dedication to the organizational goals.

87.Briefly describe a Millennial.

ANSWER: Millennials (also called Generation Y) are an emerging group of workers in organizations today, and their numbers are expected to represent 75 percent of the workforce by the year 2025. These individuals value jobs that allow them to make a social impact, offer retirement investment options, respect their time for family, and provide for their personal development.

88.Briefly describe changes in the U.S. workforce.

ANSWER: The U.S. workforce today is more racially and ethnically diverse, more women are employed than ever before, and the average age of its members is increasing.

89.List a few organizational programs that promote employees' awareness on ethical issues.

ANSWER: The following organizational programs promote employees' awareness on ethical issues:

  1. A written code of ethics and standards of conduct

2.Training on ethical behavior for all executives, managers, and employees

  1. Advice to employees on ethical situations they face, often given by HR

4.Systems for confidential reporting of ethical misconduct or questionable behavior

5.Public recognition and commendation when employees behave ethically

90.Briefly describe the role of an HR specialist.

ANSWER: An HR specialist is a person who has in-depth knowledge and expertise in a specific area of HR. Common areas of HR specialty include benefits, compensation, staffing and recruitment, and training and development.

91.Briefly describe the four types of assets that organizations must manage to be successful.

ANSWER: Organizations must manage four types of assets to be successful:

  1. Physical assets: Buildings, land, furniture, computers, vehicles, equipment, and so on
  2. Financial assets: Cash, financial resources, stocks, bonds or debt, and so on
  3. Intellectual property assets: Specialized research capabilities, patents, information systems, designs, operating processes, copyrights, and so on
  4. Human assets: Individuals with their talents, capabilities, experience, professional expertise, relationships, and so on

All of these assets are important to varying degrees in different firms. But the human assets are the "glue" that holds all the other parts together to achieve results.

92.List some of the major ways to increase employee productivity.

ANSWER: Among the major ways to increase employee productivity are

  1. Organizational restructuring, which involves eliminating layers of management and changing reporting relationships as well as cutting staff through downsizing, layoffs, and early retirement buyout programs;
  2. Redesigning work, which often involves making changes to the way work gets done by focusing on the characteristics of jobs and altering how tasks are structured and coordinated;
  3. Aligning HR activities, which means ensuring that HR efforts and practices are consistent with organizational efforts to improve productivity and satisfy strategic goals; and
  4. Outsourcing analyses, which requires the HR department to conduct cost–benefit assessments that indicate the overall positive or negative impact of outsourcing—HR then manages outsourcing efforts if they occur.

93.Describe the different functions of human resource management.

ANSWER: The functions of human resource management are as follows:

  1. HR strategy and planning: As part of achieving organizational competitiveness, strategic planning for the organization and HR's role in those strategic plans are good starting places. Anticipating future talent needs and preparing plans to address those needs is a vital task for HR.
  2. Equal employment opportunity: Compliance with federal, state, and even local equal employment opportunity (EEO) laws and regulations affects all other HR activities. Instituting effective diversity and inclusion initiatives will help the organization maintain a robust workforce.
  3. Talent acquisition: The aim of talent acquisition is to provide a sufficient supply of qualified individuals to fill jobs in an organization. The nature of the workforce, job design, and job analysis lay the foundation for talent acquisition by identifying how people work and the qualities needed to succeed. Establishing a positive employer brand and employee value proposition are keys to becoming an attractive employer. Recruiting efforts focus on generating a pool of qualified applicants from which to select. The selection process is focused on choosing qualified individuals to fill those jobs.
  4. Talent management and development: Beginning with the orientation of new employees, talent management and development includes different types of training. HR development and succession planning for employees and managers are necessary to prepare for future challenges. Career planning identifies paths and activities for individual employees as they move within the organization. Assessing how well employees are performing their jobs is the focus of performance management.
  5. Total rewards: Tangible and intangible rewards such as pay, incentives, and benefits create the value proposition to keep employees engaged and motivated. To be competitive, employers develop and refine their basic compensation systems and may use variable pay programs as incentive rewards. The rapid increase in the cost of benefits, especially health care benefits, will continue to be a major issue for most employers.
  6. Risk management and worker protection: Employers must address various workplace risks to ensure workers are protected, meet legal requirements, and respond to concerns for workplace health and safety. Also, workplace security has grown in importance along with disaster and recovery planning.
  7. Employee and labor relations: The relationship between managers and their employees must be handled legally and effectively. Employer and employee rights must be addressed. It is important to develop, communicate, and update HR policies and procedures so that managers and employees alike know what is expected. In some organizations, union–management relations must be addressed as well.

94.Describe the different roles played by the HR department in an organization.

ANSWER: If an organization has a formal HR department or group, there are typically three different roles these individuals might play in the organization. Which role dominates, or whether all three roles are performed, depends on what management expects from HR and what competencies the HR staff members

possess. The roles are as follows:

  1. Administrative: Focusing on clerical administration and recordkeeping, including essential legal paperwork and policy implementation
  2. Operational and employee advocate: Managing HR activities based on the strategies and operations that have been identified by management and serving as "champion" for employee issues and concerns
  3. Strategic: Helping define and implement the business strategy relative to human capital and its contribution to the organization's results

While the administrative role has traditionally been the dominant one for HR, the operational and employee advocate roles are increasingly being emphasized in many organizations. The strategic role requires the ability and focus to contribute to strategic decisions and to be recognized by upper management for these efforts. This practice is likely to grow as firms expect HR groups to be involved in the strategic planning process and to prepare employees to be more strategic.

95.Describe the administrative role of HR management.

ANSWER: The administrative role of HR management involves processing information and recordkeeping. This role has given HR management in some organizations the reputation of being "paper-pushers" who primarily fill out forms and tell managers and employees what cannot be done, usually because of some policy or problem from the past. If limited to the administrative role, HR staff members are often clerical and lower-level administrative aides to the organization. Two major shifts driving the transformation of the administrative role are greater use of technology and outsourcing.

96.Describe the common HR challenges when an organization has a global presence.

ANSWER: Although individual companies do not respond to all HR challenges in exactly the same way, research suggests that all must face and overcome a common set of difficulties when an organization has a global presence. The areas of difficulties are as follows:

  1. Strategy: Companies feel they do not communicate their strategy clearly, finding it difficult to be flexible as they expand to other markets.
  2. People: Executives feel their companies are not good at transferring lessons from one country to another and are not sufficiently effective at recruiting, retaining, training, and developing people in all geographic locations.
  3. Complexity: Complexity arises as standardization of processes clashes with local needs, and sharing the cost of distant centers increases the expense of local operations.
  4. Risk: Emerging market opportunities expose companies to unfamiliar risks that may be difficult to analyze, which results in sometimes rejecting approaches they perhaps should have taken.

97.Describe the benefits of technology in HR management.

ANSWER: The increased use of technologies in the workplace is greatly impacting the way HR activities and other managerial functions are performed in organizations. In particular, the rapid expansion of HR technology serves a number of important purposes. Administrative and operational efficiency and effectiveness can be enhanced when technology is appropriately incorporated into the workplace.

Another common use of technology is tracking EEO/affirmative action activities. HR technology can also facilitate strategic HR planning. Having accessible data enables HR planning and managerial decision making to be based to a greater degree on information rather than on managerial perceptions and intuition, thus making organizational management more effective. Using technology to support HR activities increases the efficiency of the administrative HR functions and reduces costs. Managers benefit from the availability of relevant information about employees. Properly designed systems provide historical information on performance, pay, training, career progress, and disciplinary actions. Managers can make better HR-related decisions on the basis of this information. To maximize the value of technology, systems should be integrated into the overall IT plan and enterprise software of the organization.

Technology is used extensively by many organizations to help hire the best employees. Automation tools enable hiring managers to quickly work through large numbers of résumés with keyword assessments and to more effectively evaluate candidates' qualifications and suitability. Technology can also be used to improve the employee experience.

98.List the certification programs offered by the WorldatWork Association.

ANSWER: The WorldatWork Association offers a number of certifications emphasizing compensation and benefits:

  1. Certified Compensation Professional (CCP)
    1. Master Certified Compensation Professional (MCCP)
      1. Certified Benefits Professional (CBP)
      2. Work-Life Certified Professional (WLCW)

5.Global Remuneration Professional (GRP)

99.Describe human resource management as a career field.

ANSWER: A variety of jobs exist within the HR field, ranging from executive to clerical. As an organization grows large enough to need someone to focus primarily on HR activities, the role of the HR generalist is needed—that is, a person who has responsibility for performing a variety of HR activities. Further growth leads to the addition of HR specialists, or people who have in-depth knowledge and expertise in specific areas of HR. Common areas of HR specialty include benefits, compensation, staffing and recruitment, and training and development.

HR jobs can be found in a firm’s corporate headquarters, as well as in the field and subsidiary operations of an organization. A compensation analyst or HR director might operate from a corporate headquarters. A recruitment coordinator for a manufacturing plant and a regional HR manager for European operations in a global food company are examples of field and subsidiary HR professionals. These types of jobs have different career appeals and challenges based on their varying responsibilities. Another job within the HR profession that is gaining momentum is chief human resource officer. These individuals are expected to have a broad understanding of the different complex areas of HR management, and their presence is linked to higher organizational performance and profitability.


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