Test Bank for Operations Management Processes and Supply Chains, Global 12th Edition Krajewski A+

$35.00
Test Bank for Operations Management Processes and Supply Chains, Global 12th Edition Krajewski A+

Test Bank for Operations Management Processes and Supply Chains, Global 12th Edition Krajewski A+

$35.00
Test Bank for Operations Management Processes and Supply Chains, Global 12th Edition Krajewski A+

1.1 Role of Operations in an Organization

1) Operations management refers to the direction and control of inputs that transform processes into products and services.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: operations management, inputs, process, transformation

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the role of operations in an organization and its historical evolution over time.

2) As a functional area of a business, Operations translates materials and services into outputs.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: operations management, inputs, process, transformation

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the role of operations in an organization and its historical evolution over time.

3) The three main line functions of any business include Operations, Finance and Marketing.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: operations, finance, marketing

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the role of operations in an organization and its historical evolution over time.

4) Support functions in an organization include Accounting, Human Resources and Engineering.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: accounting, human resources, engineering

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the role of operations in an organization and its historical evolution over time.

5) Regardless of how departments like Accounting, Engineering, Finance, and Marketing function in an organization, they are all linked together through:

A) management.

B) processes.

C) customers.

D) stakeholders.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: departments, functions, processes

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the role of operations in an organization and its historical evolution over time.

6) The foundations of modern manufacturing and technological breakthroughs were inspired by the creation of the mechanical computer by:

A) Charles Babbage.

B) James Watt.

C) Eli Whitney.

D) Frederick Taylor.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: Charles Babbage

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the role of operations in an organization and its historical evolution over time.

7) Which of these Great Moments in Operations and Supply Chain Management did not occur in the 20th century?

A) invention of the assembly line

B) publication of the Toyota Production Systems book

C) establishment of railroads

D) strategic planning for achieving product variety

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: history, railroad

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the role of operations in an organization and its historical evolution over time.

8) Operations management refers to the systematic design, direction, and control of ________ that transform ________ into products and services.

Answer: processes, inputs

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process, input, transform, product, service

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the role of operations in an organization and its historical evolution over time.

9) The three mainline functions of any business are ________, ________, and ________.

Answer: operations, finance, marketing

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: operations, finance, marketing, functions of a firm

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the role of operations in an organization and its historical evolution over time.

10) What are the three key functions of a firm and what is each responsible for?

Answer: The three main functions of a firm are operations, finance, and marketing. The operations function transforms material and service inputs into product and service outputs. The finance function generates resources, capital and funds from investors and sales of the firm's goods and services in the marketplace. The marketing function is responsible for producing sales revenue of the outputs.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: manufacturing process, service process

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the role of operations in an organization and its historical evolution over time.

1.2 A Process View

1) A process involves transforming inputs into outputs.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: process, inputs, outputs

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

2) Every process has a customer.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: process, customer relationship

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

3) A nested process refers to a process within a process.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: nested process

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

4) At the level of the firm, service providers offer just services and manufacturers offer just products.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: manufacturing, service, similarity, goods, services

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

5) At the process level, it is much easier to distinguish whether the process is providing a service or manufacturing a product.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: manufacturing process, service process, goods, services

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

6) Manufacturing processes tend to be capital intensive.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: manufacturing process, service process, capital intensive, labor intensive

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

7) Quality is more easily measured in a service process than in a manufacturing process.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: manufacturing process, service process, quality

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

8) Contact with the customer is usually higher in a manufacturing process than in a service process.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: manufacturing process, service process, customer contact

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

9) At the level of the firm, service providers do not just offer services and manufacturers do not just offer products.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: manufacturing process, service process

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

10) Which of these statements about processes is not true?

A) A process can have its own set of objectives.

B) A process can involve work flow that cuts across departmental boundaries.

C) A process can require resources from several departments.

D) A process can exist without customers.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process, customer relationship

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

11) Operations management is part of a production system that can be described in the following manner:

Organization: inputs→processes→outputs.

Which one of the following correctly describes a production system?

A) Airline: pilots→planes→transportation

B) Bank: tellers→computer equipment→deposits

C) Furniture manufacturer: wood→sanding→chair

D) Telephone company: satellites→cables→communication

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: production system, input, process, output

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

Table 1.1

You are the Production Manager for the toy manufacturing process at the ABC Company.

12) Use the information provided in Table 1.1. An example of an internal customer is:

A) the lumber company.

B) the Receiving Department at ABC.

C) the Shipping Department at ABC.

D) the toy store at the mall.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: internal customer

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

13) Use the information provided in Table 1.1. An example of an internal supplier is:

A) the lumber company.

B) the Receiving Department at ABC.

C) the Shipping Department at ABC.

D) the toy store at the mall.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: internal supplier

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

14) Use the information provided in Table 1.1. An example of an external customer is:

A) the lumber company.

B) the Customer Service Department at ABC.

C) the Shipping Department at ABC.

D) the toy store at the mall.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: external customer

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

15) Use the information provided in Table 1.1. An example of an external supplier is:

A) the lumber company.

B) the Receiving Department at ABC.

C) the Customer Service Department at ABC.

D) the toy store at the mall.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: external supplier

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

16) Which of the following is an example of a nested process?

A) At the start of the new semester, a student first pays tuition and then goes to the bookstore.

B) A customer service representative verifies a caller's account information.

C) A candidate's intent to graduate is checked for financial holds by the Bursar and for degree requirements by Advising before the diploma mill prints their sheepskin.

D) A stockbroker calls a client and advises her to sell silver short.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: nested process

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

17) Which of the following statements is more of a general characteristic of a manufacturing organization, as compared to a service organization?

A) Short-term demand tends to be highly variable.

B) Operations are more capital intensive.

C) Outputs are more intangible.

D) Quality is more difficult to measure.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: manufacturing organization, service organization, capital intensity

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

18) Which one of the following statements is more of a general characteristic of a service organization, as compared to a manufacturing organization?

A) Output can be inventoried.

B) The response time is longer.

C) There is less customer contact.

D) Quality is not easily measured.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: manufacturing organization, service organization, facilities

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

19) Manufacturing processes usually have:

A) physical, durable output.

B) high levels of customer contact.

C) output that cannot be inventoried.

D) low levels of capital intensity.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: manufacturing organization, service organization, physical output

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

20) Service processes usually have:

A) physical, durable output.

B) low levels of customer contact.

C) output that can be inventoried.

D) shorter response times.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: manufacturing organization, service organization, capital intensity

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

21) A(n) ________ is any activity or group of activities that takes one or more inputs, transforms and adds value to them, and provides one or more outputs for its customers.

Answer: process

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process, activity, input, value

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

22) List and briefly describe five differences between services and manufacturing. Processes provide examples to illustrate your arguments.

Answer:

Manufacturing Processes

Service Processes

Physical, durable products

Intangible, perishable products

Output can be produced, stored, and transported

Can't be stored and transported

Low customer contact

Customers can be part of the input and part of the process

Have days to deliver

Must be offered within minutes

Capital intensive

Labor intensive

Quality easily measured

Quality not easily measured

Examples will vary.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: manufacturing process, service process

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

23) Identify a large employer in your hometown. Describe this organization's inputs, processes, and outputs.

Answer: Answers will vary based on the employer selected.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: input, process, output

Learning Outcome: Describe the main types of operations processes and layouts in manufacturing and in services

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the process view of operations in terms of inputs, processes, outputs, information flows, suppliers, and customers.

1.3 A Supply Chain View

1) A core process is a set of activities that delivers value to external customers.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: core process, supply chain

Learning Outcome: Compare common approaches to supply chain design

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the supply chain view of operations in terms of linkages between core and support processes.

2) The supplier relationship process selects the suppliers of services, materials and information, while the order fulfillment process facilitates the timely and efficient flow of these items into the firm.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: supplier relationship, process, order fulfillment process

Learning Outcome: Compare common approaches to supply chain design

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the supply chain view of operations in terms of linkages between core and support processes.

3) One distinction between core processes and support processes is that core process can cut across the organization while support processes do not.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: core process, process analysis

Learning Outcome: Compare common approaches to supply chain design

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the supply chain view of operations in terms of linkages between core and support processes.

4) A set of activities that delivers value to external customers is a:

A) supply chain.

B) core process.

C) support process.

D) system.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: activity, core process

Learning Outcome: Compare common approaches to supply chain design

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the supply chain view of operations in terms of linkages between core and support processes.

5) Budgeting, recruiting, and scheduling are examples of a:

A) development.

B) core process.

C) support process.

D) system.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: activity, support process

Learning Outcome: Compare common approaches to supply chain design

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the supply chain view of operations in terms of linkages between core and support processes.

6) The process that facilitates the placement of orders and identifies, attracts, and builds relationships with external customers is called the:

A) customer relationship process.

B) new service development process.

C) order fulfillment process.

D) supplier relationship process.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process, customer relationship

Learning Outcome: Compare common approaches to supply chain design

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the supply chain view of operations in terms of linkages between core and support processes.

7) The process that includes the activities required to produce and deliver the service or product to the external customer is called the:

A) customer relationship process.

B) new service development process.

C) order fulfillment process.

D) supplier relationship process.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process, order fulfillment

Learning Outcome: Compare common approaches to supply chain design

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the supply chain view of operations in terms of linkages between core and support processes.

8) Which of these business processes typically lies within the realm of operations?

A) complaint handling

B) customer relationship

C) help desks

D) waste management

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process, customer relationship

Learning Outcome: Compare common approaches to supply chain design

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the supply chain view of operations in terms of linkages between core and support processes.

9) The cumulative work of the processes of a firm is a(n) ________.

Answer: supply chain

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: processes, supply chain

Learning Outcome: Compare common approaches to supply chain design

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the supply chain view of operations in terms of linkages between core and support processes.

10) ________ provide vital resources and inputs to core processes.

Answer: Support processes

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: support process, core process

Learning Outcome: Compare common approaches to supply chain design

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Describe the supply chain view of operations in terms of linkages between core and support processes.

1.4 Operations Strategy

1) A firm's core competencies should determine its core processes.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: core competency, core process

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Define an operations strategy and its linkage to corporate strategy and market analysis.

2) Firm A wants to enter a foreign market and has a skill that is difficult to duplicate. Firm B desires this skill, so Firm A works with Firm B in an arrangement known as a joint venture.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: strategic alliance

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Define an operations strategy and its linkage to corporate strategy and market analysis.

3) The framework for carrying out all of an organization's functions is:

A) the competitive priority.

B) the corporate strategy.

C) the market analysis.

D) the organizational design.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: corporate strategy

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Define an operations strategy and its linkage to corporate strategy and market analysis.

4) In response to social and political moves to discourage cigarette smoking, major cigarette manufacturers have had to diversify into other products. Identifying the pressures against smoking is an example of:

A) environmental scanning.

B) market segmentation.

C) flow strategy.

D) mission statement development.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: environmental scanning, strategy

Learning Outcome: Discuss the role of operations management in corporate social responsibility and sustainability

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Define an operations strategy and its linkage to corporate strategy and market analysis.

5) A company realizes that recent layoffs at its primary company reflect potential falling demands for its customers' products, and hence for its own products. The company has engaged in:

A) flow strategy.

B) market segmentation.

C) mission statement redefinition.

D) environmental scanning.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: environmental scanning

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Define an operations strategy and its linkage to corporate strategy and market analysis.

6) Core competencies are:

A) product or service attributes that represent the needs of a particular market segment.

B) another name for competitive priorities.

C) various flow strategies.

D) the unique resources and strengths that management considers when formulating strategy.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: core competency, strategy

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Define an operations strategy and its linkage to corporate strategy and market analysis.

7) Which of the following is an example of a core competency?

A) facilities

B) top quality

C) low-cost operations

D) on-time delivery

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: core competency

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Define an operations strategy and its linkage to corporate strategy and market analysis.

8) Price, quality, and the degree of customization are all examples of:

A) volume needs.

B) other needs.

C) product needs.

D) delivery system needs.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: needs assessment

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Define an operations strategy and its linkage to corporate strategy and market analysis.

9) The Gap, Inc. has targeted teenagers and young adults in need of casual clothes, and through its GapKids stores, the parents or guardians of infants through 12-year-olds. This is an example of:

A) market segmentation.

B) a collaborative effort between the company and its customers.

C) a needs assessment.

D) a mission statement.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: market segmentation

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Define an operations strategy and its linkage to corporate strategy and market analysis.

10) One form of strategic alliance is the ________, in which two firms agree to cooperate to produce a product or service together.

Answer: joint venture

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: joint alliance

Learning Outcome: Compare common approaches to supply chain design

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Define an operations strategy and its linkage to corporate strategy and market analysis.

11) What are four core processes in a firm and how are they related?

Answer: The customer relationship process identifies, attracts, and builds relationships with external customers and facilitates the placement of orders. The order fulfillment process includes activities required to produce and deliver the service or product to the external customer. The new service/product development process designs and develops new services or products, which may be to customer specifications. The supplier relationship process selects the suppliers of services, materials, and information and facilitates the flow of these items into the firm. All of these processes exist to provide a service or product to the customer.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: core process, customer relationship, service/product development, order fulfillment, supplier relationship

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Define an operations strategy and its linkage to corporate strategy and market analysis.

1.5 Competitive Priorities and Capabilities

1) Competitive priorities are the means by which operations implements the firm's corporate strategies.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: competitive priority, corporate strategy

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

2) Flexibility is a possible competitive priority.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: flexibility, competitive priority

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

3) A firm once made purchasing decisions based on which supplier had the lowest cost. But once cash flow was healthy, purchasing decisions were made based on the fastest delivery of goods and services by firms. In this case, delivery speed is clearly the order qualifier.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: competitive priority, order qualifier

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

4) Admission to the prestigious school had become so competitive that a high GPA is no longer enough to separate one fresh-faced high school student from another. Today's outstanding candidate must also demonstrate their involvement in a myriad of extracurricular activities in order to be admitted. It seems that good grades are now:

A) a needs assessment.

B) order qualifiers.

C) order winners.

D) a mission statement.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: order qualifier

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

5) The first three cars I bought all fell apart around 50,000 miles. It was called planned obsolescence and no one seemed to care until companies entered the market that promised 70,000, then 80,000, and finally 100,000 mile warranties. What sets a great car apart from a good one now is not the quality, which is assumed, but performance, safety and fuel economy. A car that can achieve all three is highly sought after. In the automotive market, performance, safety and fuel economy are sterling examples of:

A) order winners.

B) a needs assessment.

C) order qualifiers.

D) a mission statement.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: order winner

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

6) You are interested in buying a laptop computer. Your list of considerations include the computer's speed in processing data, its weight, screen size, and price. You consider a number of different models, and narrow your list based on speed and monitor screen size, then finally select a model to buy based on its weight and price. In this decision, weight and price are examples of:

A) order qualifiers.

B) a needs assessment.

C) order winners.

D) a mission statement.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: order winner

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

7) Competitive priorities:

A) may change over time.

B) are the cost, quality, time and flexibility dimensions that a process or supply chain actually possesses and is able to deliver.

C) are used to distinguish between a service that is considered and one that is actually purchased.

D) are developed by a review of internal operations capabilities.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: competitive priorities

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

8) You are interested in buying a laptop computer. Your list of considerations include the computer's speed in processing data, its weight, screen size and price. You consider a number of different models, and narrow your list based on its speed and monitor screen size, then finally select a model to buy based on its weight and price. In this decision, speed and monitor screen size are examples of:

A) order winners.

B) a mission statement.

C) a needs assessment.

D) order qualifiers.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: order qualifier

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

9) Using an airline example for competitive priorities, the process capability of handling service needs of all market segments and promotional programs would be best described by:

A) top quality.

B) variety.

C) consistent quality.

D) delivery speed.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: variety, competitive priorities

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

10) A company's ability to quickly introduce a new service or product would be best described as:

A) volume flexibility.

B) variety.

C) consistent quality.

D) development speed.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: development speed, competitive priorities

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

11) A business focusing on increasing the efficiency of its operations is more directly addressing:

A) volume flexibility.

B) variety.

C) consistent quality.

D) low-cost.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: efficiency, low-cost, competitive priority

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

12) While other suppliers bidding for the contract brought bids with lower per unit costs, Orchard wanted to take delivery based on the fact that the components they were using were machined to their exacting specifications 99.99999% of the time. Orchard's competitive priority was:

A) top quality.

B) consistent quality.

C) on-time delivery.

D) delivery speed.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: competitive priorities

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

13) A popular haberdashery could take a customer's measurements in the afternoon and produce a dandy suit ready for customer pickup by next morning. Their competitive priority was:

A) variety.

B) top quality.

C) delivery speed.

D) on-time delivery.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: competitive priorities

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

14) For students not wanting a traditional major in marketing or accounting, for example, the college decided to create a general business major, which allowed any combination of the easiest business courses to comprise the program. The competitive priority achieved in this example is:

A) customization.

B) delivery speed.

C) consistent quality.

D) low-cost.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: customization, competitive priority

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

15) A company's ability to support varying rates of production is best described as:

A) volume flexibility.

B) variety.

C) consistent quality.

D) development speed.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: volume flexibility, competitive priorities

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

16) A firm gains competitive advantage by outperforming competitors in terms of competitive priorities, which fall into four major groups: ________, ________, ________, and ________.

Answer: cost, quality, time, flexibility

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: competitive priorities, cost, quality, time, flexibility

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

17) ________ is the elapsed time between receiving a customer's order and filling it.

Answer: Lead time

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: time, delivery speed

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

18) ________ measures the frequency with which delivery-time promises are met.

Answer: On-time delivery

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: on-time delivery

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

19) ________ is the ability to accelerate or decelerate the rate of production quickly to handle large fluctuations in demand.

Answer: Volume flexibility

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: volume flexibility, demand fluctuations

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

20) Every sub-contractor knew that their quality had to be excellent to be considered for the project; it was their ability to deliver on time that would secure the lucrative contract. Quality was recognized as being an ________, but on-time delivery was the ________.

Answer: order qualifier, order winner

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: order qualifier, order winner

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Reflective Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

21) Explain what an operations strategy is and the importance of competitive priorities. Give an example from an organization (public or private, manufacturing or service).

Answer: An operations strategy is the means by which operations implements the firm's corporate strategy. Competitive priorities are the key capabilities that operations must develop to compete successfully in a market segment. Possible competitive priorities include low-cost operation, high-performance design, consistent quality, delivery speed, on-time delivery, development speed, customization, and volume flexibility. Examples will vary.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: operations strategy competitive priorities

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

22) Name the two competitive priorities for quality and give an example of each.

Answer: The two competitive priorities are top quality, which is the determination of the level of operations performance required in making a product or performing a service, and consistent quality, which measures the frequency with which the product or service meets design specifications. Examples will vary.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: competitive priorities, top quality, consistent quality

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

23) Name the three competitive priorities for time and give an example of each.

Answer: The three competitive priorities for time are delivery speed, on-time delivery, and development speed. Delivery speed refers to the elapsed time between receiving a customer's order and filling it. On-time delivery measures the frequency with which delivery-time promises are met. Development speed measures how quickly a new product or service is introduced. Examples will vary.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: competitive priorities, delivery speed, on-time delivery, development speed

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify nine competitive priorities used in operations strategy, and explain how a consistent pattern of decisions can develop organizational capabilities.

1.6 Addressing the Trends and Challenges in Operations Management

1) Most products today are composites of global materials and services from throughout the world.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: globalization, products

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

2) The increased global presence of many firms has lessened the burden to behave ethically.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: ethics, global presence

Learning Outcome: Discuss the influences of the global competitive environment on operations management

AACSB: Ethical Understanding and Reasoning

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

3) The Internet of Things is a trend that affects operations and supply chain management in a minor way.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: technology, challenges, internet

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Information Technology

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

4) In an assembly operation at a furniture factory, six employees assembled an average of 450 custom chairs per 5-day week. What is the labor productivity of this operation?

A) 90 chairs per worker per day

B) 20 chairs per worker per day

C) 15 chairs per worker per day

D) 75 chairs per worker per day

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: labor productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

5) A manufacturing process requires 12 minutes of labor to make 10 units of product. Which of the following actions will increase productivity?

1. Increase labor per 10 units of production

2. Decrease labor per 10 units of production

3. Increase number of units per 10 minutes of labor

4. Decrease number of units per 12 minutes of labor

A) 1 and 3 only

B) 2 and 4 only

C) 1 and 4 only

D) 2 and 3 only

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: labor productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

6) The details of weekly output and input for a fabrication process are as follows: output is 400 units, with a standard selling price of $100 per unit. For the week, total labor costs are: 10 workers at 40 hours for the week, are paid $15 per hour. Total material costs for the 400 units are $5,000. Weekly overhead is charged at the rate of 1.5 times the labor costs. What is the multifactor productivity for the week?

A) 0.02

B) 0.75

C) 1.50

D) 2.00

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: multifactor productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

Table 1.2

The Abco Company manufactures electrical assemblies. The current process uses 10 workers and produces 200 units per hour. You are considering changing the process with new assembly methods that increase output to 300 units per hour, but will require 14 workers. Particulars are as follows:

CURRENT PROCESS

NEW PROCESS

OUTPUT (UNITS / HOUR)

200

300

NUMBER OF WORKERS

10

14

MATERIAL COST / HOUR

$120

$150

Workers are paid at a rate of $10 per hour, and overhead is charged at 140% (or 1.4 times) labor costs. Finished switches sell for $20 / unit.

7) Use the information provided in Table 1.2. What is the multifactor productivity of the current process?

A) less than or equal to 8.0

B) greater than 8.0 but less than or equal to 10.0

C) greater than 10.0 but less than or equal to 12.0

D) greater than 12.0

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: multifactor productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

8) Use the information provided in Table 1.2. What is the multifactor productivity of the new process?

A) less than or equal to 8.0

B) greater than 8.0 but less than or equal to 10.0

C) greater than 10.0 but less than or equal to 12.0

D) greater than 12.0

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: multifactor productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

9) Use the information provided in Table 1.2. Based on your productivity calculations, what decision should you make?

A) implement the new process

B) stay with the current process

C) need more information to make a decision

D) Either process is acceptable (since the multi-factor productivities are the same).

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: multifactor productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

10) It takes the Blacksburg shipyard twenty six weeks with 500 workers to build a small tanker. Material costs are $32 million and overhead costs are $2 million. Workers cost $40 per hour including benefits and work 40 hours per week. The ship sells for $75 million. What is the multifactor productivity ratio?

A) less than 1.0

B) greater than 1.0 but less than or equal to 2.0

C) greater than 2.0 but less than or equal to 3.0

D) greater than 3.0

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: multifactor productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

11) Which of the following would be considered an advantage of global competition?

A) ability to safeguard proprietary technology in working with offshore suppliers

B) a recent climate of low political risk and lessening nationalization

C) high levels of worker skills in foreign countries mean less required training

D) strong global competition and increased worldwide demand

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: global competition

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Diverse and Multicultural Work Environments

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

12) With regards to globalized operations and cost advantages, what China is to manufacturing, India is to:

A) services.

B) human resources.

C) finance.

D) supply chain.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: global competition

Learning Outcome: Discuss the influences of the global competitive environment on operations management

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

13) Companies that do not have operations in China find it difficult to compete based on the basis of low prices with companies that do. Instead those companies tend to compete based on:

A) quality and social responsibility.

B) speed and small production runs.

C) luxury.

D) quality and small production runs.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: global competition

Learning Outcome: Discuss the influences of the global competitive environment on operations management

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

14) Which of the following statements about "big data" is false?

A) The data must be organized and analyzed to be of any use.

B) Firms use high-powered analytical models to sift through the data

C) Data may be collected instantly or over a period of months.

D) It is not necessary for operations managers to be involved in implementation of "big data" processes.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: technology, internet, data

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Information Technology

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

15) The question of whether a manufacturer has rights to utilize data collected from a health monitoring device to improve future versions of the product is a concern of:

A) privacy.

B) technology.

C) security.

D) hardware costs.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: technology, internet, data

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Information Technology

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

16) The utilization of sensor data to detect deteriorating machine parts prior to product failure is an example of which operations management application?

A) Product design and development

B) Inventory management

C) Preventive maintenance

D) Logistics

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: technology, internet, data

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Information Technology

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

17) Productivity is defined as ________ divided by ________.

Answer: output, input

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: output, input, productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

18) Half of the world's greenhouse gases are produced by only ________ nations.

Answer: seven

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: environment, greenhouse gas

Learning Outcome: Discuss the role of operations management in corporate social responsibility and sustainability

AACSB: Ethical Understanding and Reasoning

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

19) In order to utilize the capabilities of the internet of things, the organizational roles of ________ and ________ will have to become more aligned, although they are traditionally two separate functional areas.

Answer: operations management, information technology

Difficulty: Challenging

Keywords: internet, technology

Learning Outcome: Discuss the role of operations management in corporate social responsibility and sustainability

AACSB: Information Technology

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

20) How has global competition affected productivity? Cite specific examples and reference the productivity equation to support your thesis.

Answer: Examples will vary; students should argue that the increase in global competition has increased productivity for those firms that have survived. Firms that fail (or have already failed) to effectively compete with new competition suffer from reduced sales, so the numerator in the productivity equation will be lower, perhaps without a commensurate decrease in the denominator, resulting in reduced productivity. Firms that are effectively competing against global competition probably have higher levels of productivity. Global operations might include cheaper or better raw materials and labor, resulting in a smaller denominator and higher productivity. Global competition might also inject new management techniques and leaner operations if some services are outsourced to specialist companies.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: productivity, raw materials, labor

Learning Outcome: Discuss the influences of the global competitive environment on operations management

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

21) What are some disadvantages of globalization?

Answer: Operations in other countries can have disadvantages. A firm may have to relinquish proprietary technology if it turns over some of its component manufacturing to offshore suppliers or if suppliers need the firm's technology to achieve desired quality and cost goals. Political risks may also be involved. Each nation can exercise its sovereignty over the people and property within its borders. The extreme case is nationalization, in which a government may take over a firm's assets without paying compensation. Exxon and other large multinational oil firms are scaling back operations in Venezuela due to nationalization concerns. Further, a firm may actually alienate customers back home if jobs are lost to offshore operations. Employee skills may be lower in foreign countries, requiring additional training time. South Korean firms moved much of their sports shoe production to low-wage Indonesia and China, but they still manufacture hiking shoes and in-line roller skates in South Korea because of the greater skills required. In addition, when a firm's operations are scattered globally, customer response times can be longer. Coordinating components from a wide array of suppliers can be challenging.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: globalization

Learning Outcome: Discuss the influences of the global competitive environment on operations management

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

22) What are some ethical issues that are prevalent in organizations that have a global operations presence?

Answer: Some countries are more sensitive than others about conflicts of interest, bribery, discrimination against minorities and women, minimum-wage levels, and unsafe workplaces. Managers must decide whether to design and operate processes that do more than just meet local standards. In addition, technological change brings debates about data protection and customer privacy. In an electronic world, businesses are geographically far from their customers, so a reputation of trust is paramount.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: ethical issues, ethics, globalization

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Ethical Understanding and Reasoning

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

23) Barry's Tire Service completed 100 tire changes, six brake jobs, and 16 alignments in an eight-hour day with his standard crew of six mechanics. A brake specialist costs $16 per hour, a tire changer costs $8 per hour, and an alignment mechanic costs $14 per hour. The materials cost for a day was $2,000, and overhead cost was $500.

a. What is the shop's labor productivity if the retail price for each respective service is $60, $150, and $40?

b. What is the multifactor productivity, if the crew consisted of two of each type mechanic?

Answer:

a. = $157/hr

b. = 2.43

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: labor productivity, multifactor productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

24) Table 1.3

The Abco Company manufactures electrical assemblies. The current process uses 10 workers and produces 200 units per hour. You are considering changing the process with new assembly methods that increase output to 300 units per hour, but will require 14 workers. Particulars are as follows:

CURRENT PROCESS

NEW PROCESS

OUTPUT (UNITS / HOUR)

200

300

NUMBER OF WORKERS

10

14

MATERIAL COST / HOUR

$120

$150

Workers are paid at a rate of $10 per hour, and overhead is charged at 140% (or 1.4 times) labor costs. Finished switches sell for $20/unit.

a. Calculate the multifactor productivity for the current process.

b. Calculate the multifactor productivity for the new process.

c. Determine if the new process should be implemented.

Answer:

a. = = 11.11

b. = = 12.35

c. The new process increases multifactor productivity and should be implemented.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: labor productivity, multifactor productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

25) The three person crew worked their way through the neighborhood, mowing lawns, edging, applying fertilizer and weed treatments where necessary and collecting all the clippings for use as mulch as part of their new green initiative. Their pricing scheme appears in Table A and the mix of orders and service costs appear in Table B:

a. What is their multifactor productivity for these orders in the prestigious Edmond Oaks neighborhood?

b. Which of the service combinations provided by them is the most productive service combination from a multifactor perspective?

c. What is their labor productivity for the same mix of orders?

Table A: Price List

SERVICE

PRICE

LABOR

MATERIAL

Mow lawn

$75

1 hr

$2

Edge

$20

.25

$1

Fertilizer treatment

$120

.25

$45

Weed prevention treatment

$80

.25

$25

Multiple services

5% discount times the number of services

Workers are paid at a rate of $10 per hour, and overhead is charged at 120% (or 1.2 times) labor costs. For a customer that gets both mowing and edging, their $95 bill would be discounted for two services times 5% for a total of 10% off the $95 straight charge for a cost of $85.50. A customer receiving three services would get a 15% discount off their service bill. Labor hours shown in Table A are total hours for the three-person crew.

Table B: Orders Processed

SERVICE

# Customers

Mow lawn & edge

6

Mow lawn, edge, and fertilize

3

Mow lawn, edge, and weed prevention treatment

2

Mow lawn & fertilize

2

Answer:

a. Multifactor Productivity Overall

Total Revenue = $86 × 6 + $182.75 × 3 + $148.75 × 2 + $175.50 × 2 = $1,709.75

Labor Cost = $12.50 × 6 + $15 × 3 + $15 × 2 + $12.50 × 2 = $175

Material Cost = $3 × 6 + $48 × 3 + $28 × 2 + $47 × 2 = $312

Overhead Cost = 1.2 × ($12.50 × 6 + $15 × 3 + $15 × 2 + $12.50 × 2) = $210

Multifactor Productivity =

Multifactor Productivity = 2.45

b. Multifactor Productivity by Service

Mow & Edge = = 2.8

Mow & Edge & Fertilize = = 2.26

Mow & Edge & Weed = = 2.44

Mow & Fertilize = = 2.36

The package with the highest multifactor productivity is the Mow & Edge

c. Overall Labor Productivity.

Total Revenue = $85.59 × 6 + $182.75 × 3 + $148.75 × 2 + $175.50 × 2 = $1,709.75

Labor Cost = $12.50 × 6 + $15 × 3 + $15 × 2 + $12.50 × 2 = $175

Labor Productivity =

Labor Productivity = 9.77

Difficulty: Challenging

Keywords: labor productivity, multifactor productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

26) The three-person crew worked their way through the neighborhood, testing doorknobs and windows and slipping past security systems like a team of ninjas. Of course, they weren't ninjas, but a crew of brazen burglars, hoping to grab cash and other valuables to fence at the next level of their supply chain. Fortune smiles on them on this day in the prestigious Edmond Oaks neighborhood. A lawn maintenance crew is creating a tremendous racket mowing and edging lawns, which completely drowns out the sounds of breaking glass. Details of the day's haul appear in Table C.

a. What is the multifactor productivity?

b. What is the labor productivity?

Table C: The Haul

ITEM

SALES PRICE

LABOR

MATERIAL

Krugerrand

$1,500

1 hr

$2

Flat screen TV

$250

.25

$1

$200 cash

$200

.05

$45

Lava lamp

$5

.15

$25

Rolex watch

$180

.10

$1

Workers are paid at a flat rate of 20% of the sales price of the merchandise. Materials cost

represents the cost of gasoline and surgical gloves, and overhead is 20% of the sales price of

the merchandise.

Answer:

a. Multifactor Productivity

Total Revenue = $1,500 + $250 + $200 + $5 + $180 = $2,135

Labor Cost = 20% × ($1,500 + $250 + $200 + $5 + $180) = $427

Material Cost = $2 + $1 + $45 + $25 + $1 = $74

Overhead Cost = 20% × ($1,500 + $250 + $200 + $5 + $180) = $427

Multifactor Productivity =

Multifactor Productivity = 2.30

b. Labor Productivity

Total Revenue = $1,500 + $250 + $200 + $5 + $180 = $2,135

Labor Cost = 20% × ($1,500 + $250 + $200 + $5 + $180) = $427

Labor Productivity =

Labor Productivity = 5

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: labor productivity, multifactor productivity

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

27) What are some of the concerns operations managers must address regarding using the internet of things? Cite a specific example.

Answer: Examples will vary, but students will mention concerns with technology, privacy, security, or organizational roles. They may also discuss the challenges of implementing the hardware, gathering the "big data", analysis of the data, and use of the data to aid in decision-making processes.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: technology, internet, challenges

Learning Outcome: Discuss the influences of the global competitive environment on operations management

AACSB: Information Technology

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

1.7 Developing Career Skills With This Text

1) Understanding the concepts in this text will help you become an effective manager in any functional area of business.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: process design, supply chains

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Understand how to develop skills for your career using this text book.

2) Managing supply chains does not involve processes external to the firm.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: process design, supply chains

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Understand how to develop skills for your career using this text book.

3) The effective operation of a firm and its supply chain is more important than the design and implementation of its processes.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process design, supply chains

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Understand how to develop skills for your career using this text book.

4) It is the sole responsibility of the operations function of an organization to design and operate processes that are part of a supply chain.

Answer: FALSE

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process design, supply chains

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Understand how to develop skills for your career using this text book.

5) Operations managers are involved at both the strategic and tactical levels of corporate strategy.

Answer: TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

Keywords: strategic level, tactical level

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Identify the latest trends in operations management, and understand how given these trends, firms can address the challenges facing operations and supply chain managers in a firm.

6) If a retail store owner does not have a popular item in stock because he underestimated the forecasted sales for that item, he most likely has a challenge with:

A) managing processes.

B) managing customer demand.

C) managing supply chains.

D) managing people.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process design, supply chains

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Understand how to develop skills for your career using this text book.

7) The key decisions to eliminate activities that do not add value while improving those that do are an important part of:

A) managing processes.

B) managing customer demand.

C) managing supply chains.

D) managing people.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process design, supply chains

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Understand how to develop skills for your career using this text book.

8) ________ are often responsible for key performance measures such as cost and quality.

Answer: Operations Managers

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process innovation, supply chains

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Understand how to develop skills for your career using this text book.

9) Each function of an organization is connected with operations through shared ________.

Answer: processes

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process innovation, supply chains

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Understand how to develop skills for your career using this text book.

10) Effective management of its processes can allow a firm to reduce its ________ and also increase ________.

Answer: costs, customer satisfaction

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: process innovation, supply chains

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Understand how to develop skills for your career using this text book.

11) Explain the types of decisions that operations managers are involved in and how they are linked to a firm's strategy.

Answer: Operations managers are involved in tactical decisions such as process improvement, performance measurement, the management and planning of projects, staffing management, inventory management, and resource scheduling. Operations manager's decisions should reflect corporate strategy. These decisions have strategic impact because they allow the firm to gain a competitive advantage.

Difficulty: Moderate

Keywords: strategy, innovation, supply chains

Learning Outcome: Discuss operations and operations management as a competitive advantage for the organization

AACSB: Application of Knowledge

Learning Obj.: Understand how to develop skills for your career using this text book.

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