Test Bank for Psychology, 11th Edition Carole Wade A+

$35.00
Test Bank for Psychology, 11th Edition Carole Wade A+

Test Bank for Psychology, 11th Edition Carole Wade A+

$35.00
Test Bank for Psychology, 11th Edition Carole Wade A+

Psychology is defined as the discipline concerned with:

a. the study of all physical stimuli that affect human sensations and perceptions.

b. behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.

c. the study of humankind and the importance of culture in explaining the diversity in human behavior.

d. maladaptive human behaviors and cognitions that are incorporated into a person’s self-worth during childhood.

2. Critical thinking requires:

a. creativity for creating alternative explanations.

b. treating all theories as equally valid.

c. low tolerance for uncertainty.

d. emotional reasoning.

3. Unlike modern psychologists, great thinkers of the past:

a. relied primarily on observations based on anecdotes and descriptions of individual cases.

b. wanted to describe, predict, understand, and modify behavior.

c. relied heavily on empirical evidence.

d. wanted to know what motivated people’s actions.

4. _______________ established the first psychological laboratory in 1879.

a. Sigmund Freud

b. John Locke

c. William James

d. Wilhelm Wundt

5. _______________ emphasized the purpose of behavior as opposed to its analysis and description.

a. Structuralism

b. Functionalism

c. Humanism

d. Behaviorism

6. _______________ founded the field of psychoanalysis.

a. Sigmund Freud

b. William James

c. Wilhelm Wundt

d. E. B. Titchener

7. Which modern psychological perspective focuses on how people reason, remember, understand language, and solve problems?

a. the learning perspective

b. the cognitive perspective

c. the sociocultural perspective

d. the psychodynamic perspective

8. Observing violent role models can influence some children to behave aggressively themselves. Which of the following psychological perspectives is this phenomenon an example of?

a. behaviorist perspective

b. learning perspective

c. social-cognitive perspective

d. biological perspective

9. Jacob studies how people change and grow over time physically, mentally, and socially. He is a(n) _______________ psychologist.

a. industrial/organizational

b. developmental

c. educational

d. psychometric

10. In almost all states, a _______________ is required to obtain a license to practice clinical psychology.

a. doctorate

b. master’s degree

c. medical degree

d. certificate from a psychoanalytic institute


Chapter 1 – Pop Quiz 1

Answer Key

1. b Rationale: Psychology is the discipline concerned with understanding behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment. The other choices are only a part of psychology. (Page 4, Factual, Easy, LO 1.1)

2. a Rationale: Critical thinking includes the ability to be creative and constructive, the ability to come up with alternative rationales for events, think of implications of research findings, and apply new knowledge to social and personal problems. It does not mean that all opinions are created equal and that everybody’s beliefs are as good as anyone else’s. (Page 6–7, Conceptual, Easy, LO 1.2)

3. a Rationale: Great thinkers of the past tended to rely on anecdotes and descriptions of individual cases rather than empirical evidence, but they were similar to modern psychologists in wanting to describe, predict, understand, and modify behavior and wanting to know what motivated behavior. (Page 15, Factual, Easy, LO 1.4)

4. d Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt is referred to as the father of modern, scientific psychology because he established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig in 1879. (Page 1516, Factual, Easy, LO 1.4)

5. b Rationale: Functionalism emphasized the purpose of behavior, whereas structuralism examined the basic elements of the mind. (Page 16–17, Conceptual, Easy, LO 1.5)

6. a Rationale: Sigmund Freud was the founder of the field of psychoanalysis. Wilhelm Wundt is referred to as the father of modern, scientific psychology. (Page 17–18, Factual, Easy, LO 1.5)

7. b Rationale: The cognitive perspective focuses on understanding the processes the mind uses to know and understand the world. (Page 19, Factual, Moderate, LO 1.6)

8. c Rationale: Within the learning perspective, social-cognitive theorists combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions. They believe that people learn not only by adapting their behavior to the environment, but also by observing and imitating others and by thinking about the events happening around them. (Page 19, Conceptual, Difficult, LO 1.6)

9. b Rationale: Developmental psychologists study how people change and grow over time physically, mentally, and socially. (Page 23, Applied, Easy, LO 1.8)

10. a Rationale: Most U.S. states require a doctoral degree to be licensed as a psychologist. (Page 24, Factual, Easy, LO 1.9)


Name __________________________________________________________

Chapter 1 – Pop Quiz 2

1. Compared to “pop psychology,” psychology:

a. is based on empirical evidence.

b. is less complex.

c. addresses only human behavior.

d. is narrower in the issues it addresses.

2. Which of the following is one of the critical-thinking guidelines described in the textbook?

a. don’t overthink; go with your gut reaction

b. define your terms

c. accept all opinions as equally valid

d. simplify as much as possible

3. Which of the following was a classic pseudoscientific theory that related bumps on the head to personality traits, and did not disappear until well into the twentieth century?

a. introspection

b. functionalism

c. phrenology

d. behaviorism

4. The first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science was:

a. William James.

b. Joseph Gall.

c. John Locke.

d. Wilhelm Wundt.

5. _______________ involved the analysis of the basic elements or building blocks of the mind.

a. Functionalism

b. Structuralism

c. Humanism

d. Behaviorism

6. The founder of functionalism was:

a. Sigmund Freud.

b. William James.

c. Wilhelm Wundt.

d. E. B. Titchener.

7. Which of the following approaches was popular during the early days of modern psychology?

a. the structuralist perspective

b. the cognitive-biological perspective

c. the feminist perspective

d. the sociocultural perspective

8. Which of the following is true about the professional activities of psychologists?

a. All psychologists see patients.

b. Some psychologists serve as consultants to governments or businesses.

c. Psychology researchers are not allowed to do work in nonacademic settings.

d. Psychology researchers are not allowed to provide counseling services in a mental health setting.

9. A major point of difference between basic research and applied research is that:

a. basic research involves experimentation and applied research involves psychiatry.

b. basic research studies physical processes and applied research studies mental processes.

c. basic research studies only humans, whereas applied research studies both animals and human beings.

d. basic research is done to acquire knowledge and applied research is done to solve practical problems.

10. A _______________ is a medical doctor who diagnoses and treats mental disorders and takes a more biological approach than other psychotherapists.

a. psychiatrist

b. psychoanalyst

c. LCSW

d. MFCC


Chapter 1 – Pop Quiz 2

Answer Key

1. a Rationale: Psychology (the science you’re learning about in this course), as opposed to pop psychology, is strongly based on empirical evidence. (Page 5, Factual, Easy, LO 1.1)

2. b Rationale: Defining terms is one of the eight important critical thinking guidelines. Vague or poorly defined terms in a question can lead to misleading or incomplete answers, or cause terrible misunderstandings. (Page 8–9, Factual, Easy, LO 1.3)

3. c Rationale: Phrenology is a pseudoscientific theory that relates bumps on the head to personality traits. Enthusiasm for phrenology did not disappear until the twentieth century. (Page 15, Factual, Easy, LO 1.4)

4. d Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt, in 1873, was the first person to publicly state his intention to make psychology a science. (Page 16, Factual, Easy, LO 1.4)

5. b Rationale: Structuralism focused on describing the basic elements that composed the mind and functionalism emphasized the purpose of behavior. (Pages 16, Factual, Easy, LO 1.5)

6. b Rationale: William James was the leader and main proponent of the functionalist school of thought in psychology. (Page 16–17, Factual, Easy, LO 1.5)

7. a Rationale: The structuralist perspective is of historical interest and is not a modern perspective in psychology. The other perspectives listed developed later.(Page 16, Factual, Easy, LO 1.5)

8. b Rationale: Some psychologists conduct research or apply its findings in nonacademic settings such as business, sports, government, law, and the military. A university professor might teach, do research, and serve as a consultant. (Page 21, Factual, Moderate, LO 1.8)

9. d Rationale: Basic research focuses on the acquisition of knowledge, whereas applied research attempts to use that basic knowledge to solve human problems. (Page 22, Conceptual, Easy, LO 1.7)

10. a Rationale: A psychiatrist is a medical doctor who has done a three-year residency in psychiatry to learn how to diagnose and treat mental disorders. (Page 24, Factual, Easy, LO 1.9)


Multiple Choice Questions

1. Psychology is defined as the discipline concerned with:

a. the study of all physical stimuli that affect human sensations and perceptions.

b. behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.

c. the study of humankind and the importance of culture in explaining the diversity in human behavior.

d. maladaptive human behaviors and cognitions that are incorporated into a person’s self-worth during childhood.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 4 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Rationale: Psychology is the discipline concerned with understanding behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment. The other choices are only a part of psychology.

2. Compared to “pop psychology,” psychology:

a. is based on empirical evidence.

b. is less complex.

c. addresses only human behavior.

d. is narrower in the issues it addresses.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 5 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Rationale: Psychology (the science you’re learning about in this course), as opposed to pop psychology, is strongly based on empirical evidence.

3. Psychobabble is:

a. an innate mental module that allows young children to develop communication skills.

b. a pseudoscience covered by a veneer of psychological language.

c. incoherent speech linked by remote associations called “word salads.”

d. a child’s first word combinations which omit unnecessary words.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 5 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Rationale: Pseudoscientific information that is made to sound credible with scientific-sounding language is jokingly referred to as “psychobabble” in the textbook. Psychobabble is not real psychology.

4. Which of the following best describes the academic field of psychology?

a. It is restricted to the study of mental and emotional disorders, personal problems, and psychotherapy.

b. It is restricted to the study of humans.

c. Its approach is similar to popular psychology.

d. It is the study of not just exceptional experiences but also commonplace ones.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 5 Type: Conceptual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Rationale: Psychologists are as likely to study commonplace experiences—rearing children, gossiping, remembering a shopping list, daydreaming, making love, and making a living—as exceptional ones. Scientific psychology actually addresses a broader range of issues than does pop psych.

5. Real psychology differs from popular psychology and its pseudoscientific relatives in that it is based on:

a. popular opinion.

b. the ideas of prominent psychoanalysts.

c. empirical evidence.

d. the latest theories.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 5 Type: Conceptual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Rationale: Psychology is based on scientific research and empirical evidence, not on opinions, ideas or random theories.

6. Empirical findings are those that:

a. rely on observation, experimentation, or measurement.

b. characterize an entire set of research data.

c. are conducted in a field setting outside of a laboratory.

d. compare subjects of different ages at a given time.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 5 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Rationale: Empirical findings are gathered by careful observation, experimentation, and measurement. It is not necessary that such experimentation needs to be conducted in a field setting or a laboratory.

7. Which of the following would give the most accurate view of psychology?

a. hearing a radio call-in show facilitated by a therapist

b. searching the Internet to see what the popular opinion is on when to begin toilet training an infant

c. reading a self-help book about how to get over a breakup

d. reading a newspaper article on the causes of bullying, which describes some of the current research evidence

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 5 Type: Conceptual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Rationale: Real psychology bears little relation to popular psychology and its pseudoscientific relatives found on the Internet, on television, and in thousands of self-help books. It is based on scientific research and empirical evidence.

8. Which of the following helps explain why so many people go to psychics?

a. There is empirical evidence that some psychic predictions are accurate.

b. Seeing a psychic is cheaper than seeing a therapist.

c. Belief in psychic abilities gives people a sense of control and predictability.

d. Psychics use subliminal messaging to manipulate people’s beliefs.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 6 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Rationale: Although there is no evidence that psychic abilities exist, belief in psychic powers persists. One reason may be that “psychics” give people a sense of control and predictability in a confusing world.

9. The ability to make judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons rather than emotion or anecdote is called:

a. applied psychology.

b. critical thinking.

c. functionalism.

d. introspection.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 6 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.2: Define critical thinking and give an example that applies to something you’ll learn about in introductory psychology.

Rationale: Critical thinking, by definition, is the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion and anecdote.

10. Critical thinking involves:

a. pessimistic thinking when trying to solve a problem.

b. using one’s intuition to assess claims made by researchers.

c. using evidence to make objective judgments.

d. detecting emotional cues to find hidden agendas in research.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 6 Type: Conceptual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.2: Define critical thinking and give an example that applies to something you’ll learn about in introductory psychology.

Rationale: Critical thinking is the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion and anecdote. Pessimism, emotional cues, and intuition do not help in critical thinking.

11. Critical thinking requires:

a. creativity for creating alternative explanations.

b. treating all theories as equally valid.

c. low tolerance for uncertainty.

d. emotional reasoning.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 7 Type: Conceptual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.2: Define critical thinking and give an example that applies to something you’ll learn about in introductory psychology.

Rationale: Critical thinking includes the ability to be creative and constructive, the ability to come up with alternative rationales for events, think of implications of research findings, and apply new knowledge to social and personal problems. Open-mindedness is good but does not mean that all opinions are created equal and that everybody’s beliefs are as good as anyone else’s.

12. Critical thinking gives importance to:

a. emotional reasoning.

b. commonsense statements.

c. looking for flaws in claims and arguments.

d. accepting all opinions as having equal merit.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 7 Type: Conceptual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.2: Define critical thinking and give an example that applies to something you’ll learn about in introductory psychology.

Rationale: Critical thinkers are able to look for flaws in arguments and to resist claims that have no support.

13. Which of the following is one of the critical-thinking guidelines described in the textbook?

a. don’t overthink; go with your gut reaction

b. define your terms

c. accept all opinions as equally valid

d. simplify as much as possible

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 8–9 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Rationale: Defining terms is one of the eight important critical thinking guidelines. Vague or poorly defined terms in a question can lead to misleading or incomplete answers, or cause terrible misunderstandings.

14. Which of the following is one of the eight essential critical-thinking guidelines?

a. accept generalizations

b. express intolerance for uncertainty

c. examine the evidence

d. practice emotional reasoning

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 9–10 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Rationale: A critical thinker always questions the evidence that supports or refutes an argument and its opposition.

15. Critical thinkers try to:

a. use anecdotes to support their arguments.

b. base their arguments on emotional convictions.

c. identify unspoken assumptions.

d. avoid uncertainty at all costs.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 10 Type: Conceptual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Rationale: One of the eight critical thinking guidelines is to analyze assumptions and biases. Critical thinkers try to identify and evaluate the unspoken assumptions on which claims and arguments may rest.

16. Beliefs that are taken for granted are called:

a. assumptions.

b. traits.

c. reinforcers.

d. archetypes.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 10 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Rationale: An assumption is a belief that is taken for granted.

17. Critical thinkers analyze their assumptions and those of others. Which of the following statements best demonstrates this skill?

a. “My boss won’t let me work from home, but her decision is based on the belief that employees are more productive at the office.”

b. “I think my girlfriend is cheating on me, but I’m too angry right now to think logically.”

c. “It’s OK to admit that I don’t know the answer when my son asks me a question.”

d. “There’s probably no single reason why people commit crimes.”

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 10–11 Type: Applied Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Rationale: All of the statements reflect good critical thinking skills, but only the statement about working from home involves analyzing an assumption. Specifically, the employee has concluded that the boss’s decision is based on a specific assumption that may or may not be correct.

18. “I really want to believe that my vague recollection of an incident that occurred at Disneyland as a preschooler is true, but that doesn’t mean that it is true.” Which of the following critical thinking guidelines does this example illustrate?

a. examine the evidence

b. define your terms

c. don’t oversimplify

d. avoid emotional reasoning

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 12 Type: Applied Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Rationale: Wanting to believe something is an emotional factor. The speaker is trying to avoid emotional reasoning here. There is no clear evidence here that can be examined.

19. Which of the following would be an example of “argument by anecdote”?

a. “My gut feeling is that it isn’t the right time to get married.”

b. “I know that marriage doesn’t work out, because both of my uncles ended up divorced and alone.”

c. “That is my opinion and nothing is going to change my mind.”

d. “What evidence is there to support your claim?”

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 12 Type: Applied Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Rationale: Generalizing from a personal experience or from a few examples to everyone is a type of oversimplification known as “argument by anecdote.”

20. Critical thinkers should approach psychology textbooks as:

a. being almost entirely correct.

b. an opportunity to generate alternative explanations.

c. being almost entirely incorrect.

d. a way to reduce uncertainties.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 12 Type: Conceptual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Rationale: Critical thinkers do not assume that theories or facts are either correct or incorrect. Instead, they consider other interpretations before deciding on the most likely one. Critical thinking also requires tolerating uncertainty.

21. “My memory of getting knocked down by a wave at Newport Beach could be based on what my parents told me later, not on my own recollection.” Which of the following critical thinking guidelines does this example illustrate?

a. define your terms

b. avoid emotional reasoning

c. consider other interpretations

d. don’t oversimplify

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 12 Type: Applied Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Rationale: This is an example of considering other possible interpretations.

22. Randy meets a Californian who grows his own vegetables and refuses to eat nonorganic food. Randy concludes that Californians are overzealous about nutrition. This type of error illustrates the importance of which critical thinking guideline?

a. don’t oversimplify

b. tolerate uncertainty

c. avoid emotional reasoning

d. examine the evidence

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 12 Type: Applied Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Rationale: This is an example of argument by anecdote or generalizing from a personal experience, a common form of oversimplification. Randy bases his statement on only one anecdote.

23. “I may never know for sure whether some of my childhood memories are real or accurate.” Which of the following critical thinking guidelines does this example illustrate?

a. avoid emotional reasoning

b. don’t oversimplify

c. tolerate uncertainty

d. ask questions and be willing to wonder

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 13 Type: Applied Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Rationale: Critical thinkers are willing to accept a state of uncertainty when there is little or no evidence, the evidence permits only tentative conclusions, or the evidence seems strong only until new evidence throws beliefs into disarray.

24. In their research studies, contemporary psychologists rely heavily upon:

a. empirical evidence.

b. anecdotes from personal experience.

c. individual case descriptions.

d. phrenology.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Unlike pre-psychology scholars, modern psychology researchers rely heavily on empirical evidence.

25. In contrast to modern psychologists, ancient scholars explored human nature primarily through:

a. empirical evidence.

b. experimentation.

c. trained introspection.

d. insights inferred from anecdotes.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Contemporary psychologists rely heavily on empirical evidence, whereas the great thinkers of history relied more on observations based on anecdotes or the descriptions of a few individuals.

26. Unlike modern psychologists, great thinkers of the past:

a. relied primarily on observations based on anecdotes and descriptions of individual cases.

b. wanted to describe, predict, understand, and modify behavior.

c. relied heavily on empirical evidence.

d. wanted to know what motivated people’s actions.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Great thinkers of the past tended to rely on anecdotes and descriptions of individual cases rather than empirical evidence, but they were similar to modern psychologists in wanting to describe, predict, understand, and modify behavior and wanting to know what motivated behavior.

27. A difference between the great thinkers of history and today’s psychologists is that:

a. modern psychologists want to describe, predict, understand, and modify behavior.

b. modern psychologists rely heavily on empirical evidence.

c. modern psychologists wonder whether emotion controls us or is something we can control.

d. modern psychologists want to know how people take in information through their senses and use that information to solve problems.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Conceptual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Modern psychologists rely strongly on empirical evidence, whereas the great thinkers of the past tended to rely on anecdotes and descriptions of individual cases. The other choices are similarities between modern psychologists and great historical thinkers.

28. A manuscript on human nature is discovered and scientists confirm that it is the work of an ancient scholar. In this manuscript, human nature is most likely explored through:

a. empirical evidence.

b. experimentation.

c. trained introspection.

d. insights inferred from anecdotes.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Applied Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Contemporary psychologists rely heavily on empirical evidence, whereas some of the great thinkers of history relied more on observations based on anecdotes or on descriptions of a few individuals.

29. The formal discipline of psychology, as we know it today, began:

a. in Ancient Greece.

b. in the Middle Ages.

c. in the 1600s.

d. in the 1800s.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Psychology was not a formal discipline until the late 1800’s.

30. _______________ had inferred that the brain is the ultimate source of all pleasures and sorrows long before it was verified, and he is now known as the father of modern medicine.

a. Hippocrates

b. Wilhelm Wundt

c. Sigmund Freud

d. John Locke

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Hippocrates, known as the founder of modern medicine, observed patients with head injuries and inferred that the brain must be the ultimate source of our pleasures as well as sorrows.

31. The forerunners of psychology developed the theory of phrenology, which in Greek means:

a. a map of thoughts.

b. a map of behavior.

c. study of the mind.

d. study of mental diseases.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Phrenology is a Greek word meaning “the study of the mind.”

32. Phrenology:

a. is a modern perspective in psychology.

b. is the study of the thought processes and behaviors of criminals.

c. is a theory arguing that the mind works by associating ideas arising from experiences.

d. is a pseudoscience relating the bumps on one’s head to personality traits.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Phrenology is a discredited theory that relates bumps on the head to personality traits.

33. Andie claims that phrenology is a pseudoscience and not a true science. Which of the following statements supports her claim?

a. When phrenologists found large “stealing” bumps on the head of a person who was not a thief, they concluded that other positive bumps held this characteristic in check.

b. Most of the phrenologists received inadequate training in the analysis of head bumps and so there were variations in their predictions.

c. Phrenologists relied heavily on the theories of Charles Darwin, and yet they could not link the bumps to evolutionary adaptation.

d. When “bumps” did not accurately explain a person’s characteristics, the phrenologists explained the contradiction by hypothesizing traumatic childhood experiences.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Conceptual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Phrenologists explained inconsistencies by claiming the existence of other traits that counteracted the inconsistency. This suggests that the phrenologists did not challenge their beliefs when the empirical evidence conflicted with them.

34. Which of the following was a classic pseudoscientific theory that related bumps on the head to personality traits and did not disappear until well into the twentieth century?

a. introspection

b. functionalism

c. phrenology

d. behaviorism

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Phrenology is a pseudoscientific theory that relates bumps on the head to personality traits. Enthusiasm for phrenology did not disappear until the twentieth century.

35. Sam, a business-owner, sought the help of a friend to find out which employees were likely to be loyal and honest if hired. The friend examined the bumps on the heads of all applicants and gave Sam a list of the employees he should hire. Sam’s friend is a _______________.

a. sociologist

b. alchemist

c. psychiatrist

d. phrenologist

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Applied Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Phrenology is a pseudoscientific theory that relates bumps on the head to personality traits.

36. _______________ established the first psychological laboratory in 1879.

a. Sigmund Freud

b. John Locke

c. William James

d. Wilhelm Wundt

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15–16 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt is referred to as the father of modern, scientific psychology because he established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig in 1879.

37. The first psychological laboratory was officially established by Wilhelm Wundt in:

a. America.

b. Holland.

c. Germany.

d. Russia.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15–16 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: In 1879, the first psychological laboratory was officially established in Leipzig, Germany, by Wilhelm Wundt.

38. The first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science was:

a. William James.

b. Joseph Gall.

c. John Locke.

d. Wilhelm Wundt.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt, in 1873, was the first person to publicly state his intention to make psychology a science.

39. _______________ is revered by psychologists because he was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science.

a. Wilhelm Wundt

b. William James

c. Sigmund Freud

d. Joseph Gall

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Psychologists especially revere Wilhelm Wundt because he was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science and because his laboratory was the first to have its results published in a scholarly journal.

40. Wilhelm Wundt is known for:

a. initiating the movement to make psychology a science.

b. developing eight guidelines for critical thinking.

c. establishing phrenology as a science.

d. training doctors to treat mental illness.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science. His laboratory was the first to have its results published in a scholarly journal.

41. _______________ is revered by psychologists because his laboratory was the first to have its results published in a scholarly journal.

a. René Descartes

b. Aristotle

c. Sigmund Freud

d. Wilhelm Wundt

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Psychologists especially revere Wilhelm Wundt because he was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science and because his laboratory was the first to have its results published in a scholarly journal.

42. Researchers in Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory studied:

a. phrenology.

b. psychology.

c. sociology.

d. chemistry.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: The Leipzig laboratory set up by Wilhelm Wundt became the go-to place for anyone who wanted to become a psychologist.

43. Your textbook discusses a famous laboratory set up in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. The goal of this laboratory was the study of:

a. psychology.

b. phrenology.

c. sociology.

d. chemistry.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: The Leipzig laboratory set up by Wilhelm Wundt became the go-to place for anyone who wanted to become a psychologist.

44. The research method used by Wilhelm Wundt in which volunteers were taught to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions is called _______________.

a. critical thinking

b. trained introspection

c. experimentation

d. conceptual proliferation

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Trained introspection was the research method popularly used by Wilhelm Wundt in which volunteers were taught to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions. The goal of trained introspection was to break down behavior into its most basic elements, much as a chemist might break down water into hydrogen plus oxygen.

45. The goal of trained introspection, a research method in psychology popularized by Wilhelm Wundt, was to:

a. break down behaviors into their most basic elements.

b. determine the strongest character trait in an individual.

c. learn by listening intently to individuals with psychological disorders.

d. feel bumps on a person’s head and accurately determine character traits.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Conceptual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Trained introspection was the research method popularly used by Wilhelm Wundt in which volunteers were taught to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions. The goal of trained introspection was to break down behavior into its most basic elements, much as a chemist might break down water into hydrogen plus oxygen.

46. _______________ is a research method popularized by Wilhelm Wundt in which trained volunteers take as long as 20 minutes to report their inner experiences during a 1.5-second experiment.

a. Conceptual proliferation

b. Critical thinking

c. Experimentation

d. Trained introspection

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Once trained, volunteers might take as long as 20 minutes to report their inner experiences during a 1.5-second experiment in the case of trained introspection.

47. Most psychologists eventually rejected the method of trained introspection in psychological research as being too:

a. objective.

b. subjective.

c. expensive.

d. time-consuming.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Conceptual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Rationale: Most psychologists eventually rejected trained introspection because they found the method highly subjective.

48. In America, Wilhelm Wundt’s ideas were popularized by one of his students, E. B. Titchener, who gave Wundt’s approach the name:

a. structuralism.

b. psychoanalysis.

c. functionalism.

d. behaviorism.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: E. B. Titchener popularized Wundt’s methods in America and gave Wundt’s approach the name structuralism.

49. In America, Wilhelm Wundt’s ideas were popularized by one of his students, _______________, who gave Wundt’s approach the name “structuralism.”

a. Sigmund Freud

b. John Watson

c. William James

d. E. B. Titchener

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: E. B. Titchener popularized Wundt’s methods in America and gave Wundt’s approach the name structuralism.

50. Which of the following approaches was popular during the early days of modern psychology?

a. the structuralist perspective

b. the cognitive perspective

c. the feminist perspective

d. the sociocultural perspective

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: The structuralist perspective is of historical interest and is not a modern perspective in psychology. The other perspectives listed developed later.

51. Which school of thought in psychology used the method of trained introspection in research studies?

a. phrenology

b. structuralism

c. functionalism

d. psychoanalysis

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: E. B. Titchener popularized Wundt’s method of introspection in America and gave Wundt’s approach the name structuralism.

52. Which school of thought in psychology hoped to analyze sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements?

a. phrenology

b. structuralism

c. functionalism

d. psychoanalysis

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: E. B. Titchener popularized Wundt’s methods in America and gave Wundt’s approach the name structuralism. The goal of structuralism was to identify the basic elements of the mind.

53. A person is asked to break down all the different components of taste when biting into an orange. Which of the following schools of psychology is this research most likely a part of?

a. psychoanalysis

b. functionalism

c. behaviorism

d. structuralism

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Conceptual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Breaking down the different components of a perception such as taste was the goal of structuralism.

54. A person is asked to look at an apple and then describe the various elements that make up her perception (e.g., color, shape, size, etc.). Which of the following schools of psychology is this research most likely a part of?

a. psychoanalysis

b. functionalism

c. behaviorism

d. structuralism

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Applied Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Breaking down the different components of a perception such as taste was the goal of structuralism. In this example, the subject is asked to break down his or her visual perception of an apple into its elemental components.

55. _______________ involved the analysis of the basic elements or building blocks of the mind.

a. Functionalism

b. Structuralism

c. Humanism

d. Behaviorism

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Structuralism focused on describing the basic elements that composed the mind and functionalism emphasized the purpose of behavior.

56. Reliance on introspection got structuralists into trouble because:

a. despite their training, introspectors often produced conflicting reports.

b. they failed to generate an intensive program of research.

c. they emphasized the purpose of behavior, as opposed to its analysis and description.

d. trained introspection was rejected as being too objective.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: One reason for the demise of structuralism is that introspection often produced conflicting reports.

57. _______________ emphasized the purpose of behavior as opposed to its analysis and description.

a. Structuralism

b. Functionalism

c. Psychoanalysis

d. Behaviorism

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16–17 Type: Conceptual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Functionalism emphasized the purpose of behavior, whereas structuralism examined the basic elements of the mind.

58. Who of the following was a famous functionalist?

a. William James

b. Wilhelm Wundt

c. Sigmund Freud

d. E. B. Titchener

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16–17 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: One of functionalism’s leaders was William James, an American philosopher, physician, and psychologist. E. B. Titchener popularized Wundt’s methods in America and gave Wundt’s approach the name structuralism.

59. The founder of functionalism was:

a. Sigmund Freud.

b. William James.

c. Wilhelm Wundt.

d. E. B. Titchener.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16–17 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: William James was the leader and founder of the functionalist school of thought in psychology.

60. Several middle-school girls watch their classmates, Jon and Jason, engage in a rough-and-tumble wrestling match. The attention of the girls seems to intensify the boys’ play. A psychologist trained in the functionalist school would wonder:

a. What are the most basic elements of the boys’ behavior?

b. Do these boys have smaller head bumps devoted to “cautiousness” than most boys?

c. What is the purpose of rough-and-tumble play in the adaptive changes of early adolescence?

d. Did these boys experience childhood traumas that unconsciously cause aggression?

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Applied Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Functionalism emphasized the function or purpose of a specific behavior, in this case, rough-and-tumble play.

61. _______________ had the opinion that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.

a. William James

b. Wilhelm Wundt

c. Sigmund Freud

d. E. B. Titchener

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: William James did not agree with the approach of structuralists, arguing that searching for the building blocks of experience, as Wundt and Titchener tried to do, was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.

62. _______________ argued that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.

a. Functionalists

b. Structuralists

c. Psychoanalysts

d. Fundamentalists

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: William James, a functionalist, argued that searching for building blocks of experience, as Wundt and Titchener tried to do, was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.

63. Which of the following questions is a structuralist most likely to ask?

a. What happens when an organism sleeps?

b. How does an organism sleep?

c. Why does an organism sleep?

d. When does an organism sleep?

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Conceptual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Where the structuralists asked what happens when an organism does something, the functionalists asked how and why.

64. _______________ wanted to know how specific behaviors and mental processes help a person or animal adapt to the environment, so they looked for the underlying causes and practical consequences of these behaviors and processes.

a. Rationalists

b. Structuralists

c. Fundamentalists

d. Functionalists

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Conceptual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Functionalism emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and was inspired by Darwin’s theory of how species adapt to their environment.

65. Which of the following schools of psychological thought was influenced by the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin?

a. phrenology

b. structuralism

c. functionalism

d. psychoanalysis

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Functionalism was strongly influenced by the theories of Charles Darwin, who

argued that a biologist’s job is not merely to describe, say, the puffed-out chest of a pigeon or the

drab markings of a lizard, but also to figure out how these attributes enhance survival.

66. Which school of thought in psychology tried to explain how specific behaviors and mental processes help a person adapt to the environment?

a. phrenology

b. structuralism

c. functionalism

d. psychiatry

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Functionalism focused on explaining the purpose of behavior and the way various behaviors allow an organism to adapt to the environment.

67. _______________ first broadened the field of psychology to include the study of children, animals, religious experiences, and the “stream of consciousness.”

a. Rationalists

b. Functionalists

c. Fundamentalists

d. Structuralists

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Functionalists felt free to pick and choose among many methods, and they broadened the field of psychology to include the study of children, animals, religious experiences, and what William James called the “stream of consciousness.”

68. _______________ set the course of psychological science by emphasizing the causes and consequences of behavior.

a. Functionalists

b. Rationalists

c. Fundamentalists

d. Structuralists

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Functionalists wanted to know how specific behaviors and mental processes help a person

or animal adapt to the environment, so they looked for the underlying causes and practical consequences of these behaviors and processes. This approach outlived functionalism, and continues to be important.

69. _______________ founded the field of psychoanalysis.

a. Sigmund Freud

b. William James

c. Wilhelm Wundt

d. E. B. Titchener

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17–18 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Sigmund Freud was the founder of the field of psychoanalysis. Wilhelm Wundt is referred to as the father of modern, scientific psychology.

70. Which school of thought in psychology emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind?

a. phrenology

b. structuralism

c. functionalism

d. psychoanalysis

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 18 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Psychoanalysis is a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.

71. The _______________ was the forerunner of modern cognitive therapies and made efforts to correct the false ideas that were said to make people anxious, depressed, and unhappy.

a. learning revolution

b. sociocultural revolution

c. Mind Cure movement

d. functional movement

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: The Mind Cure movement was the forerunner of modern cognitive therapies and made efforts to correct the false ideas that were said to make people anxious, depressed, and unhappy.

72. _______________ concluded that his patients’ distress was due to conflicts and emotional traumas that had occurred in their early childhood and that were too threatening to be remembered consciously.

a. Wilhelm Wundt

b. William James

c. Sigmund Freud

d. E. B. Titchener

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Sigmund Freud became convinced that many of his patients’ symptoms had mental, not physical, causes. He attributed the symptoms to unconscious memories, motives, and conflicts.

73. Which of the following statements is true about Sigmund Freud?

a. The Mind Cure Movement is Sigmund Freud’s first book.

b. Sigmund Freud argued that many of his patients had symptoms due to physical, rather than mental, causes.

c. Sigmund Freud’s concepts had a profound influence on the philosophy, literature, and art of the twentieth century.

d. Sigmund Freud’s concepts were widely accepted by the scientific community, especially by empirically oriented psychologists.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17–18 Type: Conceptual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Freud had a profound influence on philosophy, literature, and art, even though his concepts were not readily accepted by the scientific community. According to Sigmund Freud, his patients’ distress was due to conflicts and emotional traumas that had occurred in their early childhood and that were too threatening to be remembered consciously.

74. The ideas of _______________ formed the basis for psychoanalysis, an important school of psychological thought.

a. Wilhelm Wundt

b. William James

c. Sigmund Freud

d. Joseph Gall

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 18 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: The ideas of Sigmund Freud evolved into a broad theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, both of which became known as psychoanalysis.

75. Which of the following is a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy emphasizing unconscious motives and conflicts?

a. functionalism

b. phrenology

c. structuralism

d. psychoanalysis

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 18 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Psychoanalysis is both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy emphasizing the role of the unconscious mind in influencing behavior.

76. Psychoanalysis is:

a. a theory of personality which emphasizes the awareness of one’s own cognitive processes.

b. a theory of personality which emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.

c. a method of psychotherapy in which an observer carefully records and interprets behavior without interfering with the behavior.

d. a method of psychotherapy which emphasizes how maladaptive behaviors are learned through imitations of others and through cognitive expectations.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 18 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Psychoanalysis is a theory of personality emphasizing the role of the unconscious mind in influencing behavior.

77. Which school of thought in psychology evolved into an elaborate theory of personality that emphasized unconscious motives and conflicts?

a. phrenology

b. structuralism

c. functionalism

d. psychoanalysis

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 18 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Rationale: Psychoanalysis is both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy emphasizing the role of the unconscious mind in influencing behavior.

78. The _______________ perspective is a psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.

a. biological

b. learning

c. cognitive

d. sociocultural

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The biological perspective emphasizes bodily events associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts. The learning perspective emphasizes how environmental events such as reward and punishment determine our behavior. Cognitive psychologists study the influences of thinking, memory, language, problem solving, and perceptions of humans.

79. Which modern psychological perspective focuses on bodily events and their effects on behavior, feelings, and thoughts?

a. the biological perspective

b. the cognitive perspective

c. the evolutionary perspective

d. the psychodynamic perspective

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The biological perspective emphasizes bodily events associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts. The learning perspective emphasizes how environmental events such as reward and punishment determine our behavior. Cognitive psychologists study the influences of thinking, memory, language, problem solving, and perceptions of humans.

80. Which of the following modern psychological perspectives most resembles functionalism?

a. the sociocultural perspective

b. the cognitive perspective

c. the evolutionary perspective

d. the behavioral perspective

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The evolutionary perspective, like functionalism, emphasizes the purpose of behavior.

81. A(n) __________ psychologist studies how genetically-influenced behavior that was functional or adaptive during our species’ past may be reflected in the present behaviors, mental processes, and traits of modern humans.

a. cognitive

b. behavioral

c. sociocultural

d. evolutionary

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: Evolutionary psychology is a field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior.

82. Tom is a psychologist investigating the contributions of genes in the development of abilities and personality traits in human beings. Tom is most likely a _______________.

a. biological psychologist

b. learning theorist

c. cognitive researcher

d. cultural psychologist

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Applied Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: Biological psychologists investigate the contributions of genes in the development of abilities and personality traits. The learning perspective emphasizes how environmental events such as reward and punishment determine our behavior. Cognitive psychologists study the influences of thinking, memory, language, problem solving, and perceptions of humans.

83. Older adults with low levels of the chemical acetylcholine in their brains may develop memory loss. Which of the following psychological perspectives does this best relate to?

a. biological

b. cognitive

c. sociocultural

d. learning

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Conceptual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: Biological psychologists study the influences of the nervous system, hormones, brain chemistry, heredity, and evolutionary influences on humans. Because the statement emphasizes the role of a brain chemical in memory loss, this is the best answer.

84. The _______________ perspective of psychology focuses on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors.

a. cognitive

b. learning

c. sociocultural

d. psychodynamic

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The learning perspective emphasizes how environmental events such as reward and punishment determine our behavior. Cognitive psychologists study the influences of thinking, memory, language, problem solving, and perceptions of humans.

85. Which modern psychological perspective is behaviorism a part of?

a. biological

b. cognitive

c. sociocultural

d. learning

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: Behaviorism is a part of the learning perspective, emphasizing the role of environment and of consequences in determining our behavior.

86. Dr. Mannisto is a behaviorist who is studying the causes of excessive violence among some hockey players. She is likely to consider whether:

a. the more aggressive players have experienced brain injuries.

b. players who engage in excessive violence are rewarded in some way.

c. the more aggressive players experienced emotional abuse in childhood.

d. cultural change has shaped hockey players to become more violent than in the past.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Applied Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: Behaviorism is a part of the learning perspective, emphasizing the role of reward and punishment in determining our behavior.

87. With which of the following psychological perspectives is the term “behaviorist” most closely associated?

a. biological

b. cognitive

c. sociocultural

d. learning

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: Behaviorism is a part of the learning perspective, emphasizing the role of reward and punishment in determining our behavior.

88. Professor King approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes the rewards and punishments that maintain certain specific behaviors. He does not invoke the mind to explain behavior but sticks to what he can observe and measure directly. It is most likely that he accepts which of the following psychological approaches?

a. sociocultural

b. learning

c. cognitive

d. psychodynamic

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Applied Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The learning perspective emphasizes the role of consequences such as reward and punishment in determining our behavior. Behaviorists prefer to work with what they can observe and measure directly, and do not invoke the mind or mental states to explain behavior.

89. _______________ combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions and believe that people learn not only by adapting their behavior to the environment, but also by observing and imitating others.

a. Cognitive researchers

b. Sociocultural psychologists

c. Biological psychologists

d. Social-cognitive learning theorists

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: Social-cognitive learning theorists combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts and intentions. They believe that people learn by adapting their behavior to the environment and observing and imitating others.

90. Which of the following modern psychological perspectives has strongly encouraged precision and objectivity in psychology by focusing on observable and measurable events?

a. the learning perspective

b. the cognitive perspective

c. the sociocultural perspective

d. the biological perspective

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Conceptual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: Behaviorism, a key part of the learning perspective, emphasizes the study of things that can be observed and measured directly. Historically, the behaviorists’ insistence on precision and objectivity has done much to advance psychology as a science, and learning research in general has given psychology some of its most reliable findings.

91. The _______________ is a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior.

a. biological perspective

b. learning perspective

c. cognitive perspective

d. sociocultural perspective

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The cognitive perspective focuses on understanding the processes the mind uses to know and understand the world.

92. Which modern psychological perspective focuses on how people reason, remember, understand language, and solve problems?

a. the learning perspective

b. the cognitive perspective

c. the sociocultural perspective

d. the psychodynamic perspective

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The cognitive perspective focuses on understanding the processes the mind uses to know and understand the world.

93. One of the most important contributions of the _______________ perspective of psychology has been to show how people’s thoughts and explanations affect their actions, feelings, and choices.

a. sociocultural

b. learning

c. biological

d. cognitive

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The cognitive perspective is a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior. One of the most important contributions of this perspective has been to show how people’s cognitive processes affect their actions, feelings, and choices.

94. A _______________ might study what goes on in the mind of an infant or study different types of intelligence.

a. cultural psychologist

b. learning theorist

c. cognitive researcher

d. biological psychologist

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Conceptual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The cognitive perspective is a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior. Infant cognition and intelligence are two areas that a cognitive psychologist is likely to be interested in. Learning theorists tend to be more interested in how external factors affect our behavior.

95. A psychologist who embraces the cognitive perspective would be most interested in:

a. how punishments and rewards affect behavior.

b. different cultural environments.

c. unconscious conflicts.

d. how people think.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Conceptual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The cognitive perspective emphasizes what goes on in people’s heads (i.e., how people think).

96. Observing violent role models can influence some children to behave aggressively themselves. Which of the following psychological perspectives is this an example of?

a. behaviorist perspective

b. learning perspective

c. social-cognitive perspective

d. biological perspective

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Conceptual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: Within the learning perspective, social-cognitive learning theorists combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions. They believe that people learn not only by adapting their behavior to the environment, but also by observing and imitating others and by thinking about the events happening around them.

97. _______________ focus on how groups affect attitudes and behavior, why people obey authority, and how each of us is affected by other people—spouses, lovers, friends, bosses, parents, and strangers.

a. Social psychologists

b. Learning theorists

c. Cognitive researchers

d. Biological psychologists

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 20 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: Social psychologists focus on social rules and roles, how groups affect attitudes and behavior, why people obey authority, and how each of us is affected by other people—spouses, lovers, friends, bosses, parents, and strangers.

98. Which modern psychological perspective focuses on how our behavior is influenced by the other people in our environment and the communities we belong to?

a. sociocultural

b. learning

c. cognitive

d. biological

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 20 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The sociocultural perspective focuses on the impact of other people, the social context, and cultural rules.

99. Dr. Lyons studies the impact of societal norms and values on human decision-making behavior. It is most likely that she endorses which of the following psychological approaches?

a. sociocultural

b. learning

c. cognitive

d. biological

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 20 Type: Applied Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The sociocultural perspective is a psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior.

100. _______________ psychology spurred the growth of research on topics that had long been ignored in psychology, including motherhood, rape, domestic violence, gender roles, and sexist attitudes.

a. Applied

b. Basic

c. Feminist

d. Behavioral

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 21 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: The feminist psychology approach analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes. Prior to its development, psychological topics related to women had been ignored or understudied.

101. _______________ is a psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes.

a. Applied psychology

b. Basic psychology

c. Behavioral psychology

d. Feminist psychology

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 21 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: Feminist psychology spurred the growth of research on topics that had long been ignored in psychology, including motherhood, rape, domestic violence, the dynamics of power, sexuality in relationships, definitions of masculinity and femininity, gender roles, and sexist attitudes. Feminist psychology is a psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes.

102. The feminist movement in psychology was important because it:

a. refocused psychology on the study of the mind and mental processes.

b. allowed women to become therapists.

c. forced graduate schools in psychology to open their doors to women.

d. critically examined the male bias in psychological research and theories.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 21 Type: Conceptual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Rationale: As women began to enter psychology in greater numbers in the 1970s, they documented evidence of a pervasive bias in the research methods used and in the very questions that researchers had been asking. Feminist psychologists worked to correct this imbalance.

103. Which of the following is true about the professional activities of psychologists?

a. All psychologists see patients.

b. Some psychologists serve as consultants to governments or businesses.

c. Psychology researchers are not allowed to do work in nonacademic settings.

d. Psychology researchers are not allowed to provide counseling services in a mental health setting.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.8: Summarize the kinds of research that experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric psychologists might conduct.

Rationale: Some psychologists conduct research or apply its findings in nonacademic settings such as business, sports, government, law, and the military. A university professor might teach, do research, and serve as a consultant.

104. One reason why people in the general public are often confused about what psychologists do is that:

a. psychologists themselves are often confused about what it means to be a psychologist.

b. psychology has never been established as a real academic field.

c. there is widespread disagreement among psychologists about the proper role for psychologists.

d. there is a wide variety of psychology specialties and roles psychologists can play in the community.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Conceptual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.8: Summarize the kinds of research that experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric psychologists might conduct.

Rationale: The number of different types of psychologists makes it difficult for non-psychologists to understand what a psychologist is. The other options are all false.

105. _______________ is the study of psychological issues for the sake of knowledge rather than for its practical application.

a. Basic psychology

b. Clinical psychology

c. Applied psychology

d. Educational psychology

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

Rationale: Basic psychology is the study of psychological issues for the sake of knowledge rather than for its practical application.

106. _______________ is the study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance.

a. Basic psychology

b. Clinical psychology

c. Applied psychology

d. Educational psychology

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

Rationale: Applied psychology is the study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance and the application of psychological findings.

107. A major point of difference between basic research and applied research is that:

a. basic research involves experimentation and applied research involves psychiatry.

b. basic research studies physical processes and applied research studies mental processes.

c. basic research studies only humans, whereas applied research studies both animals and human beings.

d. basic research is done to acquire knowledge and applied research is done to solve practical problems.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Conceptual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

Rationale: Basic research focuses on the acquisition of knowledge, whereas applied research attempts to use that basic knowledge to solve human problems.

108. According to your textbook, _______________ is the aspect of psychology that is least recognized and understood by the public.

a. research psychology

b. clinical psychology

c. applied psychology

d. educational psychology

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

Rationale: Research psychology is the aspect of psychology that is least recognized and understood by the public.

109. _______________ psychologists conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition.

a. Industrial/organizational

b. Psychometric

c. Educational

d. Experimental

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.8: Summarize the kinds of research that experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric psychologists might conduct.

Rationale: Experimental psychologists conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition.

110. Jacob studies how people change and grow over time physically, mentally, and socially. He is a(n) _______________ psychologist.

a. industrial/organizational

b. developmental

c. educational

d. psychometric

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Applied Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.8: Summarize the kinds of research that experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric psychologists might conduct.

Rationale: Developmental psychologists study how people change and grow over time physically, mentally, and socially.

111. _______________ psychologists are concerned with group decision making, employee morale, work motivation, productivity, job stress, and many such organizational issues.

a. Educational

b. Developmental

c. Industrial/organizational

d. Experimental

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.8: Summarize the kinds of research that experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric psychologists might conduct.

Rationale: Industrial/organizational psychologists study behavior in the workplace.

112. _______________ psychologists design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personality.

a. Educational

b. Developmental

c. Experimental

d. Psychometric

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.8: Summarize the kinds of research that experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric psychologists might conduct.

Rationale: Psychometric psychologists design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personality.

113. Linda is a clinical psychologist. The clinical program she attended to start her professional practice required her to complete a literature review instead of a dissertation. Linda’s advanced degree is most likely a(n):

a. PhD.

b. PsyD.

c. MD.

d. EdD.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23–24 Type: Applied Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Rationale: The PsyD degree focuses on professional practice and typically requires the student to complete an extensive study, theoretical paper, or literature review instead of a dissertation. Clinical programs leading to a PhD or EdD require completion of a dissertation.

114. In the United States, which of the following professionals must have a doctoral degree in psychology?

a. clinical psychologists

b. psychoanalysts

c. psychiatrists

d. psychotherapists

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 24 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Rationale: Clinical psychologists in the United States must have a doctoral degree in psychology. Psychoanalysts and psychotherapists may or may not have a doctoral degree and psychiatrists have an MD.

115. A _______________ is a medical doctor who diagnoses and treats mental disorders and takes a more biological approach than other psychotherapists.

a. psychiatrist

b. psychoanalyst

c. LCSW

d. MFCC

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 24 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Rationale: A psychiatrist is a medical doctor who has done a three-year residency in psychiatry to learn how to diagnose and treat mental disorders.

116. The term _______________ is unregulated, and so, a practitioner may have an advanced professional degree or no degree at all.

a. clinical psychologist

b. psychiatrist

c. psychoanalyst

d. psychotherapist

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 24 Type: Factual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Rationale: A psychotherapist is simply anyone who does any kind of psychotherapy. The term is not legally regulated; in fact, in most states, anyone can say that he or she is a “therapist” of one sort or another without having any training at all.

117. Dr. Braun has been treating a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braun is a:

a. psychiatrist.

b. psychoanalyst.

c. clinical psychologist.

d. school psychologist.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 24 Type: Applied Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Rationale: Unlike psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and other therapists cannot write prescriptions in most states.

118. A psychiatrist is a therapist:

a. with a PsyD.

b. trained in psychoanalysis.

c. that is more likely than other types of therapists to take a biological approach to treatment.

d. who is not legally required to have any degree at all.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 24 Type: Factual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Rationale: Because psychiatrists are MDs, they typically take a biological approach to treatment.

119. The increase in freestanding professional schools of psychology has resulted in:

a. an increased number of qualified psychologists.

b. concerns about an increasing number of poorly-trained psychologists.

c. a change in legislation which allows clinical psychologists to prescribe medications.

d. changes in licensing requirements for psychologists.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 24 Type: Factual Answer: b

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Rationale: The proliferation of professional schools of psychology has led to concern about the standards of training for psychologists.

120. In almost all states, a _______________ is required to obtain a license to practice clinical psychology.

a. doctoral degree

b. master’s degree

c. medical degree

d. certificate from a psychoanalytic institute

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 24 Type: Factual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Rationale: Most U.S. states require a doctoral degree to be licensed as a psychologist.

121. Which of the following was the major reason for the formation of the Association for Psychological Science (APS)?

a. Psychotherapists were losing their “human touch” by relying too much on psychology’s empirical findings.

b. Academic-research psychologists were unschooled in current therapeutic methods of psychology.

c. There were many differences in training and attitudes between scientists and many therapists.

d. Clinical psychologists wanted to be able to prescribe drugs.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 25 Type: Conceptual Answer: c

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Rationale: The differences in training and attitudes between scientists and many therapists contributed to the formation of the Association for Psychological Science (APS).

122. Which of the following is true about psychologists’ roles in the general community?

a. Psychologists are prohibited by law from working for, or with, government agencies.

b. Clinical psychologists frequently contribute to their communities, but there are few opportunities for research psychologists to do the same.

c. Research psychologists frequently contribute to their communities, but there are few opportunities for clinical psychologists to do the same.

d. All types of psychologists contribute to their communities by helping to solve problems and answer important questions.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 26 Type: Conceptual Answer: d

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.10: Give examples of three ways in which psychologists contribute to their communities.

Rationale: Psychologists contribute to their communities in many different areas.

123. There is a growing trend among psychologists to have interests and beliefs that:

a. include aspects of two or more traditional approaches.

b. are related to the environmental effects on behavior.

c. were once considered pseudoscience.

d. cannot be studied using empirical methods.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 26–27 Type: Conceptual Answer: a

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.10: Give examples of three ways in which psychologists contribute to their communities.

Rationale: It is becoming more and more common for psychologists to use a combination of two or more traditional approaches to psychological theory and therapy.


True-False Questions

1. Empirical evidence is the evidence gathered by careful observation and experimentation.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 5 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

2. Empirical evidence is the evidence gathered by a careful reflection on one’s personal experiences.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 5 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

3. Real psychology differs from popular psychology in that it is based on the opinions of learned scientists.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 5 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

4. Psychobabble refers to how infants as young as seven months can derive simple linguistic rules from a string of sounds.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 5 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

5. Psychobabble is a pseudoscience covered by a veneer of psychological language.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 5 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

6. Belief in the paranormal is uncommon in scientifically advanced countries.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 6 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

7. The key to whether or not a psychological finding is important is whether or not the finding is surprising.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Page(s): 6 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

8. Critical thinking is defined as the ability to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well- supported reasons and evidence.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 6 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.2: Define critical thinking and give an example that applies to something you’ll learn about in introductory psychology.

9. Critical thinkers are able to look for flaws in arguments.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 6–7 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.2: Define critical thinking and give an example that applies to something you’ll learn about in introductory psychology.

10. Critical thinking is also referred to as negative thinking.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 7 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.2: Define critical thinking and give an example that applies to something you’ll learn about in introductory psychology.

11. Critical thinkers realize that all opinions are created equal.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 7 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.2: Define critical thinking and give an example that applies to something you’ll learn about in introductory psychology.

12. Critical thinkers realize that everybody’s beliefs are as good as everybody else’s.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 7 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.2: Define critical thinking and give an example that applies to something you’ll learn about in introductory psychology.

13. Open-mindedness implies that all opinions are created equal.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 7 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.2: Define critical thinking and give an example that applies to something you’ll learn about in introductory psychology.

14. Critical thinkers are willing to accept “received wisdom.”

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 8 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.2: Define critical thinking and give an example that applies to something you’ll learn about in introductory psychology.

15. Assumptions are beliefs that are taken for granted.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 10 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

16. Critical thinkers do not make assumptions about how the world works.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 11 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

17. Biases are assumptions that keep us from considering evidence fairly.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 11 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

18. Guiding our behaviors on “gut feelings” is an important aspect of critical thinking.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 12 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

19. An argument by anecdote occurs when a person generalizes from a personal experience.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 12 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

20. Critical thinkers come up with alternative explanations for research findings.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 12 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

21. Critical thinkers generate as many reasonable explanations of the topic at hand as possible before settling on the most likely one.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 12 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

22. Critical thinkers prefer explanations that account for the most evidence while making the fewest assumptions.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 12–13 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

23. Critical thinking is a process, not an accomplishment.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Page(s): 13 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

24. Psychology has been a science for more than 1,000 years.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

25. Psychology became a formal discipline in the sixteenth century.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

26. The forerunners of modern psychology depended heavily on casual observation.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

27. The forerunners of modern psychology depended heavily on empirical research.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

28. Scholars of the past relied too heavily on empirical evidence to understand human behavior.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

29. Scholars of the past who wanted to understand human behavior relied on anecdotes and descriptions of individual cases.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

30. Because they relied on anecdotes rather than experiments, the forerunners of modern psychology were always wrong in their description of human behavior.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

31. Phrenologists suggested that specific character and personality traits could be read from bumps on a person’s head.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

32. Hippocrates argued that the brain is the ultimate source of human pleasures and pains.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

33. Hippocrates argued that the heart is the ultimate source of human pleasures and pains.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

34. Wilhelm Wundt suggested that specific character and personality traits could be read from bumps on the head.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

35. The theory of phrenology was verified by later psychological research.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

36. The theory of phrenology is a classic pseudoscience.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

37. The first psychological laboratory was officially established in Leipzig, Germany.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Level of Difficulty: Easy

Page(s): 15–16 Type: Factual Answer: True

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

38. The first psychological laboratory was officially established in 1879.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15–16 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

39. The first psychological laboratory was established by the Austrian physician, Sigmund Freud.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15–16 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

40. The first psychological laboratory was established by Wilhelm Wundt.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15–16 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

41. Credit for the founding of modern psychology is generally given to William James.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15–16 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

42. Credit for founding modern psychology is generally given to Wilhelm Wundt.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 15–16 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

43. Wilhelm Wundt’s trained introspectors had to make between 10 and 50 practice observations before they were allowed to participate in an actual study.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

44. Wilhelm Wundt’s trained introspectors had to make 10,000 practice observations before they were allowed to participate in an actual study.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

45. In Wilhelm Wundt’s trained introspection, volunteers were trained to break down behavior into its most basic elements.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

46. E. B. Titchener gave Wilhelm Wundt’s approach the name “structuralism.”

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

47. Structuralism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the purpose of behavior and consciousness.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

48. Structuralism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of an immediate experience into basic elements.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

49. Early psychologists who emphasized how behavior helps an organism adapt to its environment were known as structuralists.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

50. One of the common research methods used by structuralists was phrenology.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

51. Functionalism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the purpose of behavior and consciousness.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

52. Functionalism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of an immediate experience into basic elements.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

53. William James, a functionalist, argued that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16–17 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

54. Wilhelm Wundt, an American psychologist, was a popular functionalist.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 16–17 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

55. “How” and “why” an organism does something were the concerns of functionalists.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

56. Early psychologists who emphasized how behavior helps an organism adapt to its environment were known as functionalists.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

57. The phrase “stream of consciousness” is closely associated with Sigmund Freud.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

58. The phrase “stream of consciousness” is closely associated with William James.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

59. Sigmund Freud argued that many of his patients’ symptoms had mental, not physical, causes.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

60. Sigmund Freud argued that many of his patients’ symptoms had undiagnosed physical causes rather than mental causes.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 17 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

61. Sigmund Freud’s first book, The Interpretation of Dreams, was an overnight sensation.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 18 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

62. Sigmund Freud’s ideas evolved into a method of psychotherapy that came to be known as psychoanalysis.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 18 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

63. Freudian concepts were, and still are, rejected by most empirically-oriented psychologists.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 18 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

64. Freudian concepts are still popular among empirically-oriented psychologists.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Page(s): 18 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

65. The biological perspective of psychology emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

66. The cognitive perspective of psychology focuses on the social and cultural forces outside an individual.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

67. Theorizing that anxiety is due to forbidden, unconscious desires is consistent with the biological perspective.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

68. Theorizing that anxiety can be caused by a chemical imbalance in the body is consistent with the biological perspective.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

69. The learning perspective of psychology is an approach that emphasizes how the environment and experiences affect a person’s actions.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

70. The learning perspective of psychology emphasizes the dynamics of unconscious motives and conflicts.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

71. Learning theorists would view violence as the result of unconscious conflicts involving aggression and sexuality.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

72. The theory that violence can be the result of having violent role models is consistent with the learning perspective.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

73. Behaviorists would agree that anxiety is due to forbidden, unconscious desires.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

74. Learning theorists would agree that anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

75. The cognitive perspective of psychology emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

76. The cognitive perspective of psychology emphasizes how the environment and experiences affect a person’s actions.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

77. The cognitive perspective of psychology emphasizes mental processes in certain areas of behavior including language and problem solving.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

78. Cognitive researchers have been able to study the kind of “thinking” that goes on without awareness.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

79. Theorizing that anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways is consistent with the cognitive perspective.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 19 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

80. The sociocultural perspective emphasizes the dynamics of the social and cultural forces that shape every aspect of human behavior.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 20 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

81. Social psychologists focus on how groups affect attitudes and behavior.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 20 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

82. Cultural psychologists examine how customs and traditions affect people’s development.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 20 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

83. Theorizing that competition between group members promotes anxiety about failure is consistent with the sociocultural perspective.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 20 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

84. Feminist psychology is an approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on the behavior of the two sexes.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 21 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

85. Feminist psychology critically examined the male bias in psychotherapy.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 21 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

86. Feminist psychology has influenced the study of men.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Page(s): 21 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

87. Basic psychology is the study of psychological issues for the sake of knowledge rather than for practical application.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

88. Applied psychology is the study of psychological issues for the sake of knowledge rather than for practical application.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

89. Applied psychology is the study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

90. Basic psychology is the study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

91. Not all psychologists do clinical work.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

92. Academic psychologists specialize in areas of research such as psychometrics and sensation and perception.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 22 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

93. Educational psychologists primarily study how people change and grow over time.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.8: Summarize the kinds of research that experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric psychologists might conduct.

94. Educational psychologists primarily design and evaluate tests of mental abilities and aptitude.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.8: Summarize the kinds of research that experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric psychologists might conduct.

95. Developmental psychologists study how people change and grow over time.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.8: Summarize the kinds of research that experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric psychologists might conduct.

96. Industrial/organizational psychologists are concerned with behavior in the workplace and work motivation.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.8: Summarize the kinds of research that experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric psychologists might conduct.

97. Psychometric psychologists design and evaluate tests of mental abilities and aptitude.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.8: Summarize the kinds of research that experimental, educational, developmental, industrial, and psychometric psychologists might conduct.

98. Counseling psychologists are trained to do psychotherapy with severely disturbed people.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

99. In almost all states in the United States, a license to practice clinical psychology requires a doctorate.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

100. Clinical programs leading to a PhD require a student to complete an extensive literature review instead of a research dissertation.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23–24 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

101. Programs leading to a PsyD usually require a student to complete an extensive theoretical paper or literature review instead of a research dissertation.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23–24 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

102. Clinical programs leading to a PhD are usually designed to prepare a person both as a scientist and as a clinical practitioner.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

103. Clinical programs leading to a PsyD focus on professional practice and do not usually require a research dissertation.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 23– 24 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

104. A person who has received specialized training from a psychoanalytic institute is called a psychiatrist.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 24 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

105. Clinical social workers typically treat general problems in adjustment and family conflicts.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 24 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

106. Psychiatrists are more likely to focus on the possible biological causes of mental disorders.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 24 Type: Factual Answer: True

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

107. Only psychiatrists and clinical psychologists can write medical prescriptions in all 50 states at present.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Page(s): 24 Type: Factual Answer: False

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Short Answer Questions

1. When people think of psychology, they usually think of mental disorders, emotional disorders, abnormal acts, personal problems, and psychotherapy. Describe two other topics that are of great interest to psychologists.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Type: Conceptual Page(s): 5

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Psychologists study the entire spectrum of human and animal behavior.
  • Psychologists study how people learn, remember, solve problems, perceive, feel, and get along with others.
  • They study commonplace as well as uncommon behaviors, normal as well as abnormal.
  • Some specific examples of non-clinical topics should be provided.

2. Describe the differences between psychobabble and scientific psychology.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Type: Factual Page(s): 5

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Psychobabble is pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological and scientific-sounding language.
  • Scientific psychology is based on empirical evidence.

3. Juanita is studying in her dorm room when her roommate says, “Why did you sign up for a psychology class? Everyone knows that psychology is the same as plain, old common sense.” How should Juanita explain the differences between psychology and common sense?

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Type: Applied Page(s): 5

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Psychology is based on empirical evidence.
  • Common sense and popular beliefs have often been refuted by empirical evidence.
  • Many common sense beliefs are contradictory because they are not based on empirical evidence.

4. Shelley wants her grandma to keep in touch through e-mail but her grandma says, “Oh, Shelley, you know that you can’t teach an old dog new tricks!” If Shelley has been studying the problems with popular beliefs about psychological phenomena, how should she respond?

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Type: Applied Page(s): 5

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Popular beliefs and sayings have often been refuted by scientific research.
  • Before accepting a popular proverb as true, it would be important to look at empirical evidence.
  • Many popular proverbs contradict each other because they are not based on empirical evidence.

5. A fortune teller reads Haifa’s palm and tells Haifa that she will fall in love during spring break when she travels to Cancun. As a critical thinker enrolled in a General Psychology class, how would Haifa react to this news? What critical thinking guidelines would be important for her to consider?

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Type: Applied Page(s): 6–13

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Fortune telling is pseudoscience, not based on empirical evidence.
  • Important critical thinking guidelines to consider are “Examine the evidence,” “Analyze assumptions and biases,” and “Avoid emotional reasoning.”

6. Describe what it means to be a critical thinker.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Type: Factual Page(s): 6–13

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Critical thinking is the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion and anecdote.
  • Critical thinkers look for flaws in arguments and resist claims that have no support.
  • Critical thinking includes the ability to come up with alternative rationales for events, to think of implications of research findings, and to apply new knowledge to social and personal problems.

7. List eight guidelines for critical thinking.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Type: Factual Page(s): 6–13

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Ask questions and be willing to wonder.
  • Define your terms.
  • Examine the evidence.
  • Analyze assumptions and biases.
  • Avoid emotional reasoning.
  • Don’t oversimplify.
  • Consider other interpretations.
  • Tolerate uncertainty.

8. One common form of oversimplification is “argument by anecdote.” Explain the meaning of this statement and provide an example.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Type: Conceptual Page(s): 12

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Argument by anecdote involves generalizing from a personal experience or a few examples.
  • An example would be claiming that all students who attend state universities are not as bright as students attending private universities because you have met one or two such individuals.

9. Hank demands that his psychology professor give him a yes-or-no answer to the question, “Do violent movies cause adolescents to become more aggressive?” When the professor explains the complicated evidence, Hank says, “You are evading the issue!” What critical thinking guideline does Hank need to take into consideration? Support your choice with information from the textbook.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Type: Applied Page(s): 13

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key point.

  • The important critical thinking guideline here is “Tolerate uncertainty.”
  • Sometimes there is not enough evidence to justify more than tentative conclusions.
  • The lack of a clear answer does not mean the professor is evading the question.
  • The desire for certainty makes Hank uncomfortable with the lack of a clear answer.

10. Explain why the textbook authors call the theory of phrenology a classic pseudoscience. Provide examples that support this assessment.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Type: Conceptual Page(s): 15

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Phrenology was not based on empirical evidence.
  • When a prediction based on bumps on the head predicted a behavior (such as stealing) that did not fit an individual, it was explained away by arguing that other positive traits held the behavior in check.
  • Phrenology became extremely popular because it offered quick analyses of behavior and even programs for overcoming deficiencies.

11. Why is Wilhelm Wundt especially revered by psychologists?

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Type: Factual Page(s): 16

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Wilhelm Wundt founded the first formal psychology laboratory.
  • He published his results in a scholarly journal.
  • He announced that he intended to make psychology a science.

12. Describe Wilhelm Wundt’s preferred research method, and give an example of how it might be used to study a psychological topic.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Type: Factual Page(s): 16

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.4: Explain the circumstances under which the first psychological laboratory was established.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Wundt’s favorite research method was introspection.
  • This involved carefully observing, analyzing, and describing one’s own sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions.
  • About 10,000 practice observations were required before one could participate in an actual experiment.
  • It might take as long as 20 minutes to describe a 1.5-second experiment.

13. During the early decades of psychology’s existence as a formal discipline, three schools of psychological thought became popular. What were these three schools of thought and what became of each of them over time?

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Type: Factual Page(s): 16–18

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Structuralism was the analysis of sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements based on Wundt’s method of introspection.
  • Structuralism died out in the early years of psychology.
  • Functionalism, founded by William James, emphasized the purpose of behavior, as opposed to its analysis and description.
  • Functionalism also died out as a separate school of psychology, but its emphasis on the causes and consequences of behavior continued to influence the development of psychology as a science.
  • Psychoanalysis was both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy that stressed the role of the unconscious mind and its hidden conflicts and wishes in influencing our behavior.
  • Psychoanalysis is not accepted by most empirically-oriented psychologists, but remains an active, though highly controversial, school of psychology today.

14. The structuralists had an intensive program of research in Germany and the United States. What became of this school of psychology? What challenges did the structuralists encounter?

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Type: Factual Page(s): 16

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • A major challenge faced by structuralism was the fact that individual introspectors often produced conflicting reports.
  • Another problem was that after something has been described, there does not appear to be much left to do.
  • Structuralism died out in the early years of psychology.

15. Why did William James argue that the structuralist approach was a waste of time? What school of psychology did he promote?

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Type: Factual Page(s): 17

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • James argued that searching for the building blocks of the mind was a waste of time because the brain and mind are constantly changing.
  • James was a leader in the functionalist school of psychology.
  • Functionalism emphasized the purpose of behavior, as opposed to its analysis and description.

16. How was Darwin’s theory of evolution inspirational to the functionalists?

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Type: Factual Page(s): 17

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Darwin argued that the purpose of biology was not merely to describe, but to also explain how physical attributes enhance survival.
  • Similarly, functionalists wanted to not only describe the mind but explain how it helped an organism adapt to its environment.

17. List and define the four major perspectives in modern psychology.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Type: Factual Page(s): 19–20

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • The biological perspective focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts.
  • The learning perspective is concerned with how the environment and experience affect a person’s (or a nonhuman animal’s) actions.
  • The cognitive perspective emphasizes what goes on in people’s heads—how people reason, remember, understand language, solve problems, explain experiences, acquire moral standards, and form beliefs.
  • The sociocultural perspective focuses on social and cultural forces outside the individual, forces that shape every aspect of behavior.

18. The learning perspective is adhered to by two different types of psychologists: behaviorists and social-cognitive learning theorists. Compare these two types of learning theory advocates.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Type: Factual Page(s): 19

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Behaviorists focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors.
  • Behaviorists do not invoke mind or mental states to explain behavior. They study only observable behavior.
  • Social-cognitive learning theorists combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions.
  • Social-cognitive learning theorists believe that people learn not only by adapting their behavior to the environment, but also by imitating others and by thinking about the events happening around them.

19. Sociocultural psychologists use an interesting metaphor in regard to humans and culture. They describe people as similar to fish! Fish are unaware that they live in water, so obvious is water in their lives. Explain why sociocultural psychologists use this metaphor.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Type: Conceptual Page(s): 20

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Our social and cultural environment is the “water” in which we “swim” every day.
  • We are largely unaware of the tremendous influence of our social and cultural environment on our behavior, just as a fish is unaware of the water in which it swims.

20. As women began to enter psychology in greater numbers in the early 1970s, they began to document evidence of a pervasive bias in the research methods that were being used. Describe the biases that these feminist psychologists documented.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Type: Conceptual Page(s): 21

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Many studies used only men as subjects.
  • Topics such as menstruation, motherhood, the dynamics of power and sexuality in relationships, definitions of masculinity and femininity, gender roles, and sexist attitudes had largely been ignored.
  • They showed how research has often been used to justify the lower status of women and other disadvantaged groups.

21. The professional activities of psychologists fall into three broad categories. Describe and give examples of each of these three types of professional activities.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Type: Factual Page(s): 22

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Psychologists teach and do research in a variety of pure and applied areas in colleges and universities.
  • Psychologists provide mental health services (e.g., clinical and counseling psychologists) in settings such as private practice, mental-health clinics, and hospitals.
  • Psychologists conduct research and apply the findings of psychology in nonacademic settings such as business, sports, government, law, and the military.

22. What is the difference between basic research and applied research?

Section: What Psychologists Do

Type: Conceptual Page(s): 22

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Basic research involves seeking knowledge for its own sake.
  • Applied research involves finding practical uses of basic psychological knowledge.

23. Alexandra and Holly both plan to become clinical psychologists, although Alexandra is applying to graduate schools to pursue a PhD and Holly plans to earn a PsyD. What different experiences and requirements are each likely to encounter in earning their graduate degrees?

Section: What Psychologists Do

Type: Applied Page(s): 23–24

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Alexandra will undergo training both as a scientist and as a clinical practitioner.
  • She will have to complete a dissertation.
  • Holly’s training will emphasize professional practice.
  • She will probably not be required to complete a dissertation, though she may have to complete a major study.

24. Clinical psychologists and psychiatrists do similar work, but their training differs and they tend to focus on different causes of mental disorders. Contrast the training and approach to therapy between clinical psychologists and psychiatrists.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Type: Conceptual Page(s): 23–24

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.9: Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Clinical psychologists usually complete 4–5 years of graduate work in psychology and an internship, earning a PhD, PsyD, or EdD degree.
  • They focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and study of mental and emotional problems. They primarily use some form of psychotherapy in treating people with psychological disorders.
  • Psychiatrists are trained as MDs and complete a three-year residency in psychiatry. They focus on the treatment of emotional disorders, especially the most severe disorders.
  • They are more likely to focus on possible biological causes of mental disorders and treat these problems with medication.

25. The authors point out that people may be a little “fuzzy” about psychological careers because psychologists contribute to their communities in so many different ways. Describe three ways that psychologists make these contributions.

Section: What Psychologists Do

Type: Factual Page(s): 26

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.10: Give examples of three ways in which psychologists contribute to their communities.

Answer: A good answer will include at least three of the following key points.

  • Psychologists consult with companies to improve worker satisfaction and productivity.
  • They establish programs to improve race relations and reduce ethnic tensions.
  • They advise commissions on how pollution and noise affect mental health.
  • They do rehabilitation training for people who are physically or mentally disabled.
  • They educate judges and juries about eyewitness testimony.
  • They assist the police in emergencies involving hostages or disturbed persons.
  • They conduct public-opinion surveys.
  • They run suicide-prevention hotlines.
  • They help coaches improve the athletic performance of their teams.


Essay Questions

1. Shane is eager to buy an Electro-Neural Stimulator so that he can get both halves of his brain working at peak efficiency by exam time. Based on what you have read about similar products, how should you respond to his plans?

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Type: Applied Page(s): 5

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Answer: A good answer will include the following key point.

  • Its marketing uses a veneer of psychological and scientific-sounding terminology.
  • It promises a quick fix.
  • It is important to look for the empirical evidence for such a device before wasting your money on it.

2. In recent decades, the public’s appetite for pseudoscience has grown. Describe two examples of this “pop psychology” and then analyze the differences between psychology and pseudoscience.

Section: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and Popular Opinion

Type: Conceptual Page(s): 5–6

Level of Difficulty: Moderate

LO 1.1: Distinguish the primary ways that psychology differs from pseudoscience, psychobabble, popular opinion, and “plain old common sense.”

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points. Specific examples may vary.

  • Example 1: Many self-help books are available in bookstores that purport to help you find personal growth and success in life.
  • Example 2: Playing on the modern consumer’s love of technology, a variety of electrical gizmos have been marketed with the promise that they will get both halves of your brain working at their peak.
  • Psychobabble is pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological and scientific-sounding language.
  • Scientific psychology is based on empirical evidence.

3. One common form of oversimplification is argument by anecdote. Explain this type of critical thinking error. Create your own example of an argument by anecdote.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Type: Conceptual Page(s): 12

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Argument by anecdote involves generalizing from a personal experience or a few examples.
  • An example should be given that shows how a person might generalize from a personal experience to all people.

4. Many people don’t realize that just as the body needs exercise to stay in shape, clear thinking requires effort and practice. Name and give an example of each of the eight guidelines to critical thinking.

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

Type: Conceptual Page(s): 7–13

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Ask questions and be willing to wonder.
  • Define your terms.
  • Examine the evidence.
  • Analyze assumptions and biases.
  • Avoid emotional reasoning.
  • Don’t oversimplify.
  • Consider other interpretations.
  • Tolerate uncertainty.
  • Examples may vary.

5. Describe the three schools of psychological thought that became popular when psychology emerged as a discipline, including the major theorists associated with each school as well as the goal of each of these perspectives.

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Type: Factual Page(s): 15–18

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Structuralism was the analysis of sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements based on Wundt’s method of introspection.
  • Wilhelm Wundt and E. B. Titchener were leaders in the structuralist school of psychology.
  • Structuralism died out in the early years of psychology.
  • Functionalism, founded by William James, emphasized the purpose of behavior, as opposed to its analysis and description.
  • Functionalism also died out as a separate school of psychology, but its emphasis on the causes and consequences of behavior continued to influence the development of psychology as a science.
  • Psychoanalysis was both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy that stressed the role of the unconscious mind and its hidden conflicts and wishes in influencing our behavior.
  • Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud.
  • Psychoanalysis is not accepted by most empirically-oriented psychologists, but remains an active, though highly controversial, school of psychology today.

6. The text states that, “We are like fish that are unaware they live in water, so obvious is water in their lives. Sociocultural psychologists study the water—the social and cultural environments that people ‘swim’ in every day.” Describe two examples from your personal experience that illustrate how cultural rules influence the way we perceive the world and relate to others.

Section: Psychology’s Present: The Four Perspectives of Psychological Science

Type: Conceptual Page(s): 20

Level of Difficulty: Easy

LO 1.6: List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Example 1: People growing up in Western cultures typically place a much stronger value on individuality than do people from many Asian cultures.
  • Example 2: People growing up in the northern United States are much less likely to use the terms “sir” and “ma’am” than are people growing up in the southern United States.
  • Many other examples are possible.

7. To most people, the word psychologist conjures up an image of a therapist listening intently to a client. But not all psychologists do clinical work. Describe the different professional activities of psychologists with doctorates. Include examples of work in each of the three general categories.

Section: What Psychologists Do Type: Conceptual Page(s): 22–23

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

LO 1.7: Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and give an example of each.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Psychologists teach and do research in colleges and universities.
  • Psychologists provide mental health services (e.g., clinical and counseling psychologists).
  • Psychologists conduct research and apply the findings of psychology in nonacademic settings such as business, sports, government, law, and the military.
  • Examples will vary.


Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters

1. Tara cannot believe what she reads about anger: “…depending on the circumstances, sometimes it is helpful to express your feelings, but sometimes venting your anger makes everything worse.” Tara finds this difficult to accept because she has been told over and over that it is healthy to “ventilate” her anger. Based on your reading of Chapter 2, design a research study that Tara could conduct in order to examine this issue.

Chapter 1 Page(s): 12

Section: Thinking Critically and Creatively about Psychology

LO 1.3: List eight important critical thinking guidelines and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Chapter 2 Page(s): 50–51

Section: Experiments: Hunting for Causes

LO 2.11: Contrast an independent variable from a dependent variable, and an experimental group from a control group, and give an example of each concept in a psychology experiment.

Type: Applied

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • All subjects in the study would be exposed to a situation that makes them angry and would rate their anger.
  • Subjects would be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group.
  • Subjects in the control group would not be allowed to vent their anger.
  • Subjects in the experimental group would be allowed to express their anger to another person.
  • Afterwards, all subjects would rate their feelings of anger and well-being.
  • Results for the control group and experimental group would be compared.

2. In the description of biological psychology, researchers note that evolutionary psychology follows in the tradition of functionalism. Integrate your knowledge of Chapters 1 and 3, providing supportive evidence for this statement.

Chapter 1 Page(s): 17

Section: Psychology’s Past: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

LO 1.5: Compare the three early psychologies of structuralism, functionalism, and psychoanalysis, and identify the major thinkers who promoted each of these schools of thought.

Chapter 3 Page(s): 74–75

Section: The Genetics of Similarity

LO 3.2: Explain how natural selection contributes to changes in gene frequencies in a population.

Type: Conceptual

Level of Difficulty: Difficult

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Evolutionary psychology is based on Darwin’s ideas of survival of the fittest.
  • New characteristics that are adaptive (that is, characteristics that allow an organism to live and reproduce successfully in a particular environment) will be passed on to future generations.
  • The emphasis is on determining the function of various physical and behavioral characteristics.
  • Functionalism is also interested in determining how the mind functions and, in particular, how it helps us to adapt to a particular environment.


Quick Quiz – textbook page 14

Amelia and Harold are arguing about the death penalty. “Look, I just feel strongly that it’s barbaric, ineffective, and wrong,” says Harold. “You’re nuts,” says Amelia. “I believe in an eye for an eye, and besides, I’m absolutely sure it’s a deterrent to further crime.” Which lapses of critical thinking might Amelia and Harold be committing?

Answer Key

Here are some problems in their style of argument; feel free to think of others.

1. They are reasoning emotionally (“I feel strongly about this, so I’m right and you’re wrong”).

2. They do not cite evidence that supports or contradicts their arguments. What do studies show about the link between the death penalty and crime? How often are innocent people executed?

3. They have not examined the assumptions and biases they bring to the discussion.

4. They may not be clearly defining the problem they are arguing about. What is the purpose of the death penalty? Is it to deter criminals, to satisfy the public desire for revenge, or to keep criminals from being paroled and returned to the streets?

Quick Quiz – textbook page 18

Make sure psychology’s past is still present in your memory by choosing the correct response from each pair of terms in parentheses:

  1. Psychology has been a science for more than (2,000/140) years.

  1. The forerunners of modern psychology depended heavily on (casual observation/empirical methods).

  1. Credit for founding modern psychology is generally given to (William James/Wilhelm Wundt).

  1. Early psychologists who emphasized how behavior helps an organism adapt to its environment were known as (structuralists/functionalists).

  1. The idea that emotional problems spring from unconscious conflicts originated with (the Mind Cure movement/psychoanalysis).

Answer Key

1. 140

2. casual observation

3. Wilhelm Wundt

4. functionalists

5. psychoanalysis

Quick Quiz – textbook page 21

Anxiety is a common problem. Which of the four major perspectives in psychology is associated with each of these explanations?

  1. Anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways.

  1. Anxiety symptoms often bring hidden rewards, such as being excused from exams.

  1. Excessive anxiety can be caused by a chemical imbalance.

  1. A national emphasis on competition and success promotes anxiety about failure.

Answer Key

1. cognitive

2. learning

3. biological

4. sociocultural

Quick Quiz – textbook page 26

Can you match the specialties on the left with their defining credentials and approaches on the right?

1. psychotherapist

2. psychiatrist

3. clinical psychologist

4. research psychologist

5. psychoanalyst

a. trained in a therapeutic approach started by Freud

b. has a PhD, PsyD, or EdD, and does research on, or psychotherapy for, mental health problems

c. may have any credential, or none

d. has an advanced degree (usually a PhD) and does applied or basic research

e. has an MD; tends to take a medical approach to mental health problems

Answer Key

1. c 

2. e

3. b

4. d

5. a

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