Test Bank for Revel Abnormal Psychology 18th Edition by Jill M Hooley, James Butcher, Matthew Nock A+

$35.00
Test Bank for Revel Abnormal Psychology 18th Edition by Jill M Hooley, James Butcher, Matthew Nock A+

Test Bank for Revel Abnormal Psychology 18th Edition by Jill M Hooley, James Butcher, Matthew Nock A+

$35.00
Test Bank for Revel Abnormal Psychology 18th Edition by Jill M Hooley, James Butcher, Matthew Nock A+

Learning Objective Question Type Remember

the Facts Understand

the Concepts Apply What

You Know Analyze It

Introduction Multiple Choice 1 2 3

Short Answer

Essay

4.1 Explain reliability, validity, and standardization. Multiple Choice 8 6, 10 4, 5, 11 9

Short Answer

Essay

4.2 Identify the basic elements in assessment. Multiple Choice 12, 14 13, 15 16

Short Answer

Essay

4.3 Describe three sources of influence that can impact the assessment process. Multiple Choice 17, 21 19, 20 22 18

Short Answer 57

Essay 65

4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment. Multiple Choice 23, 30, 31, 32, 33, 38 24, 26, 27, 35, 36, 37, 39 25, 28, 29, 34

Short Answer 60 58, 59 61, 62, 63

Essay

4.5 Describe the methods used for physical and neurological assessment. Multiple Choice 41, 42 40, 43, 44

Short Answer

Essay 66

4.6 Discuss how practitioners integrate assessment data and optimize decision making in treatment planning. Multiple Choice 45, 46, 47

Short Answer

Essay

4.7 Explain the approaches used to classify abnormal behavior. Multiple Choice 49 50, 53 51, 54 48, 52, 55, 56

Short Answer 64

Essay 67

Chapter 4: Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Psychological assessment refers to the __________.

a. procedures used to summarize a client’s symptoms and problems

b. process used to arrive at a diagnosis

c. development of a treatment plan

d. determination of how environmental factors impact the course of a disorder

Answer: a

Learning Objective: None

Topic: Introduction

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

2. Mika sees a mental health professional, complaining of several symptoms. The professional attempts to understand the nature and extent of the problem. This process is called __________.

a. diagnosis

b. assessment

c. clinical treatment

d. screening

Answer: b

Learning Objective: None

Topic: Introduction

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

3. Dr. Vera says, “It is important that we carefully evaluate and classify a patient’s symptoms so that we can plan appropriate treatment. Administratively, it is essential, so that a facility can know what kinds of problems clients need help with. Even if we don’t want to do it, insurance claims require us to use a defined diagnostic system such as the DSM-5.” What is Dr. Vera referring to?

a. Clinical diagnosis

b. Screening activities

c. Taking a personal history

d. Assessment

Answer: a

Learning Objective: None

Topic: Introduction

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

4. Sam and Charles are discussing the definition of reliability. Which of the following statements accurately illustrates reliability?

a. An IQ test is effective in predicting the academic performance of both males and females.

b. Scores on an IQ test are not affected by mood.

c. Scores on two different intelligence tests are highly correlated.

d. When an IQ test is administered to the same person repeatedly, the results do not differ.

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.1 Explain reliability, validity, and standardization.

Topic: Three Fundamental Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

5. Charlotte tells her graduate professor Dr. Klimt, “Today’s tests results are very similar to the results I found earlier this week!” Dr. Klimt is pleased with the research __________.

a. validity

b. inter-rater reliability

c. test-retest reliability

d. standardization

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 4.1 Explain reliability, validity, and standardization.

Topic: Three Fundamental Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

6. Inter-rater reliability gauges __________.

a. the similarity of one set of results to another set of results from a trial run a few days earlier

b. the similarity of one set of results to another set of results from a trial run several years earlier

c. the extent to which a measuring instrument measures what it is supposed to measure

d. the extent to which different clinicians agree on a diagnosis

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.1 Explain reliability, validity, and standardization.

Topic: Three Fundamental Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

7. A patient receives the results of his diagnostic tests and decides to seek a second and third opinion. He is surprised to learn that each of the three clinicians’ diagnoses is different from the others. What statement accurately describes this scenario?

a. This reflects high inter-rater reliability.

b. This illustrates low inter-rater reliability.

c. This describes low test-retest reliability.

d. This demonstrates high test-retest reliability.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.1 Explain reliability, validity, and standardization.

Topic: Three Fundamental Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

8. A valid test __________.

a. measures what it is designed to measure

b. yields consistent results

c. is standardized

d. is rarely reliable

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.1 Explain reliability, validity, and standardization.

Topic: Three Fundamental Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

9. Which of the following statements differentiates reliability from validity?

a. Reliable tests are generally valid.

b. Valid tests are usually reliable.

c. There is no relationship between reliability and validity.

d. In order for a test to be reliable, it must be valid.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.1 Explain reliability, validity, and standardization.

Topic: Three Fundamental Concepts

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

10. An individual’s psychological test results are often compared with a distribution of test scores from a large normative population. In order to accomplish this, test administration, scoring, and interpretation must be consistent from one person to the next. What is this process called?

a. Validity

b. Standardization

c. Reliability

d. T-score distribution

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.1 Explain reliability, validity, and standardization.

Topic: Three Fundamental Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

11. Laurence is curious to know whether his patient’s psychological test score is low, average, or high along a standardized distribution of scores. Laurence is interested in the __________.

a. Validity

b. Standardization

c. Reliability

d. T-score distribution

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.1 Explain reliability, validity, and standardization.

Topic: Three Fundamental Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

12. Which statement accurately describes the role of assessment?

a. Assessment is important only at the initial meeting with the client.

b. The initial assessment rarely results in a treatment plan.

c. Assessment is ongoing and necessary at various points during treatment.

d. Assessment is less important than treatment.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 4.2 Identify the basic elements in assessment.

Topic: The Nature and Goals of Assessment

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

13. Roxanne is agitated, clenches her jaw, and is unable to remember her address. The clinician takes careful note of Roxanne’s symptoms and behaviors, which are also known as the __________.

a. presenting problem

b. emerging diagnosis

c. underlying problem

d. clinical diagnosis

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.2 Identify the basic elements in assessment.

Topic: The Nature and Goals of Assessment

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

14. What role does social context play in assessment?

a. Social context is not considered during assessment, only during diagnosis.

b. An evaluation of the environment in which the client lives is necessary in order to understand the demands they face, as well as the supports that are present.

c. Environmental factors are usually the proximal cause of mental disorders and frequently need to be addressed before any form of treatment commences.

d. Social context need only be considered when a course of treatment is being selected; significant others in the client’s life should be the primary decision makers.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.2 Identify the basic elements in assessment.

Topic: The Nature and Goals of Assessment

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

15. Barry is the primary caretaker for his wife, Ellen, who suffers from end-stage Alzheimer’s disease. Lately, Barry has found that he is quick to cry, quicker to anger, unable to focus, and often unable to sleep through the night. Which statement accurately describes how a clinician might assess Barry’s symptoms?

a. Barry’s symptoms reflect typical decline due to aging.

b. Many spouses are caretakers and experience little to no distress; Barry is just overly sensitive.

c. Barry’s caretaking role is demanding and may be the source of his psychological distress.

d. Barry is most likely experiencing signs of an underlying severe mental disorder.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 4.2 Identify the basic elements in assessment.

Topic: The Nature and Goals of Assessment

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.3 Describe applications that employ discipline-based problem solving.

16. As a clinician is assessing the social context in which a client functions, which question best represents the concept of dynamic formulation?

a. What about the adult client’s childhood may be driving their current behavior?

b. What are the person’s notable deficits in social skills?

c. What is the current situation and how might it drive the client’s current and future behavior?

d. What current stressors explain the client’s past behaviors?

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 4.2 Identify the basic elements in assessment.

Topic: The Nature and Goals of Assessment

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 1.3 Describe applications that employ discipline-based problem solving.

17. Sources of influence that can have a critical impact on the assessment process are the __________, the influence of professional orientation, and the trust and rapport between the clinician and the client.

a. role of culture

b. role of religion

c. role of medical insurance coverage

d. role of clinician ethnicity

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.3 Describe three sources of influence that can impact the assessment process.

Topic: Important Factors Influencing Assessment

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

18. Which statement accurately reflects the impact of cultural factors on assessment?

a. Cultural factors are not considered during assessment, only during final diagnosis.

b. In order to use tests in a culturally competent manner, clinicians need to consider the dominant language of their clients.

c. In an effort to maintain an unbiased assessment, clinicians should refrain from considering the cultural factors of their clients.

d. In order to create an effective treatment plan, clinicians need to consider the dominant language of their clients.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.3 Describe three sources of influence that can impact the assessment process.

Topic: Ensuring Culturally Sensitive Assessment Procedures

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

19. Which of the following is a true statement about assessment and professional orientation?

a. Regardless of whether a therapist is behaviorally or psychodynamically oriented, the same basic assessment procedures are employed.

b. The focus of the assessment will be largely determined by the professional orientation of the clinician.

c. While some assessment procedures will vary, a biological screening and the administration of a personality test are components of all assessments.

d. The assessment techniques employed will serve to reveal the causal factors that are most consistent with the clinician’s orientation.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.3 Describe three sources of influence that can impact the assessment process.

Topic: The Influence of Professional Orientation

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

20. The need for rapport between a clinician and a client means that __________.

a. the clinician and the client must feel friendly toward each other

b. someone who is court ordered will be an easy client

c. clients don’t need to be given any feedback about their test performance

d. the client must feel comfortable with the clinician and the assessment

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.3 Describe three sources of influence that can impact the assessment process.

Topic: Trust and Rapport Between the Clinician and the Client

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

21. Information disclosed between client and clinician, such as test results, is released to a third party only if the client signs an appropriate release form. This illustrates the concept of __________.

a. professional orientation

b. cultural sensitivity

c. confidentiality

d. referral

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 4.3 Describe three sources of influence that can impact the assessment process.

Topic: Trust and Rapport Between the Clinician and the Client

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

22. Kemal’s therapist provided a great deal of feedback on his test results, while Rayna did not hear from her therapist about the results of her test. Which statement describes the likely outcome?

a. Rayna will show a significant increase in symptoms.

b. Kemal will experience a significant decline in symptoms.

c. Rayna and Kemal will both experience significant increases in their self-esteem due to their understanding of their own resources.

d. Kemal will experience a decline in self-esteem due to his knowledge of his test results.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.3 Describe three sources of influence that can impact the assessment process.

Topic: Trust and Rapport Between the Clinician and the Client

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.3 Describe applications that employ discipline-based problem solving.

23. The central element of the assessment process is __________.

a. a physical examination

b. an assessment of the global level of functioning

c. the administration of the MMPI

d. a clinical interview

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Clinical Interviews

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

24. What is an advantage of a fully structured interview?

a. It maximizes reliability.

b. The variety in the questions asked from client to client results in a broad-based database.

c. It ensures confidentiality.

d. Answers are open-ended and expansive with detail.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Clinical Interviews

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

25. Dr. Black is doing research in which she must diagnose clients at a mental health clinic. Because diagnostic reliability is of great concern in research, she will most likely establish diagnoses by using __________.

a. open-ended interviews

b. structured assessment interviews

c. the mental status exam

d. time-limited interviews that last the same length of time for each client, although the questions may differ

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Clinical Interviews

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

26. Which type of interview format do clients believe is the most sensitive to their needs or problems?

a. Open-ended interviews

b. Structured assessment interviews

c. The mental status exam

d. Unstructured assessment interviews

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Clinical Interviews

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

27. A clinical psychologist notes that a client wears his clothes inside out, that his hair is matted, and that there is dirt under his fingernails. This information is known as __________.

a. clinical observation

b. self-monitoring

c. a dynamic formulation

d. an observational decision tree

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: The Clinical Observation of Behavior

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.3 Describe applications that employ discipline-based problem solving.

28. Dr. asks Julie to pretend that he is her father as part of his psychosocial assessment of Julie. Which of the following would this be an example of?

a. An unstructured interview

b. Staged role-playing

c. Projective assessment

d. Self-monitoring

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: The Clinical Observation of Behavior

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.3 Describe applications that employ discipline-based problem solving.

29. A behaviorally oriented clinician tells her alcohol-dependent client: “Here is a checklist I want you to fill out each day. Whenever you feel you need a drink, you should indicate what you were thinking, where you were, who you were with, and whether you went ahead and drank.” What procedure is the clinician using?

a. Self-monitoring

b. Rating scales

c. Self-analysis

d. Mental status exam

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: The Clinical Observation of Behavior

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.3 Describe applications that employ discipline-based problem solving.

30. The reliability, organization, and objectivity of the assessment interview may be enhanced by the use of __________.

a. a flexible, open-ended interview rather than a structured interview

b. the TAT

c. the Rorschach test

d. rating scales

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: The Clinical Observation of Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

31. There are two general categories of psychological tests used in clinical practice. They are __________.

a. intelligence tests and personality tests

b. projective tests and sentence completion tests

c. neuropsychological tests and standardized tests

d. intelligence tests and rating scales

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

32. Which of the following statements about individually administered IQ tests is correct?

a. They typically take less than an hour to give and interpret.

b. They have low reliability.

c. Many settings and cases don’t require the kind of detailed knowledge they give.

d. They are time-consuming and expensive.

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

33. The goal of a projective test is to __________.

a. predict a person’s future behavior

b. assess the way a patient interprets ambiguous stimuli

c. compare a patient’s responses to those of persons who are known to have mental disorders

d. assess the role of organic factors in a patient’s thinking

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

34. Which of the following would be an example of a projective technique?

a. Vito, a troubled teen, is asked to select statements that he feels describe him.

b. Pauline, an alcoholic, is told to record the times at which she feels the greatest desire for a drink.

c. Maggie, an elderly woman, is asked to recall the day her father died.

d. Michael, a child, is asked to draw his family.

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

35. Which of the following best explains why the Rorschach is less likely to be used today?

a. Other projective approaches have been found to be more reliable.

b. Treatment facilities often require other types of information than the Rorschach provides, and insurance companies do not pay for it.

c. It is inexpensive and time efficient in comparison to other projective techniques.

d. The Rorschach is only useful as a means of aiding clients in self-discovery; it has no true clinical utility.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

36. Several clinicians look at the TAT results of a hospitalized patient. The patient described the characters on a card as not speaking to each other. One clinician says this means the patient has a lot of unresolved anger. Another says it means the patient has a lot of social anxiety. A third says he thinks it means the patient is uninterested in people and prefers to be alone. This demonstrates the following problem with the TAT: __________.

a. scoring and interpretation is very subjective

b. the pictures on the cards are new and updated

c. the amount of time it takes to score and interpret it

d. the lack of training of clinicians on using it

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

37. Which of the following would best address recent criticisms of the TAT?

a. Making the images less ambiguous

b. Allowing more time for the client to respond

c. Using more modern pictures

d. Relying only on manuals for interpretation

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

38. The MMPI is __________.

a. a structured approach to personality assessment

b. the most commonly used test of intelligence

c. a rating scale used to determine how comparable one is to individuals with various psychiatric diagnoses

d. a recently developed objective approach to personality assessment

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

39. One limitation of the MMPI-2 is that it __________.

a. cannot detect whether an individual is attempting to distort his or her responses

b. requires a clinical interview as a supplement to the test itself

c. is based on factor analysis, which often leads to measures that sacrifice validity for the sake of reliability, without intending to do so

d. requires an individual to be literate

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

40. Dr. Kim is a psychologist who uses a number of tests to measure a person’s cognitive, perceptual, and motor performance to detect brain damage. Dr. Kim is probably a specialist in using __________.

a. neuropsychological assessment

b. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

c. computed tomography (CT)

d. functional electroencephalograms (EEGs)

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.5 Describe the methods used for physical and neurological assessment.

Topic: The Neuropsychological Examination

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

41. Which of the following would be used to reveal how the brain responds when anticipating and then receiving a reward?

a. Computed tomography (CT) scan

b. Electroencephalogram (EEG)

c. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

d. Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.5 Describe the methods used for physical and neurological assessment.

Topic: Neurological Approaches to Assessment

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

42. One advantage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over the computed tomography (CT) scan is that the MRI __________.

a. is not an invasive procedure

b. provides better differentiation and clarity

c. measures the metabolic processes of the brain

d. does not require a claustrophobic cylinder-shaped machine

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.5 Describe the methods used for physical and neurological assessment.

Topic: Neurological Approaches to Assessment

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

43. Dr. Smith believes that a decrease in frontal lobe function underlies the cognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia. He has hypothesized that effective drug therapy serves to selectively increase metabolic activity in this part of the brain. Which of the following is Dr. Smith most likely to use to test his hypothesis?

a. Computed tomography (CT) scans

b. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

c. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans

d. An electroencephalogram (EEG)

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 4.5 Describe the methods used for physical and neurological assessment.

Topic: Neurological Approaches to Assessment

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

44. Dr. Brangkess says, “Their beneficial features are their ability to map ongoing psychological activities of the brain without injecting radioactive substances into the patient’s body. In addition, they are much more widely available procedures than what was used before.” What is Dr. Brangkess describing?

a. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans

b. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

c. Electroencephalograms (EEGs)

d. Computed tomography (CT) scans

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.5 Describe the methods used for physical and neurological assessment.

Topic: Neurological Approaches to Assessment

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

45. Which of the following would be an important factor to keep in mind when assessing behaviors exhibited during an assessment and how those behaviors might be interpreted?

a. Validity of the instrument

b. Relevance of the data to a national sample

c. Not having enough data about a person

d. Underemphasis on the external situation

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.6 Discuss how practitioners integrate assessment data and optimize decision making in treatment planning.

Topic: Integrating Assessment Data and Optimizing Decision Making

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

46. Some psychological tests may not elicit valid information from a client who is part of a minority group. This may mean the psychological test has __________.

a. a clinician bias

b. a client bias

c. a theoretical orientation bias

d. a cultural bias

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 4.6 Discuss how practitioners integrate assessment data and optimize decision making in treatment planning.

Topic: Integrating Assessment Data and Optimizing Decision Making

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

47. Mokka is a psychiatrist trained in the psychoanalytical approach to psychiatry, while his co-partner, Betsy, was trained in a program that emphasized the behavioral approach. According to assessment guidelines, which statement accurately describes best practices in assessment?

a. Mokka should use only the psychoanalytical approach to psychiatry to define his client’s assessment.

b. Betsy should use only the behavioral approach to psychiatry to define her client’s assessment.

c. Mokka and Betsy are better served if they discuss their differing views and come together to develop a collaborative, multifaceted assessment approach.

d. Mokka and Betsy should consider using completely different approaches to their assessments.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 4.6 Discuss how practitioners integrate assessment data and optimize decision making in treatment planning.

Topic: Integrating Assessment Data and Optimizing Decision Making

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

48. Why is classification a necessary first step in developing an understanding of abnormal behavior?

a. Abnormal behavior is not abnormal until it has been classified as such.

b. Communication about abnormal behavior cannot be effective unless what is being discussed is clear.

c. Only through development of a classification system can abnormal and normal behavior be differentiated.

d. Unless an adequate classification system exists, all descriptions of abnormality will necessarily be subjective.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.7 Explain the approaches used to classify abnormal behavior.

Topic: Classifying Abnormal Behavior

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

49. Which approach to the classification of abnormal behavior uses statistical criteria to differentiate between normal and abnormal?

a. Categorical

b. Dimensional

c. Prototypal

d. Situational

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.7 Explain the approaches used to classify abnormal behavior.

Topic: Approaches to Classification

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

50. If a diagnosis is made by comparing a subject with a “theoretical ideal” of an illness, which type of classification scheme is being used?

a. Categorical

b. Dimensional

c. Prototypal

d. Evolutionary

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 4.7 Explain the approaches used to classify abnormal behavior.

Topic: Approaches to Classification

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

51. Dr. Hunter is studying personality. He decides that he will classify his subjects into varying levels of intensity on personality traits, based on how far they statistically fall above the average score of a “normal person.” He is using a __________ approach.

a. categorical

b. dimensional

c. prototypal

d. discrimination

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 4.7 Explain the approaches used to classify abnormal behavior.

Topic: Approaches to Classification

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

52. Symptoms are to signs as __________ is to __________.

a. subjective; objective

b. complaint; treatment

c. assessment; diagnosis

d. projective; objective

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.7 Explain the approaches used to classify abnormal behavior.

Topic: Formal Diagnostic Classification of Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

53. A clinician was in an assessment interview with a woman of East Indian descent. The clinician realized there might be some cultural values and attitudes that could influence how questions were interpreted and answered. Which of the following would help the clinician obtain information about the potential impact of the woman’s culture on her mental healthcare?

a. GAF

b. DSM

c. CFI

d. ICD

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 4.7 Explain the approaches used to classify abnormal behavior.

Topic: Formal Diagnostic Classification of Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

54. Sherolyn is in fourth grade and has been having trouble sitting still and remaining focused on her schoolwork. Her teacher speaks with her parents about this and suggests that they see a clinician for an assessment. What is one problem with the DSM system that would make her parents reluctant to send her for an assessment?

a. The diagnosis would become a label that would stick with Sherolyn.

b. The diagnosis would not provide information on current functioning.

c. The diagnosis would not provide enough information for treatment.

d. The diagnosis would be a temporary measure that would not identify maladaptive behaviors.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.7 Explain the approaches used to classify abnormal behavior.

Topic: Formal Diagnostic Classification of Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

55. What is a major criticism of diagnostic labels?

a. Labels can influence other people’s perception of the diagnosed person and the diagnosed person’s perception of themselves in negative ways.

b. There are so many different systems of diagnosis that it is hard to understand what an individual diagnosis means.

c. The DSM-5 wording is so complicated to use that few people are able to use it well.

d. They make other information unnecessary, and so restrict the type of services that insurance will cover.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.7 Explain the approaches used to classify abnormal behavior.

Topic: Formal Diagnostic Classification of Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

56. Which statement exemplifies the importance of cultural considerations in the DSM-5?

a. Cultural considerations rarely bias the assessment and subsequent client diagnosis.

b. Client ethnicity is irrelevant to psychiatric assessment.

c. People who have not been acculturated to their environment can appear more psychologically disturbed.

d. Clients have significantly better outcomes when they see a clinician of the same culture.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 4.7 Explain the approaches used to classify abnormal behavior.

Topic: Formal Diagnostic Classification of Mental Disorders

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

SHORT ANSWER

57. Why is the establishment of trust important when conducting a psychological assessment?

Answer: When conducting an assessment, a clinician wants to develop as clear a picture of the client’s situation as possible. The client needs to understand that the information gained in the assessment process will aid the clinician in determining how best to address his or her problem. Providing feedback to the client during the assessment process may even lead to some improvement, as the client’s self-understanding increases. By establishing a trusting relationship with the client, the clinician increases the likelihood of eliciting useful information.

Learning Objective: 4.3 Describe three sources of influence that can impact the assessment process.

Topic: Trust and Rapport Between the Clinician and the Client

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

58. What is the goal of psychosocial assessment?

Answer: The goal of psychosocial assessment is to develop an understanding of how the client functions in his or her social environment. The focus is on how the client interacts with his or her social environment, as well as the elements that are present in that environment that might need to be addressed as part of treatment.

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Methods of Psychosocial Assessment

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

59. What is an analogue situation?

Answer: An analogue situation is a controlled environmental setting in which a clinical observation is conducted. Through the creation of such situations, the client’s ability to function in specific types of interactions can be assessed. Examples of analogue situations include role-playing, event re-enactment, and think-aloud procedures.

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: The Clinical Observation of Behavior

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

60. What is a projective test?

Answer: A projective test is a test designed to measure personal characteristics. Projective tests are intended to be an unstructured means of revealing what is on someone’s mind. Examples of projective tests include the TAT and the Rorschach Test. Both ask the client to provide an interpretation of an ambiguous stimulus. It is assumed that the explanation provided will involve some “projection” of the client’s own issues.

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

61. What are the pros and cons of projective and objective personality tests?

Answer: Projective tests have great strengths—they focus on unique aspects of personality and allow for exploration of many issues; however, they are often hard to interpret and can be subjective and unreliable. Objective tests are very reliable and do not require subjective interpretation, but they are limited in what they cover, require the cooperation of the test-taker, and may require above-average reading levels.

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

62. What are two problems with diagnostic labeling?

Answer: People, including professionals, may just accept the label as a complete description of a person and not inquire further. Diagnostic labeling can keep people from evaluating the person with the label in an objective manner. It can unfairly influence clinical expectations and treatment choices. It may cause the labeled person to lose morale and self-esteem.

Learning Objective: 4.4 Explain the interview process, clinical observation, and testing in psychosocial assessment.

Topic: Psychological Tests

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

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