Test Bank Fundamentals of Canadian Nursing 4th Canadian Edition by Barbara J. Kozier A+

$35.00
Test Bank Fundamentals of Canadian Nursing 4th Canadian Edition by Barbara J. Kozier A+

Test Bank Fundamentals of Canadian Nursing 4th Canadian Edition by Barbara J. Kozier A+

$35.00
Test Bank Fundamentals of Canadian Nursing 4th Canadian Edition by Barbara J. Kozier A+

1) What concepts did Florence Nightingale, the first nursing theorist, include in her definition of nursing?

A) Caring for the sick and being trained housekeepers

B) Using fresh air, cleanliness, diet, and warmth

C) Understanding the concept of health promotion

D) Blending religion and work life to own and manage hospitals

Answer: B

Explanation: A) Incorrect. Florence Nightingale raised the status of nursing through education. Nurses were no longer untrained housekeepers but persons educated in the care of the sick.

B) Correct. Florence Nightingale is considered the first nursing theorist and described nursing in 1860 as the "use of fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet and the proper selection and administration of diet."

C) Incorrect. In 1960 Virginia Henderson's more modern definition included care of the individual sick or well. This care of individuals who are well indicated an understanding of the concept of health promotion.

D) Incorrect. French-Canadian religious communities owned and managed hospitals, blending religion and work life.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-1

2) Which group commonly provided midwifery and childhood illnesses care to Canada's white settlers?

A) Victorian Order of Nurses

B) First Nations women

C) The Quiet Revolution of Quebec

D) Newfoundland outport nurses

Answer: B

Explanation: A) Incorrect. The Victorian Order of Nurses (VON) was not founded until 1897.

B) Correct. First Nations women provided much needed help to white settlers. This help was critical to the survival of the new white communities. The expertise was particularly in the areas of midwifery and childhood illnesses.

C) Incorrect. The Quiet Revolution in Quebec took place in the 1960s.

D) Incorrect. Outport nursing did not emerge until the time the VON was established.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-1

3) What are some characteristics of theoretical definitions of nursing?

A) The interrelationship among nurses, nursing, the client, and health are described.

B) An agreed-upon set of nursing tasks and expected outcomes are included.

C) They were written before, or in the beginning of, the twentieth century.

D) They are limited to simplistic common definitions of the nursing profession.

Answer: A

Explanation: A) Correct. Theoretical definitions of nursing are important because they go beyond simplistic common definitions. They describe what nursing is and the interrelationship among nurses, nursing, the client, and health.

B) Incorrect. Theoretical definitions of nursing do not include listing nursing tasks and expected outcomes.

C) Incorrect. In he latter half of the twentieth century, a number of nurse theorists developed their own theoretical definitions of nursing.

D) Incorrect. Theoretical definitions of nursing are important because they go beyond simplistic common definitions. They describe what nursing is and the interrelationship among nurses, nursing, the client, and health.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-3

4) What is the role of the nurse who assists the client to identify and cope with stressful psychological or social problems?

A) Teacher

B) Counsellor

C) Change agent

D) Leader

Answer: B

Explanation: A) Incorrect. As a teacher, the nurse helps clients learn about their health and the health care procedures they need to perform to maintain or restore their health.

B) Correct. As a counsellor the nurse provides emotional, intellectual and psychological support in normal adjustment difficulties.

C) Incorrect. A change agent assists clients to make modifications in their own behaviour.

D) Incorrect. A nurse leader may be employed at different levels: individual, client, family, groups of clients, colleagues, or the community.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-6

5) In Canada, by the late nineteenth century, what was one effect of immigration, urbanization, and concepts around the transmission and treatment of diseases?

A) The abolishment of germ theory

B) Formal training programs for nurses

C) Improved sanitation and sewage systems

D) Medical treatment in clients' homes

Answer: B

Explanation: A) Incorrect. A gradual acceptance of germ theory in disease transmission and the availability of anaesthesia helped to increase confidence in the idea of scientific medicine.

B) Correct. Immigration, growing urbanization, and changing concepts around the transmission and treatment of diseases contributed to the push for formally trained nurses by the late nineteenth century.

C) Incorrect. Early Canadian towns and cities were plagued by inadequate sanitation and sewage systems. Waves of infectious diseases, such as typhus, influenza, and smallpox regularly devastated both immigrant and native populations (Cassel, 1994).

D) Incorrect. Wealthy patrons initially established hospitals during the late nineteenth century as philanthropic institutions that served the increasingly visible "sick poor." Perceptions of increased therapeutic efficacy inclined the better‐off classes to choose care in medical institutions over treatments (including surgeries) in their homes.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-3

6) One of the four areas of nursing practice is restoring health. Which of the following is reflective of this area?

A) A street nurse caring for a person with a history of substance use

B) A public health nurse educating a class which includes a child with a severe peanut allergy

C) A research nurse investigating the effects of an aerial spray for gypsy moth control

D) A nurse providing prenatal and infant care to a group of clients

Answer: A

Explanation: A) Correct. Restoring health includes rehabilitating clients to their optimal functional level following physical or mental illness, injury, or chemical addiction.

B) Incorrect. Prevention measures focus on preventing disease through programs and initiatives. This would be included in the area of promoting health and wellness.

C) Incorrect. Investigating the effects of aerial spraying would be included in the area of preventing disease.

D) Incorrect. Prevention measures focus on preventing disease through programs and initiatives. Some examples of prevention services are prenatal care.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-5

7) Virginia Henderson's definition of nursing differs from that of Florence Nightingale. Which of the following is reflected in the definition proposed by Henderson?

A) Nurses interact with clients only when recovery is feasible.

B) Only those educated as nurses can be defined as nurses.

C) Teaching clients about their health is a role of the physician.

D) Nursing care is provided to both well and ill individuals.

Answer: D

Explanation: A) Incorrect. Henderson acknowledged that nurses interact with clients even when recovery may not be feasible.

B) Incorrect. Henderson's definition of nursing did not address who could be called a nurse.

C) Incorrect. Henderson stressed the advocacy and teaching roles of the nurse.

D) Correct. Florence Nightingale is considered the first nursing theorist and described nursing in 1860 as "use of fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet and the proper selection and administration of diet." This description has been expanded on over the years and in 1960 Virginia Henderson's more modern definition included care of the individual sick or well. This care of individuals who are well indicated an understanding of the concept of health promotion.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-1

8) Which of the following describes nursing practice standards?

A) Nursing practice standards are set by the national nursing association.

B) Policy and procedures for nursing practice are guided by nursing standards.

C) They represent minimal acceptable requirements for quality nursing care.

D) Standards act as suggested guidelines for acute care nursing practice.

Answer: C

Explanation: A) Incorrect. Nursing practice standards are set by each provincial jurisdiction.

B) Incorrect. Policies and procedures are determined by the agencies employing health care personnel.

C) Correct. The overall purpose of practice standards is to provide a guideline for determining the quality of nursing care a client receives.

D) Incorrect. Practice standards guide quality nursing care in all settings, not just acute care.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-5

9) Which of the following nursing roles requires delegated authority within a formal organization?

A) Leader

B) Teacher

C) Communicator

D) Manager

Answer: D

Explanation: A) Incorrect. The nurse leader may be employed at different levels: individual client, family, groups of clients, colleagues, or the community.

B) Incorrect. As a teacher, the nurse helps clients learn about their health and the health care procedures they need to perform to maintain or restore their health.

C) Incorrect. A nurse works in the role of communicator verbally or in writing to inform other members of the health care team about a client's status.

D) Correct. The nurse manages the nursing care of individuals, families, and communities. The nurse-manager also delegates nursing activities to ancillary workers and other nurses.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-6

10) Which of the following is considered to be an expanded nursing role?

A) Staff nurse

B) Long-term care nurse

C) Nurse midwife

D) Home health nurse

Answer: C

Explanation: A) Incorrect. Staff nurses are registered nurses who generally work in acute care settings.

B) Incorrect. Although there are certification programs for staff nurses in long-term care, this is not considered an expanded role.

C) Correct. The nurse midwife is a registered nurse who has completed a program in midwifery and is certified. The nurse midwife gives prenatal and postnatal care and manages deliveries in normal pregnancies.

D) Incorrect. Home care nurses are registered nurses who provide care in clients' homes.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-6

11) With which client would a nurse anticipate undertaking a counselling role?

A) A senior gentleman who is hesitant to ask his surgeon any questions

B) A community group concerned about their drinking water

C) A palliative client who requires total care

D) A 40-year-old woman who uses foul language around everyone

Answer: D

Explanation: A) Incorrect. A client advocate acts to protect the client. In this role, the nurse may represent the client's needs and wishes to other health care professionals, such as relaying the client's request for information to a member of the health care team.

B) Incorrect. The leadership role can be employed at different levels: individual client, family, groups of clients or colleagues, or the community. Effective leadership is a learned process requiring an understanding of the needs and goals that motivate people, the knowledge to apply the leadership skills, and the interpersonal skills to influence others.

C) Incorrect. The caregiver role has traditionally included those activities that assist the client physically and psychologically while preserving the client's dignity. The required nursing actions may involve full care for the completely dependent client.

D) Correct. Counselling is the process of helping a client recognize and cope with stressful psychological or social problems, develop improved interpersonal relationships, and promote personal growth. It involves providing emotional, intellectual, and psychological support.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-5

12) What is true regarding the Canadian Nurses Association (CNA)?

A) All provincial/territorial nursing regulatory bodies are members of CNA.

B) The CNA was formed by the Canadian Council of Registered Nurse Regulators.

C) Part of CNA's mission is to support Canada's publicly funded health system.

D) Any Canadian nurse can independently join the CNA.

Answer: C

Explanation: A) Incorrect. Quebec withdrew from the CNA in 1985.

B) Incorrect. The Canadian Council of Registered Nurse Regulators is a very new national group.

C) Correct. The CNA's mission states that it is "the national professional voice of registered nurses . . . advances the practice and profession of nursing to improve health outcomes and strengthen Canada's publicly funded not-for‐profit health system" (CNA, 2011).

D) Incorrect. Nurses do not join the CNA independently but obtain membership by paying a fee to the provincial or territorial organizations.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-7

13) What is known about the Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions (CFNU)?

A) Advancing solutions to improve patient care is one of its goals.

B) All of the provincial nursing unions in Canada belong to the CFNU.

C) RNs, LPNs, and Registered Psychiatric Nurses, or any combination thereof, may be members.

D) All Canadian students' associations belongs to the CFNU.

Answer: A

Explanation: A) Correct. Created in 1981 as the National Federation of Nurses Unions, it seeks to "advance solutions to improve patient care, working conditions and our public health care system" (CFNU, 2010).

B) Incorrect. The Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions (CFNU) represents nine provincial unions and one students' association and speaks for 176 000 members.

C) Incorrect. Depending on the work site and collective agreements, each union may include registered nurses, licensed (registered) practical nurses, and registered psychiatric nurses within the membership.

D) Incorrect. The Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions (CFNU) represents nine provincial unions and one students' association and speaks for 176 000 members.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-4

14) A nurse is working closely with a client regarding a chemotherapy regimen, providing expert client care, consultation, education for the client and the client's family, conducting research, and managing care. This nurse would most likely have which of the following roles?

A) Nurse practitioner

B) Clinical nurse specialist

C) Nurse educator

D) Licensed practical nurse

Answer: B

Explanation: A) Incorrect. A nurse practitioner has an advanced education, is a graduate of a nurse practitioner program, and usually deals with non-emergency acute or chronic illness and provides primary ambulatory care.

B) Correct. A clinical nurse specialist has an advanced degree or expertise and is considered to be an expert in a specialized area of practice (oncology in this case). The nurse provides direct client care, educates others, consults, conducts research, and manages care.

C) Incorrect. A nurse educator is responsible for classroom and often clinical teaching. A nurse entrepreneur usually has an advanced degree, manages a health-related business, and may be involved in education, consultation, or research.

D) Incorrect. This would be beyond the scope of practice of a licensed practical nurse.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-6

15) In what way have demographics influenced Canadian nursing over time?

A) The Canadian population is decreasing.

B) Pollution-related health problems are created.

C) The number of older adults has decreased.

D) The number of baby boomers is increasing.

Answer: B

Explanation: A) Incorrect. The total population in Canada is increasing.

B) Correct. There are increased needs for nursing related to problems caused by pollution and other effects on the environment by concentrations of people.

C) Incorrect. The proportion of older adults has increased, creating a growing need for nursing services for this group.

D) Incorrect. The baby-boomers were those born between 1946 and 1964.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-4

16) Which of the following attributes demonstrates nursing autonomy?

A) Considering altruism as a hallmark of its profession

B) Having the authority to set standards and define scope for members

C) Requiring a baccalaureate level of education for its members

D) Creating a professional representative organization

Answer: B

Explanation: A) Incorrect. Many consider altruism (selfless concern for others) the hallmark of a profession. Nursing has a tradition of service to others. This service, however, must be guided by certain rules, policies, or codes of ethics.

B) Correct. A profession is autonomous if it regulates itself and sets standards for its members. Providing autonomy is one of the purposes of a professional association. To be autonomous, nurses must be granted the legal authority to define the scope of nursing practice.

C) Incorrect. Although the Canadian Nurses Association recommends the baccalaureate degree as the level of education required for entry to practice as a registered nurse, this is not a requirement for autonomous practice.

D) Incorrect. A professional representative organization has a mandate to protect the interests of its members, not a regulatory mandate of public protection.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-7

17) Which of the following nursing practice areas would be addressed if a group of student nurses were to develop a healthy lunch initiative at their university?

A) Prevention of illness

B) Promotion of health and wellness

C) Regulation of health status

D) Restoration of health

Answer: B

Explanation: A) Incorrect. The goal of illness‐prevention programs is to maintain optimal health by preventing disease. Examples of nursing activities that prevent illness include immunizations, prenatal and infant care, and prevention of sexually transmitted infections.

B) Correct. Wellness is a process that engages people in activities and behaviours that enhance quality of life and maximize personal potential. Nurses promote wellness in clients who are both healthy and ill.

C) Incorrect. Regulation of health status is not one of the four defined areas of nursing practice.

D) Incorrect. Restoring health focuses on the ill client, and includes direct care, teaching about recovery and rehabilitation following injury, and performing diagnostic and assessment procedures.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-5

18) One condition of The Canada Health Act (1984) is portability. What does this mean?

A) Canadians have health coverage only within their province/territory of residence.

B) All health care costs for Canadian citizens are covered when they are outside of the country.

C) Equal health coverage is provided to Canadians regardless of where they are in Canada.

D) Gender, culture, income, education, language, marital status, or age do not affect coverage.

Answer: C

Explanation: A) Incorrect. Canadians should be covered equally for health care services wherever they are in Canada. (Canada, House of Commons, 1984).

B) Incorrect. Payment is made on the basis of the amount that would have been paid by the province for similar services rendered in the province. Canadians should be covered equally for health care services wherever they are in Canada. (Canada, House of Commons, 1984).

C) Correct. One condition of The Canada Health Act (1984) is portability (equal coverage wherever people are in Canada).

D) Incorrect. Universal coverage means thatall Canadians are entitled to essential health services.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-4

19) Which of the following is an example of intersectoral cooperation, a principle of primary health care?

A) Focusing on helping clients stay well rather than treating illness

B) Planning community vegetable gardens for inner city families

C) Amalgamation of municipal police, fire, and ambulance services

D) Including affordable housing and job initiatives in health activities

Answer: D

Explanation: A) Incorrect.Increasing the emphasis on helping clients stay well is an example of health promotion, another principle of primary health care.

B) Incorrect. Planning community gardens would reflect accessibility, ensuring that essential health care is universally available to all clients, and public participation, encouraging clients to be involved in health care decisions.

C) Incorrect. Amalgamation of services would meet the criterion of accessibility. This is to ensure that essential health care is universally available to all clients in an acceptable and affordable way, "with no unreasonable geographic or financial barrier"(CNA, 2005, p. 1).

D) Correct. Intersectoral cooperation recognizes that health activities must be undertaken concurrently with measures aimed at improving economic and social development (CNA, 2005). It reflects an understanding of the links between such things as health, education, housing, and employment.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-3

20) What term is used to describe care that is client directed, and encourages community participation and intersectoral cooperation?

A) Primary health care

B) Holistic care

C) Health restoration

D) Primary care

Answer: A

Explanation: A) Correct. Primary health care is client directed and encourages community participation, and collaboration goes beyond the health care sector to include such things as housing and social issues.

B) Incorrect.Healing the whole person: body, mind, emotion, spirit, and environment is the focus of holistic care.

C) Incorrect. Health restoration, a scope of practice area, focuses on the ill client, extending from early detection of disease through helping the client during the recovery period.

D) Incorrect. Primary care is provider-driven and is the entry point to the health care system. The health care provider is considered the expert and authority. Health care is available within given health care institutions and people attend primary care institutions when they are ill.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-2

21) What is the common purpose of nurse practice acts within the various jurisdictions of Canada?

A) Outlining practice standards

B) Monitoring nursing education curricula

C) Collective bargaining

D) Public protection

Answer: D

Explanation: A) Incorrect. Nurse practice acts are the legal acts for professional nursing practice. They regulate the practice of nursing in Canada, and outline responsibilities that govern nursing practice. Their purpose is not to outline standards of practice, but to protect the public.

B) Incorrect. Nurse practice acts do not monitor nursing education curricula. They regulate the practice of nursing in Canada, and outline responsibilities that govern nursing practice.

C) Incorrect. Nurse practice legislation regulates the practice of nursing in Canada. It does not regulate collective bargaining.

D) Correct. Nurse practice acts are the legal acts for professional nursing practice. Although nurse practice acts differ in various jurisdictions, they all have a common purpose—to protect the public.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-7

22) The criteria of a profession include having a specialized body of knowledge. Which of the following criteria reflects this in relation to the nursing profession?

A) Developing competencies

B) Constructing a code of ethics

C) Participation in research

D) Accreditation of education programs

Answer: C

Explanation: A) Incorrect. Nursing competencies give direction to practice rather than a contribution to a specialized body of knowledge.

B) Incorrect. Although a code of ethics is commonly created for a professional group, it is not a contribution to a specialized body of knowledge.

C) Correct. Understanding the nature of the knowledge base, practice related issues, and nursing education is dependent on solid research of the nursing profession. This research work has established and continues to increase the specialized body of knowledge that is one of the criteria of a profession.

D) Incorrect. Although a criterion of a profession is specialized education, the accreditation process is not a contributor to a specialized body of knowledge for nursing.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-7

23) Which of the following reflects consumer influence on contemporary nursing practice in Canada?

A) More people are now living closer to the extended nuclear family.

B) Any effective changes for nursing practice must come from the profession itself.

C) The population is gradually shifting from urban to rural settings.

D) Consumers are active participants in deciding about health and nursing care.

Answer: D

Explanation: A) Incorrect. More people are living away from the extended nuclear family, and the family breadwinner is no longer necessarily the husband.

B) Incorrect. Consumers of nursing services (the public) have become an increasingly effective force in changing nursing practice. On the whole, people are better educated and have more knowledge about health and illness than in the past.

C) Incorrect. The population is gradually shifting from rural to urban settings. This shift signals increased needs for nursing related to problems caused by pollution and other effects on the environment by concentrations of people. Yet, the rural population still needs access to care.

D) Correct. Planning committees concerned with providing nursing services to a community usually have an active consumer membership. Recognizing the legitimacy of public input, many federal, provincial, and territorial nursing associations and regulatory agencies have consumer representatives on their governing boards.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-4

24) Anne, a registered nurse, asks the occupational therapist on her unit for advice regarding how to safely ambulate a client who has had a cerebrovascular accident. This activity would reflect which area of the scope of nursing practice?

A) Hospice care

B) Promotion of health and wellness

C) Restoration of health

D) Illness prevention

Answer: C

Explanation: A) Incorrect. Some agencies, called hospices, are specifically designed for helping clients live as comfortably as possible until death and helping the clients' support people cope with death.

B) Incorrect. Promoting health and wellness is a process that engages people in activities and behaviours that enhance quality of life and maximize personal potential. Nurses promote wellness in clients who are both healthy and ill. This promotion may involve individual and community activities to enhance healthy lifestyles.

C) Correct. Restoring health focuses on the ill client, and includes consulting and working collaboratively with other health care professionals about client problems.

D) Incorrect. The goal of illness‐prevention programs is to maintain optimal health by preventing disease.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-5

25) Which of the following health care providers works with multidisciplinary health care teams to measure the effectiveness of plans and monitor outcomes?

A) Case manager

B) Nurse educator

C) Nurse researcher

D) Manager

Answer: A

Explanation: A) Correct. Nurse case managers work with multidisciplinary health care teams to measure the effectiveness of case management plans and to monitor outcomes. Each agency or unit specifies the role of the case manager.

B) Incorrect. Nurse educators are employed in nursing programs, at educational institutions, and in hospital or institutional (e.g., long‐term care) staff education.

C) Incorrect. Nurses often use research to improve client care.

D) Incorrect. The nurse manages the nursing care of individuals, families, and communities. The nurse manager also delegates nursing activities to ancillary workers and other nurses, and supervises and evaluates their performance.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-6

26) Which of the following defines the term patient?

A) Seeks assistance because of illness

B) Is proactive in own health care needs

C) Collaborates in own care

D) Uses a service or commodity

Answer: A

Explanation: A) Correct. The word patient comes from a Latin word meaning "to suffer" or "to bear." Usually, people become patients when they seek assistance because of illness or for surgery.

B) Incorrect. The word patient may imply passive acceptance of the decisions and care of health professionals, which would be opposite of being proactive in one's health care needs.

C) Incorrect. The term client presents the recipient of health care as a collaborator in that care, along with the people who are providing service.

D) Incorrect. A consumer is an individual, a group of people, or a community that uses a service or commodity.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-3

27) Which of the following indicates that a nurse is practicing at the level of Benner's Stage V: Expert Practitioner?

A) Organizing and planning care for four surgical patients

B) Referring to a policy and procedure manual prior to providing care

C) Initiating a certain action because "it feels right"

D) Planning long-term goals for patients

Answer: C

Explanation: A) Incorrect. A nurse who works competently, is able to organize and plan care, and coordinates multiple complex care demands is demonstrating Benner's Stage III: Competent Practitioner.

B) Incorrect. A nurse who is governed by rules and regulations, rather than by experience, is demonstrating Benner's Stage I: Novice.

C) Correct. Benner's Stage V: Expert Practitioner uses intuitive and analytical abilities in new situations, and may take certain actions because "it feels right."

D) Incorrect. A nurse in Benner's Stage IV: Proficient Practitioner, has a holistic understanding of the client and bases decisions on that understanding.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-3

28) Which definition below describes the International Council of Nurses (ICN)?

A) The mandate of the ICN is consistency of nursing education worldwide.

B) The Canadian Nurses Association is legislated by the ICN.

C) Licensure examinations are prepared by the ICN.

D) The ICN is a federation of national registered nurses' associations.

Answer: D

Explanation: A) Incorrect. Nursing education is not the mandate of the ICN.

B) Incorrect. The CNA is a founding member of the ICN, and is not legislated by it.

C) Incorrect. Preparation of licensure examinations are not a function of the ICN.

D) Correct. The council is a federation of national registered nurses' associations, such as the CNA and the American Nurses Association.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-7

29) Which of the following is a recognized role of nursing associations?

A) To advocate and influence government policy related to health and health care

B) To ensure that all nurses can practice internationally

C) To grant recognized nursing degrees

D) To formally legislate the scope of practice

Answer: A

Explanation: A) Correct. Nurses advocate and influence policy at provincial, territorial, and federal levels through professional organizations such as the CNA.

B) Incorrect. Regulation of nurses and nursing practice differs from country to country.

C) Incorrect. Degrees are granted by the relevant college or university.

D) Incorrect. Nursing associations can influence policy but are not able to legislate directly.

Type: MC

Learning Outcome: 1-8

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