Test Bank Fundamentals of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 5th Edition by Ronet D. Bachman

$35.00
Test Bank Fundamentals of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 5th Edition by Ronet D. Bachman

Test Bank Fundamentals of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 5th Edition by Ronet D. Bachman

$35.00
Test Bank Fundamentals of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 5th Edition by Ronet D. Bachman

Test Bank Fundamentals of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 5th Edition by Ronet D. Bachman

Test Bank

Chapter 1: Science, Society, and Research Related to Criminal Justice and Criminology

Multiple Choice

  1. Overgeneralization occurs when we ______.
  2. choose to look only at things that align with our preferences or beliefs
  3. conclude that what we have observed or know to be true for some cases is true for all cases
  4. prematurely jump to conclusions or argue on the basis of invalid assumptions
  5. are reluctant to change our ideas in light of new information

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Overgeneralization

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. We commit the error of selective observation when we ______.
  2. decide that what we observe in a small group must be true for the larger group as well
  3. jump to conclusions about how media affects gratuitous violence by individuals
  4. choose to look only at things that align with our preferences or beliefs
  5. don’t critically evaluate the ideas of those in positions of authority

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Selective or Inaccurate Observation

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. As described in your text book, “everyday errors” refer to errors that ______.
  2. frequently occur in nonscientific, unreflective discourse about the social world
  3. are rarely identified in social research
  4. easy to avoid in research
  5. have little to do with logic in analyzing the social world

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Avoiding Errors in Reasoning

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which error are we committing when we prematurely jump to conclusions?
  2. selective observation
  3. resistance to change
  4. inaccurate observation
  5. illogical reasoning

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Illogical Reasoning

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The branch of philosophy that studies how knowledge is gained or acquired is known as ______.
  2. pseudoscience
  3. phrenology
  4. epistemology
  5. philatelology

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.2: Define social science compared with pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: How the Scientific Approach is Different

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The study of bumps and fissures of the skull to determine the character and personality of a person is known as ______.
  2. pseudoscience
  3. phrenology
  4. epistemology
  5. philatelology

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.2: Define social science compared with pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How the Scientific Approach is Different

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. According to your text, ______ research is the primary focus of many studies of youth crime and violence.
  2. questioning
  3. prevalence
  4. descriptive
  5. victimization

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Medium

Answer Location: Descriptive Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Research which seeks to find the answer to the question “what is going on here?” is known as ______.
  2. expositional
  3. exploratory
  4. explanatory
  5. evaluatory

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Exploratory Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ research seeks to identify cause and effects of social phenomena.
  2. Expositional
  3. Exploratory
  4. Explanatory
  5. Evaluatory

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Explanatory Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Madfis’ (2014) research let the people interviewed speak for themselves and didn’t come up with questions designed to measure concepts such as violence or delinquency. This type of research is known as ______.
  2. exploratory
  3. explanatory
  4. conceptual
  5. prevalential

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Case Study: Exploration—How Did Schools Avert a Shooting Rampage?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. After examining all of the interview transcripts, Madfis (2014) develop themes that emerged among them all. This is known as ______ research.
  2. exploratory
  3. explanatory
  4. conceptual
  5. prevalential

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Case Study: Exploration—How Did Schools Avert a Shooting Rampage?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Many people consider ______ to be the premier goal of any science.
  2. exploration
  3. explanation
  4. evaluation
  5. transparency

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Explanatory Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Research which seeks to determine the effects of a social program or intervention is known as ______.
  2. description
  3. exploratory
  4. explanation
  5. evaluation

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Evaluation Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Esbensen and colleagues considered the long-term effects of the G.R.E.A.T. program using an experimental design, which is ______ research.
  2. descriptive
  3. exploration
  4. explanation
  5. evaluation

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: knowledge

Answer Location: Case Study in Evaluation—Do Violence Prevention Programs in Schools Work?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ asserts that a well-designed test of a specific prediction can move us closer to understanding actual social processes.
  2. Explanatory research
  3. Exploratory research
  4. Positivism
  5. Postpositivism

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Postpositivists are closely related to positivists because they ______.
  2. don’t acknowledge the complexity of an objective, external reality
  3. acknowledge that there are limitations and biases on the part of the scientists who study objective reality
  4. worry that researchers may be unable to discover positive social effects of computer use
  5. are sure we can use scientific methods to perceive objective reality

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The goal of science is to achieve ______ agreement among scientists about the nature of reality.
  2. postpositivist
  3. positivist
  4. objective
  5. intersubjective

Ans: D

Learning Objective:1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. The belief that reality is socially constructed and the goal of social scientists is to understand what meanings people give to that reality is known as ______.
  2. positivism
  3. postpositivism
  4. interpretivism
  5. critical theory

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Critical theory focuses on the premise that power differences shape ______.
  2. the power relationships among people that solidify over time
  3. how interesting people are over time
  4. very little of social interactions among people
  5. and have little to do with challenges to societal structures over time

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Difficult

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Collins (1991) suggested that being sensitive to being in an “outside” role within social situations ______.
  2. is never advantageous
  3. limits researchers with regard to the utilization of types of research methodologies
  4. may have unique advantages for researchers
  5. has little effect on social research methodology

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Whyte (1991) proposed a more activist approach to research ______.
  2. where the researcher should not be an active participant in the research
  3. that argues that researchers should not collaborate with the person(s) being studied
  4. called Research Against Activism (RAA)
  5. called participatory action research (PAR)

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. In general, research methods can be divided into two different domains, ______ and ______.
  2. questionnaires; participatory action reports
  3. qualitative; quantitative
  4. interpretivist; quantitative
  5. quantitative; explanatory

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. When a researcher uses primarily predetermined categories on questionnaires, which type of method is he/she employing to gather information?
  2. quantitative
  3. qualitative
  4. interpretivist
  5. exploratory

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which type of methods are most likely to be employed when looking for meanings in research?
  2. interpretivist
  3. quantitative
  4. qualitative
  5. authentic

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ methods are most often used when motives for research are descriptive purposes.
  2. Explanatory
  3. Quantitative
  4. Authentic
  5. Research

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Surveys that collect written responses to questions as well as primarily quantitative data such as age of respondent utilize ______.
  2. quantitative data
  3. qualitative data
  4. mixed methods
  5. quadrangle data

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. When a researcher uses more than one method to study a research question, he/she is relying on ______.
  2. primary data collection
  3. triangulation
  4. the ability to use less clear data to find an answer
  5. quantitative data collection

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. True experiments must have ______.
  2. only one random intervention group
  3. non-random assignment to groups
  4. quasi-treatment groups
  5. two randomly assigned groups (one treatment and one non-treatment)

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Probably the most versatile research method used by criminological researchers is ______.
  2. experiments
  3. triangulated research questions
  4. surveys
  5. participant observation

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The reanalysis of already existing data is known as ______ data analysis.
  2. primary
  3. tertiary
  4. content
  5. secondary

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. An example of the type of indirect measurement known as ______ is when a researcher studies representations of the research topic in news articles.
  2. crime mapping
  3. quantitative analysis
  4. inquiry analysis
  5. content analysis

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Examining the relationship between criminal behavior and other social indicators, such as type of neighborhood, may utilize ______.
  2. intensive interviewing of employers in the state
  3. crime mapping
  4. questionnaires sent to residents of the United States
  5. secondary data analysis of data from the early 1900s

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A way of knowing that relies on objective, empirical investigation is known as ______.
  2. methodology
  3. transparency
  4. data analysis
  5. epistemology

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.2: Define social science compared with pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The four categories for purposes of social scientific research are ______.
  2. descriptive, numerical, qualitative, and explanatory
  3. exploratory, explanatory, evaluative, and empirical
  4. descriptive, exploratory, explanatory, and evaluation
  5. evaluative, descriptive, phenomenological, and definitional

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain the motivations of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminological Research in Action

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) estimates ______.
  2. behavior of students in the 5th and 6th grades in Rochester
  3. the magnitude of youth violence, conducted every two years in the US since 1990
  4. the aversion of school shootings in Rochester
  5. how people get along in stressful settings, such as school shootings

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Case Study: Description: How Prevalent is Youth Violence?

Difficulty Level: Medium

True/False

  1. Cho Seung-Hui perpetrated the deadliest college mass school shooting in Virginia in 2007.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.2: Define social science compared with pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Do We Have in Mind?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Everyday errors occur infrequently in the nonscientific, unreflective discourse about the social world.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Avoiding Errors in Reasoning

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Overgeneralization occurs when we conclude that what we have observed for some cases is true for all cases.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Overgeneralization

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. If you think that all youths who are violent are likely to commit violent acts in adulthood, you will probably find many cases that confirm your belief.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Selective or Inaccurate Observation

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Selective observation occurs when we conclude that what we observe is true for all cases.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Overgeneralization

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Inaccurate observations often occur in everyday observation, such as when there are five people standing at a corner but we report seeing seven.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Selective or Inaccurate Observation

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Not enough devotion to tradition can stifle adaptation to changing circumstances.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Resistance to Change

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Pseudoscience involves claims based on beliefs and/or public testimonials, not on the scientific method.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.2: Define social science compared with pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Methodology is a way of knowing that relies on objective, empirical investigation.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.2: Define social science compared with pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Evaluation research is the primary focus of studies that ask questions like “How many people are victims of violence?” and “What are the most common crimes committed by youthful offenders?”

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Descriptive Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Research that investigates social phenomena without expectations is exploratory.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Exploratory Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Madfis’ (2014) research, which didn’t come up with questions prior to the interview but rather let the people he interviewed speak for themselves, was explanatory.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Case Study: Exploration—How Did Schools Avert a Shooting Rampage?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Explanatory research seeks to identify cause and effects of social phenomena.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Explanatory Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Exploratory research suggests how one type of social phenomena, like race, affect other social phenomena, like neighborhood characteristics.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Explanatory Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) asks questions like “Has anyone attacked or threatened you with a weapon?

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Surveys

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Evaluation research seeks to determine the effects of a social program or other type of intervention.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Evaluation Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program has been rigorously evaluated to ensure.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Case Study: Evaluation—Do Violence Prevention Programs in Schools Work?

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Postpositivism asserts that a well-designed test of a specific prediction can help us to understand social processes.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Positivism assumes an external objective reality.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Positivists believe that the goal of science is to achieve intersubjective agreement among scientists.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Positivism and postpostivism represent an opposing research philosophy to interpretivism.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. If the data collected are numerical, the study uses quantitative methods.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Exploration is the most common motive for using quantitative methods.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The use of triangulation suggests that a researcher can get a clearer picture of the social reality being studied by viewing it from several different perspectives.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Combining surveys and intensive interviewing techniques is one way to use mixed methods.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Medium

Short Answer/Essay

  1. What are the four common errors in everyday reasoning?

Ans: a) overgeneralization

  1. b) selective or inaccurate observation
  2. c) illogical reasoning
  3. d) resistance to change

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Avoiding Errors in Reasoning

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. What is the difference between social science and pseudoscience?

Ans: Social science approach answers questions about the social world using systematic methods that allow others to inspect and evaluate its methods. On the other hand, the pseudoscience does not rely on the scientific methods but rather looks to testimonials of believers who have firsthand experience or who claim to have witnessed the event.

Learning Objective: 1.2: Define social science compared with pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is epistemology and how does it relate to methodology?

Ans: Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that studies how knowledge is gained or acquired, while methodology represents the actual methods used to answer questions.

Learning Objective: 1.2: Define social science compared with pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. How does transparency and peer review fit with scientific research?

Ans: An important feature of the scientific method is transparency, which requires procedures, methods and data analyses of a study be presented clearly to be replicated by other scientists. Peer review is the process by which an article is submitted by the journal editor to two or three experts to judge whether the paper should be accepted, revised and resubmitted or rejected.

Learning Objective: 1.2: Define social science compared with pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What are the four types of social research?

Ans: a) descriptive – where phenomena are defined and described

  1. b) exploratory – seeks to find out how people get along in a setting, what meanings they give to their actions and what issues concern them, without a priori expectations
  2. c) explanatory – seeks to identify causes and effects of social phenomena, predict how one phenomenon will change/vary in response to variation in some other phenomena
  3. d) evaluation – seeks to determine effects of a social program or other type of intervention

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminological Research in Action

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Define positivism and postpositivism. What are differences?

Ans: Positivism asserts that a well-designed test for a specific prediction can move us closer to understanding actual social processes. Postpositivism is closely related to positivism but acknowledges the complexity of reality and the limitations/biases of the scientists who study it.

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What are Mixed Methods?

Ans: Many researchers are electing to garner the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative research philosophies and rely on mixed methods to study one research question. This is sometimes called triangulation. The latter term suggests that a researcher can get a clearer picture of the social reality being studied by viewing it from several different perspectives. Each will have some liabilities in a specific research application, and all can benefit from a combination of one or more other methods (Brewer and Hunter 1989; Sechrest and Sidani 1995)

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is Intersubjective Agreement?

Ans: It is the agreement between scientists about the nature of reality, often upheld as a more reasonable goal for science than certainty about an objective reality.

Learning Objective: 1.5: Explain the difference between the positivist and constructivist orientations to social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is the NCVS? Who does it survey, and what is the topic? Why is it important?

Ans: The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is the only ongoing annual survey sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). Among other questions, the NCVS asks questions such as “Has anyone attacked or threatened you with a weapon (for instance, a gun or knife) or by something thrown (such as a rock or bottle)? Include any grabbing, punching, or choking.” Estimates indicate that youth ages 12 to 24 years have the highest rates of violent victimization. Despite the recent increases observed in homicide rates for this age group in some locations, their victimization trends have generally declined since the peak of the early 1990s mentioned earlier.

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: A Comment on Research in a Diverse Society

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What are quantitative methods and qualitative methods? What are the differences?

Ans: Quantitative methods such as surveys and experiments record variation in social life in terms of categories that vary in amount. Quantitative data are either numbers or attributes that can be ordered in terms of magnitude. Qualitative methods include participant observation, intensive interviewing, and focus groups designed to capture social life as participants experience it rather than in categories predetermined by the researcher. Qualitative data treated as qualitative are mostly written or spoken words or observations that do not have a direct numerical interpretation.

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. What are three reasons we might commit the everyday error known as “resistance to change”?

Ans: The three reasons include ego-based commitments, excessive devotion to tradition, and uncritical agreement with authority.

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Avoiding Errors in Reasoning

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is the Rochester Youth Development Study?

Ans: The RYDS sample consists of 1,000 students who were in the 7th and 8th grades in the Rochester, New York, public schools during the spring semester of the 1988 school year. This project has interviewed the original respondents at 12 different times, including the last interview that took place in 1997, when respondents were in their early 20s (Thornberry, Krohn, Lizotte, & Bushway, 2008). As you can imagine, respondents are typically more reluctant to reveal offending behavior compared with their victimization experiences. However, these surveys have proved to be very useful in examining the factors related to violent offending and other delinquency. We should also point out that although this discussion has been specific to violence, the measures we have discussed in this section, along with their strengths and weaknesses, apply to measuring all types of crime.

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Case Study: Description—How Prevalent is Youth Violence?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is the YRBS? What does it measure?

Ans: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is another large research survey that estimates the magnitude of youth violence (along with other risk-taking behavior, such as taking drugs and smoking) and has been conducted every two years in the United States since 1990. To measure the extent of youth violence, students are asked questions such as “During the past 12 months, how many times were you in a physical fight?” and “During the past 12 months, how many times were you in a physical fight in which you were injured and had to be seen by a doctor or nurse?”

Learning Objective: 1.4: Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Case Study: Description—How Prevalent is Youth Violence?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What are motivations for social research?

Ans: Policy motivations—social service agencies and elected officials often want better assessments and descriptions of issues so they can identify needs and allocate responsibility among the proper agencies.

Academic motivations—researchers often explore questions concerning the impact of societal conditions and their relationship to crime and violence.

Personal motivations—many researchers conduct research on an issue (like youth violence, for instance) because they want to prevent youth violence or ameliorate the consequences of the violence when it occurs.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain the motivations of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Performing Data Analysis in SPSS or Excel

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What is Crime Mapping? How is it used and why is it important?

Ans: It is used to examine the relationship between criminal behavior and other social indicators. This research technique, along with others, is increasingly being used in intelligence-based policing. Importance of unobtrusive research techniques like crime mapping is used in criminology and criminal justice. Increasingly, researchers are combining methods to more reliably answer a single research question.

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Method

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is secondary data analysis? Why is it important?

Ans: It is the analysis of data collected by someone other than the researcher. Secondary data is important because it can save time and resources when researching questions.

Learning Objective: 1.6: Understand the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods and the advantages of mixed methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Medium

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