Test Bank Health Psychology Well-Being in a Diverse World 4th Edition by Regan A. R. Gurung

$35.00
Test Bank Health Psychology Well-Being in a Diverse World 4th Edition by Regan A. R. Gurung

Test Bank Health Psychology Well-Being in a Diverse World 4th Edition by Regan A. R. Gurung

$35.00
Test Bank Health Psychology Well-Being in a Diverse World 4th Edition by Regan A. R. Gurung

Test Bank Health Psychology Well-Being in a Diverse World 4th Edition by Regan A. R. Gurung

Chapter 1: What Is Health? Cultural and Historical Roots

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

  1. The World Health Organization defines health as ______.
  2. the absence of disease
  3. mental, physical, spiritual, and psychological well-being
  4. spiritual balance
  5. a pulse rate of 120/50 and a heart rate of 55 beats per minute

Ans: B

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Health?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Every day, each of our behaviors can influence our health. Given the many components of being healthy, health is best conceptualized as ______.
  2. one-dimensional
  3. a continuum
  4. absolute
  5. unstable

Ans: B

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Is Health?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. One aspect of health that the WHO definition of health does NOT include is ______.
  2. physical health
  3. spiritual health
  4. social well-being
  5. mental well-being

Ans: B

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Health?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following individuals would be LEAST LIKELY to balance hot and cold in what they eat and drink as well as the way they live their lives?
  2. James, a Chinese male living in China
  3. Jordan, a European American male living in the U.S.
  4. Vijay, an Indian male living in India
  5. Alejandro, a Mexican male living in Mexico

Ans: B

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Culture is best defined as ______.
  2. a set of beliefs shared by a group and transmitted across generation
  3. religion and family values
  4. race and ethnicity
  5. the values of our parents and extended family members

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Defining Culture

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A. M. is a member of the largest ethnic group in the U.S. She believes that there are both natural and biological causes for illness. She is most likely ______.
  2. Asian American
  3. Mexican American
  4. European American
  5. African American

Ans: B

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of these circumstances is related to a higher occurrence of most chronic and infectious disorders?
  2. sex
  3. race
  4. socioeconomic status
  5. geographical location

Ans: C

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Key Areas of Diversity

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ was the Greek philosopher known for his explanation of sickness as being caused by an imbalance for four major bodily fluids.
  2. Plato
  3. Hippocrates
  4. Galen
  5. Aginostophenes

Ans: B

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is the primary focus of health psychology?
  2. health promotion and maintenance and preventing and treating illness
  3. revising the health care system
  4. understanding the etiology of health and illness
  5. finding the cure for disease like HIV and cancer

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Conceptual

Answer Location: What is Health Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ refer(s) to the number of cases of a disease that exist at some given point in time.
  2. Morbidity
  3. Epidemiology
  4. Mortality
  5. Clinical health psychology data

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is FALSE?
  2. Socioeconomic status impacts mortality and morbidity.
  3. Biological sex is different from sexual orientation.
  4. SES is correlated with body mass index in young adults.
  5. Most health disparities are caused by factors related to sex rather than cultural factors.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Key Areas of Diversity

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following is TRUE?
  2. Women live longer than men.
  3. Very few differences in health are correlated with sex.
  4. Men use health services more than their female counterparts.
  5. The male sex hormone testosterone has a protective effect against cardiovascular illness in men.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Key Areas of Diversity

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The major approach used by health psychologists is the ______.
  2. biomedical model
  3. biosocial model
  4. psychosocial model
  5. biopsychosocial model

Ans: D

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Health Psychology’s Biopsychosocial Approach

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Based on oral traditions and pictorial evidence from early civilizations, history suggests that our ancestors considered the mind and body to ______.
  2. be one
  3. be connected
  4. be separate
  5. be part of the spirit

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine has the following understanding of health.
  2. Eat and drink an equal amounts of hot and cold qualities.
  3. Have more yin than yang.
  4. The way you live your life should have more cold qualities because they include more vegetables.
  5. Have more yang than yin.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ is considered the father of Western medicine. In fact, all physicians take some form of an oath named after him before they practice medicine.
  2. Galen
  3. Plato
  4. Socrates
  5. Hippocrates

Ans: D

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The first psychologist to link illness with psychological causes was ______.
  2. Freud
  3. Alexander
  4. Dunbar
  5. Wundt

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Helen Dunbar and Franz Alexander were instrumental in establishing the earliest organization to study psychological determinants on health. It is called ______.
  2. Health Psychology
  3. Psychosomatic Medicine
  4. Society for Behavioral Medicine
  5. American Psychosomatic Association

Ans: B

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The study of the frequency, distribution, and causes of different disease is known as ______.
  2. epidemiology
  3. medical anthropology
  4. medical sociology
  5. biopsychometrics

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Brianne is conducting research to better understand why women living in the southern part of the state have higher rates of breast cancer than do their counterparts in the north. Brianne is most likely a(n) ______.
  2. epidemiologist
  3. cultural anthropologist
  4. medical sociologist
  5. cultural psychologists

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Health psychology is best described as an interdisciplinary subspecialty of psychology primarily focused on ______.
  2. studying the frequency, distribution, and causes of different diseases
  3. discovering the biological causes of illness
  4. promoting and maintain health and preventing and treating illness
  5. the study of happiness and well-being

Ans: C

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Is Health Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The multidisciplinary organization formed in 1978 to focus on the influences of behavior on health and well-being is ______.
  2. the World Health Organization
  3. Psychosomatic Medicine
  4. Society of Behavioral Medicine
  5. American Psychological Association

Ans: C

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. S. M. sees health as the balance of yin and yang, two complementary forces in the universe. She most likely takes a(n) ______ approach to health.
  2. biomedical
  3. traditional Chinese medicine
  4. American Indian
  5. Ayurveda

Ans: B

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Conceptual

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The Purnell Model is a model of ______.
  2. stress and coping
  3. behavior change
  4. adherence
  5. cultural competence

Ans: D

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Advancing Cultural Competence

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A health psychologist would most likely conduct research to answer the following:
  2. What interventions work best to get adolescents to stop smoking e-cigarettes?
  3. What is causing the high number of eye cancers in two parts of the U.S.?
  4. Is weight more determined by genes or environment?
  5. Which of the five most popular types of e-cigarettes is more carcinogenic?

Ans: D

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Application Showcase

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. This Harvard psychologist wrote the first book in psychology. ______ was also one of the earliest psychologists to write about spirituality, health, and psychology.
  2. Freud
  3. Wundt
  4. James
  5. Dunbar

Ans: C

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. According to the most recent census data, ______ make up the largest percentage of the U.S. population.
  2. Asian Americans
  3. African Americans or Blacks
  4. Native Americans
  5. European Americans or Whites

Ans: D

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Conceptual

Answer Location: Profile of a Multicultural America

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. One of the most important aspects of culture is socioeconomic status (SES). SES is commonly measured by ______.
  2. family income, parental education and occupational status
  3. age, income and place of residence
  4. an individual’s age, sex, and family size
  5. social and economic skills, and level of education

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Conceptual

Answer Location: Key Areas of Diversity

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. A researcher conducted a study asking a large number of participants whether they were healthy as well as their definition of health. S. T. said that she was healthy because she was not sick. S. T. most likely follows ______.
  2. a Native American model of health
  3. the belief system of Ayurveda
  4. a traditional Chinese medicine model
  5. a Western model of health

Ans: D

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Dr. Gillum is studying the number of deaths in New York City attributed to AIDS/HIV. Dr. Gillum is collecting data on ______.
  2. mortality
  3. relative risk
  4. morbidity
  5. incidence rate

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ characterizes health as the state in which the enzymes, tissues, and excretory functions are “in harmonious condition.” In addition, “the mind and senses are cheerful.”
  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine
  3. Traditional Navajo medicine
  4. Western style medicine
  5. Ayurveda

Ans: D

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following is FALSE regarding research on SES?
  2. Neighborhood SES is correlated with a number of health practices.
  3. SES is related to many causes of mortality, but not morbidity.
  4. Perceptions, or subjective judgments, of how well-off one’s family is influence health.
  5. The effects of a family’s SES continue into adulthood.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Key Areas of Diversity

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Of the following individuals, who is most likely to die of homicide, heart disease, diabetes and cancer?
  2. Manuel, a Latino American male
  3. Stephen, an Asian American male
  4. Shameer, an African American male
  5. Mark, a Caucasian American male

Ans: C

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Introduction

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. People of the ______ faith make up the smallest percentage of Americans today.
  2. Jewish
  3. Protestant
  4. Catholic
  5. Muslim

Ans: D

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Conceptual

Answer Location: Profile of a Multicultural America

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Many health psychologists are ______.
  2. clinicians
  3. molecular biologists
  4. neonatologists
  5. anthropologists

Ans: A

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Conceptual

Answer Location: Careers and Graduate Training in Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

True/False

  1. The answer to “are you healthy” can vary according to how old you are, what your parents and friends think constitutes health, and what your religious or ethnic background is, and what a variety of other factors indicate about you.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Intro

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. African Americans (indicated as “blacks”) are at a higher risk for death from heart disease than Caucasians (indicated as “whites”).

Ans: T

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Intro

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Traditional Mexican American patients may go to a Western doctor to cure a biological problem but only curanderos, or healers, can be trusted to cure spiritual problems.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Ayurveda is an ancient Native American system of medicine that focuses on the body, the sense organs, the mind and the soul.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Native Americans draw distinctions between physical, spiritual, and social entities, and especially draw distinctions between religion and medicine.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Leonardo Da Vinci, an Italian artist during the Renaissance, was able to draw detailed diagrams of the human body due, in part, to the encouragement of the Roman Catholic Church for scientists and artists of that era to perform dissections. This is one example of the spiritual/physical connectiveness of Health Psychology.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Morbidity is defined as the number of deaths related to a specific cause.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Evolution of Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Clinical psychologists such as Freud have contributed to the development of the field of Health psychology

Ans: T

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Is Health Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Dr. Lopez conducts research on interventions to help adolescents stop smoking. Her most recent research examines attitudes toward e-cigarettes. Dr. Lopez was most likely trained as a physician in medical school.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Careers and Graduate Training in Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Shingles is a painful skin rash caused by reactivation of the virus that causes chicken pox. In the last two months, Shanice has been going through a particularly stressful time in her life. When asked by her friend how she thinks she got shingles, she quickly responds, “It’s a virus.” This is an example of a biomedical explanation of illness.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Hard

Essay

  1. Define, compare and contrast Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda.

Ans: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM): ancient health belief that health is the balance of yin and yang, two complementary forces in the universe. Yin and yang are the two complementary forces in the universe (Kaptuchuk, 2000). Yin and yang are often translated into hot and cold, referring to qualities and not temperatures. To be healthy, what you eat and drink and the way you live your life should have equal amounts of hot qualities and cold qualities.

Ayurveda: “Knowledge of Life,” an ancient system of medicine focuses on the body, the sense organs, the mind and the soul. Three main biological units, enzymes, tissues, and excretory functions, are in harmonious condition and when the mind and sense are cheerful”(Chopra & Doiphode, 2002; Kash, Junius, & Dash, 1997). Balancing hot and cold is another critical element.

Compare: both ancient medicines, both are about balancing hot and cold elements, both are about the notion of basic elements.

Contrast: TCM is about balance of yin and yang, and is ancient Chinese medicine. Ayurveda is about balance of mind, body and soul, and is ancient East Indian medicine.

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Regarding the definition regarding culture: answer the social psychologist test question “Who am I?” Please include at least five different definitions of culture within your answer.

Ans: Answer should include five answers that can be included under these topics: ethnicity, race, religion, age, sex, family values, the region of the country, physical or psychological conditions (such as being deaf or hard of hearing, or having the condition of Cerebral Palsy for two examples), gender or sexual orientation, marital status, or other topics that you emphasis or teach in your class.

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Defining Culture

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. How does socioeconomic status affect the health of individuals?

Ans: Poverty and illness go together, often linked by factors such as access to health care and insurance. The cultural makeup of who is poor is changing. Disparity in poverty rates of European Americans and other ethnic groups have dropped 23% overall, and such changes can influence usage of health services and other health factors (Wollman, Yoder, Brumbabugh-Smith, & Haynes, 2007). Socioeconomic status is related to a higher occurrence of most chronic and infectious disorders and to higher rates of nearly all major causes of mortality and morbidity (Adler, Boyce, Chesney, Folkman, & Syme, 1993). The more money you have, the better your health.

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Context and Level of Analysis

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Dr. Lopera and Dr. Martinez are health psychologists who belong to APA Division 38, the subdivision of the American Psychological Association referred to as the Society for Health Psychology. Give an example of an area of research each might study.

Ans: Answers will vary, but might include examining the psychological influences on various illness as well as effective interventions.

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Main Areas in Health Psychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Compare and contrast the beliefs and values of traditional Mexican American and most Native American tribes concerning health care.

Ans: Mexican American: both natural biological causes and spiritual causes for illness (Trotter & Chavira, 1997). Mexican American patients may go to a Western doctor to cure a biological problem, only curanderos, or healers, can be trusted to cure spiritual problems. Beliefs include the balance of body types and energies.

Many Native American tribes (especially the Navajo) strive to achieve a balance between human beings and the spiritual world (Alvord & Van Pelt, 2000). The trees, animals, earth and sky and the winds are all players in life. Beliefs include spiritual, mental and physical harmony, and harmony with nature.

Learning Objective: N/A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Cross-Cultural Definitions of Health

Difficulty Level: Hard

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