Test Bank How Children Develop, 6th edition Robert S. Siegler

$45.00
Test Bank How Children Develop, 6th edition Robert S. Siegler

Test Bank How Children Develop, 6th edition Robert S. Siegler

$45.00
Test Bank How Children Develop, 6th edition Robert S. Siegler

Test Bank How Children Develop, 6th edition Robert S. Siegler

1. Recent research conducted by Ferguson (2015) and Furuya-Kanamori and Doi (2016) concluded what regarding the impact of playing violent video games on childhood and adolescent aggression?

a.

Their results indicated a direct link between the two.

b.

They found that those who play fewer violent video games demonstrated increased prosocial behaviors.

c.

Their results were inconclusive.

d.

They concluded that the effect of playing violent video games on childhood and adolescent aggression were minimal.

ANSWER:

d

2. A method for combining the results from independent studies to determine a general conclusion on the topic is known as

a.

meta-analysis.

b.

factor analysis.

c.

longitudinal design.

d.

cross-sectional design.

ANSWER:

a

3. Which statement is NOT a general reason to learn about child development, as outlined in the text?

a.

Knowledge regarding child development can help caregivers raise children.

b.

Research on child development can aid social policy development and adoption.

c.

Knowledge of child development can provide a more thorough understand of human nature.

d.

Research on child development can assist the development of court orders regarding child custody.

ANSWER:

d

4. Research has determined that this brain area is involved in emotional reactions.

a.

amygdala

b.

hippocampus

c.

hypothalamus

d.

pons

ANSWER:

a

5. One main conclusion based on the Romanian adoption study is that

a.

development is a direct result of sociocultural experiences.

b.

there is no impact of social experiences on the developmental process.

c.

the timing of experiences influences their effect on development.

d.

development is a general result of biological influences.

ANSWER:

c

6. Which is a major group of contemporary philosophers and psychologists that argue for the importance and relevance of evolution in relation to human development?

a.

nativists

b.

evolutionary psychologists

c.

empiricists

d.

Freudians

ANSWER:

a

7. Which group has stressed the general learning mechanisms that are thought to be possessed by infants?

a.

nativists

b.

evolutionary psychologists

c.

empiricists

d.

Freudians

ANSWER:

c

8. Considering the research on preschoolers' ability to provide accurate testimony about past events, which piece of advice would be the MOST important for an interviewer to be told prior to interviewing a young child?

a.

Bring a doll to aid the child in answering your questions.

b.

Make sure you know the answers to the questions before asking the child.

c.

If you do not think the child has answered a question accurately, ask the question again.

d.

Ask questions that will help children to testify accurately.

ANSWER:

d

9. Romanian-born children who were adopted by British families _____ fared BEST in weight gain after adoption.

a.

before age 6 months

b.

between the ages of 6 and 24 months

c.

between the ages of 24 and 42 months

d.

after 42 months

ANSWER:

a

10. Which statement BEST characterizes the results of research on children from Romanian orphanages?

a.

Positive experiences in later childhood cannot counteract the effect of negative early childhood experiences.

b.

Positive experiences in later childhood counteract the effect of negative early childhood experiences.

c.

The impact of positive experiences on children's resiliency depends on the timing and extent of the neglect.

d.

Neglect in infancy always has severe and lasting consequences.

ANSWER:

c

11. Of Aristotle, Locke, and Plato, which philosopher(s) believed that all knowledge comes from experience, meaning that infants are born without innate knowledge?

a.

Locke only

b.

Plato only

c.

Aristotle and Locke only

d.

Plato and Aristotle only

ANSWER:

c

12. Which philosopher offered the argument that children should be provided with maximum freedom and no formal education prior to the age of reason at approximately age 12?

a.

Rousseau

b.

Plato

c.

Aristotle

d.

Locke

ANSWER:

a

13. One of the earliest examples of research conducted for the benefit of children was

a.

Watson's experiments on the effects of reward and punishment.

b.

the Earl of Shaftesbury's effort to reform child labor practices.

c.

Freud's dream analysis.

d.

Locke's advocacy of early discipline and later freedom.

ANSWER:

b

14. Who developed the baby biography?

a.

Darwin

b.

Locke

c.

Freud

d.

Watson

ANSWER:

a

15. Darwin completed a biographical sketch of his own son, demonstrating his interest in child development, in what was called

a.

evolutionary theory.

b.

the psychosexual stages of development.

c.

the psychosocial stages of development.

d.

the baby biography.

ANSWER:

d

16. According to the text, which is NOT an aspect related to child development that has been influenced by Darwin's work on evolution?

a.

infant attachment

b.

gender identity

c.

innate fear

d.

learning

ANSWER:

b

17. Which is likely the first environmental influence on development that we encounter?

a.

the womb

b.

the house we live in

c.

the elementary school we attend

d.

our parents' interaction with us

ANSWER:

a

18. All demonstrate nature's influence on our development EXCEPT

a.

the genome.

b.

their personality.

c.

epigenetics.

d.

genetic differences.

ANSWER:

a

19. Who did NOT propose a stage theory related to child development?

a.

Piaget

b.

Freud

c.

Erikson

d.

Darwin

ANSWER:

d

20. Which brain structure is particularly important for learning and memory?

a.

hippocampus

b.

amygdala

c.

hypothalamus

d.

pons

ANSWER:

a

21. The accumulation of disadvantages over years of development is referred to as

a.

methylation.

b.

genome.

c.

effortful attention.

d.

cumulative risk.

ANSWER:

d

22. Stella has experienced poverty her entire life. Which is NOT an aspect related to cumulative risk that puts Stella at risk for hindered successful development?

a.

attending an inferior day-care center

b.

increased exposure to pollution

c.

attending an A-rated school

d.

residing in a single-parent home

ANSWER:

c

23. When a child overcomes obstacles in development related to poverty or other negative experiences, he can be said to be _____, according to the text.

a.

resilient

b.

strong

c.

optimistic

d.

full of GRIT

ANSWER:

a

24. If a child is resilient, she is more likely to have all of these characteristics, compared to other children, EXCEPT

a.

positive personal qualities.

b.

a close relationship with at least one parent.

c.

a close relationship with at least one adult other than their parents.

d.

a supportive school environment.

ANSWER:

d

25. The emergence of theories such as those of Piaget and Freud in the early twentieth century reflected the

a.

nature versus nurture aspect of development.

b.

continuity versus discontinuity aspect of development.

c.

way in which children shape their own development.

d.

sociocultural context related to development.

ANSWER:

b

26. Freud developed the _____ development.

a.

psychosexual stages of

b.

psychosocial stages of

c.

theory of moral

d.

theory related to child cognitive

ANSWER:

a

27. Which factor is NOT an enduring theme in the study of child development?

a.

nature and nurture

b.

continuity and discontinuity

c.

stress and adaptation

d.

individual differences in development

ANSWER:

c

28. Which person is MOST likely to develop schizophrenia, based on current research findings?

a.

Stacey, whose first cousin suffers from the disorder

b.

Margaret, whose grandfather suffers from the disorder

c.

Brandon, whose father suffers from the disorder

d.

Michael, whose sister suffers from the disorder

ANSWER:

c

29. The study of stable changes in gene expression that are mediated by the environment is referred to as

a.

epigenetics.

b.

evolutionary psychology.

c.

neuroscience.

d.

genometrics.

ANSWER:

a

30. Evidence for the enduring epigenetic impact of early experiences and behaviors on development comes from what type of research?

a.

research on methylation

b.

meta-analysis

c.

longitudinal studies

d.

cross-sectional designs

ANSWER:

a

31. What is the biochemical process that reduces expression of a variety of genes and is involved in regulating reactions to stress?

a.

methylation

b.

meta-analysis

c.

genome

d.

nurture

ANSWER:

a

32. The relationship between nature and nurture on developmental outcomes can BEST be described by which statement?

a.

Nature is more influential on developmental outcomes than nurture.

b.

Nurture is more influential on developmental outcomes than nature.

c.

There is a bidirectional interaction between nature and nurture that influences developmental outcomes.

d.

There is no relationship between nature and nurture on developmental outcomes.

ANSWER:

c

33. Which example illustrates discontinuity in development?

a.

the transition from caterpillar to chrysalis to butterfly

b.

trees growing taller each year

c.

the blooming of flowers

d.

the cultivation of crops each fall

ANSWER:

a

34. Which theoretical perspective proposes that two interconnected brain areas, the hippocampus and the cortex, simultaneously encode new information during learning?

a.

Darwin's theory of evolution

b.

Piaget's theory of cognitive development

c.

Active Systems Consolidation Theory

d.

psychosexual stages of development

ANSWER:

c

35. Research studies engaging in _____ designs often reveal that practices that are rare or nonexistent in one's own culture are common in other cultures.

a.

cross-sectional

b.

longitudinal

c.

cross-cultural

d.

experimental

ANSWER:

c

36. In which country are infants expected to sleep in their own bed, separate from their parents, by 6 months of age?

a.

Japan

b.

South Korea

c.

the United States

d.

Mexico

ANSWER:

c

37. Which child in the United States is MOST likely to live below the poverty line?

a.

Brice, who is White, non-Hispanic and whose parents are currently divorced

b.

Tracey, who is Hispanic and whose parents have recently remarried

c.

Suan, who is African American and lives in a single-mother household

d.

Chris, who is White, non-Hispanic and lives in a single-mother household

ANSWER:

c

38. Which factor is NOT one identified by Scarr (1992) that can lead children from the same family to turn out very different from each other?

a.

genetic similarities

b.

differences in treatment by family members

c.

different environmental conditions

d.

differences in reactions to similar experiences

ANSWER:

a

39. Which statement about epigenetics is TRUE?

a.

One's hereditary information stays constant throughout life.

b.

One's DNA can be altered by experience.

c.

Early experiences can alter the expression of one's genes.

d.

All of these statements are true.

ANSWER:

c

40. Which factor is an example of how children shape their own development?

a.

play style

b.

socioeconomic status

c.

number of siblings

d.

all of these

ANSWER:

a

41. Crib speech is a(n)

a.

demonstration of the importance of nature on development.

b.

early indication of schizophrenia.

c.

phenomenon Freud observed and used as a partial basis for his theory.

d.

example of an individual's contributions to his or her own development.

ANSWER:

d

42. Rachel is a 6-month-old who has recently learned to sit up on her own. Her mother places two toys in front of her: a soft yellow stuffed animal within her reach and a colorful rattle slightly out of her reach. Seeing both toys, Rachel chooses the one she finds more appealing to play with. Over time, choices such as these do NOT influence development of

a.

personality.

b.

crawling.

c.

an understanding of cause and effect.

d.

gross motor skills.

ANSWER:

d

43. Which scenario provides the BEST example of how children actively contribute to their own development?

a.

Joshua's bright blue eyes cause strangers to shower him with attention, which influences his wariness around strangers.

b.

Analisa's mother's anxiety about her daughter's academic success causes Analisa to panic whenever she takes an exam.

c.

Manny's quiet nature influences him to seek out other quiet children, with whom he plays quiet games, and to stay away from the more rambunctious children in his class.

d.

Bree's parents are both highly educated and surround her with books and puzzles, leading Bree to be an intellectually curious child.

ANSWER:

c

44. Which statement about individuals' contributions to their own development is TRUE?

a.

Most individuals rarely actively contribute to their own development.

b.

Infants are incapable of actively contributing to their own development.

c.

Individuals' active contributions to their own development strengthen as they age.

d.

Individuals' active contributions to their own development weaken as they age.

ANSWER:

c

45. Stage theories regard development as

a.

active.

b.

passive.

c.

continuous.

d.

discontinuous.

ANSWER:

d

46. Which theorist developed one of the best known stage theories of cognitive development?

a.

Piaget

b.

Scarr

c.

Freud

d.

Erikson

ANSWER:

a

47. With which statement would stage theorists NOT agree?

a.

Behaviors of children at different ages differ sharply.

b.

A child's entry into a new stage involves a gradual shift from one way of experiencing the world to a different way of experiencing it.

c.

Children of a particular age show wide-ranging similarities across a variety of situations.

d.

When children enter a new cognitive stage, they demonstrate their new way of thinking across a broad spectrum of tasks.

ANSWER:

b

48. Which view of changes in height would lead to a view that height development is smooth and continuous?

a.

view A: measuring the height of a boy at yearly intervals from birth to age 18

b.

view B: examining changes in height from one year to the next from birth to age 18

c.

Both view A and view B make changes in height look continuous.

d.

Both view A and view B make changes in height look discontinuous.

ANSWER:

a

49. To examine whether children's cognitive development occurs in stages, Professor Blue observes four groups of children. Each child's performance on cognitive tasks is observed two or more times over a period of 2 years. Which group is MOST likely to lead Professor Blue to conclude that development occurs continuously?

a.

group A, whose performance on a single task is observed twice each year

b.

group B, whose performance on multiple tasks is observed twice each year

c.

group C, whose performance on a single task is observed every week

d.

group D, whose performance on multiple tasks is observed every week

ANSWER:

d

50. Which statement BEST answers the question of whether development is fundamentally continuous or discontinuous?

a.

Development is fundamentally continuous.

b.

Development is fundamentally discontinuous.

c.

Some domains of development, such as cognitive development, are fundamentally discontinuous, whereas other domains, such as social development, are fundamentally continuous.

d.

Whether development is fundamentally continuous or discontinuous depends on perspective—how development is examined as well as how often it is examined.

ANSWER:

d

51. Which activity is NOT a core component of effortful attention?

a.

exerting effort on tasks

b.

controlling emotions

c.

focusing attention

d.

inhibiting impulses

ANSWER:

a

52. Neurotransmitters can BEST be described as

a.

electrical impulses in the brain.

b.

chemicals involved in communication between brain cells.

c.

gene defects that produce schizophrenia.

d.

what early philosophers theorized reflected children's core nature at birth.

ANSWER:

b

53. One study discussed in the text demonstrated that infants with a particular form of one of the genes influencing production of neurotransmitters associated with effortful attention had lower effortful attention than other infants when they also were exposed to poor parenting. What principle is demonstrated by this study?

a.

Environment plays a crucial role in the expression of genes.

b.

The expression of genes plays a crucial role in one's environment.

c.

Some genetic influences operate regardless of environment.

d.

Current research methods often do not allow researchers to separate the influences of genetics and environment.

ANSWER:

a

54. The study in which 6-year-old children were presented with a 5-day training program designed to improve effortful attention demonstrated that experience can

a.

improve intelligence test scores but not brain processes.

b.

change brain processes but not intelligence test scores.

c.

improve both intelligence test scores and brain processes.

d.

change neither intelligence test scores nor brain processes.

ANSWER:

c

55. Which factor is NOT considered part of the sociocultural context?

a.

neighborhood

b.

societal values

c.

historical era

d.

genes

ANSWER:

d

56. Which item would NOT be considered part of the sociocultural context involved in an American child's language development?

a.

number of words in a child's vocabulary

b.

town budget for speech therapy

c.

parental knowledge of child development

d.

modern American value for education

ANSWER:

a

57. According to the text, differences between U.S. and Mayan childhood sleeping patterns are due to differences in

a.

laws.

b.

financial circumstances.

c.

cultural values.

d.

family structure.

ANSWER:

c

58. The term used for the social class measure based on income and education is

a.

race.

b.

socioeconomic status.

c.

culture.

d.

sociocultural context.

ANSWER:

b

59. Which family group in the United States has the HIGHEST percentage of the population below the poverty line?

a.

married-couple Hispanic families

b.

married-couple White families

c.

single-mother Asian families

d.

single-mother Black families

ANSWER:

d

60. Which factor is the GREATEST obstacle to poor children's chances of successful development?

a.

accumulation of various disadvantages

b.

growing up in a single-parent home or without biological parents

c.

lack of parental involvement in their schooling

d.

genetic disadvantages

ANSWER:

a

61. Which of Scarr's factors is BEST related to the theme of the active child?

a.

genetic differences

b.

different choices of environment

c.

differences in treatment by parents and others

d.

different reactions to similar experiences

ANSWER:

b

62. Which item is NOT one of the four factors Scarr identified as involved in the differences among siblings?

a.

sociocultural context

b.

genes

c.

children's choice of environments

d.

treatment by parents and others

ANSWER:

a

63. One study discussed in the text demonstrated that the grades of children who were highly engaged in school changed in more positive directions than would have been predicted by genetic background or family environment alone. This finding is MOST supportive of the theory of

a.

Watson.

b.

Johnson.

c.

Dweck.

d.

Piaget.

ANSWER:

b

64. Which statement describes the results of research by Dweck on children's beliefs about intelligence?

a.

Children who believe that intelligence is a fixed entity are more likely than are other children to persist in the face of difficulty.

b.

Children who believe that intelligence can be increased by learning are more likely than are other children to say they are dumb when faced with a challenge.

c.

Children who believe that intelligence is a fixed entity are more likely than are other children to think that a very challenging problem is too hard for them.

d.

Children who believe that intelligence can be decreased are more likely than are other children to quit trying at challenging tasks.

ANSWER:

c

65. In the research by Blackwell, Trzeniewski, and Dweck described in the text, researchers created an educational program for low-income middle school students. The children who showed the MOST substantial improvement in math grades were those children who initially believed that intelligence _____ and who were provided with information about how _____.

a.

is an unchanging quantity; memory works

b.

is an unchanging quantity; learning alters the brain

c.

improves through learning; memory works

d.

improves through learning; learning alters the brain

ANSWER:

b

66. Which premise is at the foundation of the scientific method?

a.

If a hypothesis is repeatedly tested and found incorrect, it must be abandoned.

b.

Some hypotheses cannot be tested scientifically.

c.

Beliefs that are plausible to many experts are assumed to be accurate.

d.

The scientific method is founded on all of these.

ANSWER:

a

67. What is a hypothesis?

a.

a research question

b.

a conclusion yielded by research

c.

a method used to answer a question

d.

a testable prediction

ANSWER:

d

68. Which statement qualifies as a hypothesis?

a.

Children whose parents argue in their presence are more likely than other children to try illegal drugs.

b.

Which parental behaviors are associated with an increased likelihood of teenage illegal drug use?

c.

What are the differences between children whose parents argue in their presence and those whose parents do not argue in their presence?

d.

There are many differences between children whose parents argue in their presence and those whose parents do not argue in their presence.

ANSWER:

a

69. Which basic step of the scientific method is unique to that method?

a.

Form a hypothesis.

b.

Develop a method to test the hypothesis.

c.

Ask a question.

d.

Draw a conclusion.

ANSWER:

b

70. The term "reliability" does NOT refer to the

a.

consistency of measurements.

b.

similarity in results when a variable is measured at two different time points.

c.

ability to generalize measurements.

d.

level of agreement in observations by different observers.

ANSWER:

c

71. Dr. Stott is a researcher interested in examining the association between how humorous children are and their school achievement. Two research assistants go to children's homes and judge children as "not funny at all," "slightly funny," or "very funny." Upon comparison of the observers' judgments, it is apparent that the observers have a high level of disagreement as to children's humor level. This measure of humor level has poor

a.

test–retest reliability.

b.

interrater reliability.

c.

internal validity.

d.

interrater validity.

ANSWER:

b

72. Test–retest reliability refers to the

a.

level of agreement between different observers of the same behavior.

b.

improvement of children over time in abilities such as mathematics.

c.

degree to which a test measures what it is intended to test.

d.

degree of similarity in the results of the same measure when it is given at two different times.

ANSWER:

d

73. The validity of a test refers to the

a.

consistency of the test.

b.

extent to which two raters agree on its result.

c.

degree to which it measures what it is intended to measure.

d.

level of agreement between different observers of the same behavior.

ANSWER:

c

74. Dr. Jefferson is a psychologist interested in 4-year-old Shawn's knowledge of the differences between animals and vehicles. The psychologist gives Shawn a multiple-choice picture test in which he must write the letter of the correct answer on a separate piece of paper. However, Shawn has trouble identifying and writing some letters. On two separate occasions, Shawn receives the same score on the test. This method has _____ validity and _____ reliability.

a.

good; good

b.

good; poor

c.

poor; good

d.

poor; poor

ANSWER:

c

75. To examine his hypothesis that children's creativity levels decrease with age, Dr. Leno asks children how many imaginary friends they have and considers their answers to be a measure of their creativity. A second researcher, Dr. Letterman, disagrees that the answers are a measure of creativity and instead believes that the number of imaginary friends a child has is an indicator of level of mental disturbance. Dr. Letterman believes Dr. Leno's measure of creativity has a problem with its

a.

external validity.

b.

relevance to the hypothesis.

c.

reliability.

d.

interrater agreement.

ANSWER:

b

76. The internal validity of a measure involves the extent to which

a.

the effects of an experiment are truly due to conditions the researcher intended to manipulate.

b.

different observers of the same behavior agree.

c.

the results of a study hold when studies are conducted with different participants and different methods.

d.

participant's performance is similar on two or more occasions.

ANSWER:

a

77. To examine the effectiveness of empathy training on children's sharing behavior, 2 months of training are provided to 3-year-old children living in rural Georgia. Six months later, the children's sharing behaviors are measured and compared to their pre-training sharing behavior. Improvements are considered the result of the empathy training. Which factor is a potential source of internal invalidity?

a.

All the children were from rural Georgia.

b.

Children's sharing behavior may improve with the simple passage of time.

c.

The observers of the sharing behavior may disagree.

d.

Children who were the best sharers before the training were not necessarily the best after the training.

ANSWER:

b

78. The external validity of a measure involves the extent to which

a.

the effects of an experiment are truly due to conditions the researcher intended to manipulate.

b.

different observers of the same behavior agree.

c.

the results of a study will hold when studies are conducted with different participants and methods.

d.

independent measurements of a given behavior are consistent.

ANSWER:

c

79. Which item is a potential source of internal invalidity?

a.

passage of time

b.

inconsistent findings across different groups of participants

c.

observer disagreement

d.

conflicting scores on multiple test days

ANSWER:

a

80. Professor Bryson is a researcher who asks children a series of predetermined questions about how much they like to play with their siblings. He is using

a.

naturalistic observation.

b.

structured observation.

c.

a clinical interview.

d.

a structured interview.

ANSWER:

d

81. A researcher is interested in thoroughly exploring 8-year-old Jane's thoughts and feelings about living in poverty. The researcher's BEST option for obtaining this information would be

a.

a clinical interview.

b.

a structured interview.

c.

naturalistic observation.

d.

structured observation.

ANSWER:

a

82. Which statement describes a potential disadvantage of the interview method?

a.

The interview method has limited value for studying infrequent behaviors.

b.

Individuals may distort the way that events happened.

c.

It is difficult to gather information about participants' subjective experiences.

d.

It does not enable the researcher to examine the subject in an in-depth manner.

ANSWER:

b

83. To examine how children interact with their elementary school teachers on a daily basis, a researcher would probably use the _____ method.

a.

naturalistic interview

b.

structured interview

c.

naturalistic observation

d.

structured observation

ANSWER:

c

84. Naturalistic observation would probably be the method of choice for a researcher interested in which topic?

a.

toddlers' responses to their parents' encouragement to touch a dangerous object

b.

frequency of bullying behavior among schoolchildren

c.

beliefs of children in an elementary school class about how smart their classmates are

d.

a single child's feelings about his friendships

ANSWER:

b

85. In which data-gathering method do researchers try to remain unobtrusive?

a.

a naturalistic interview

b.

a structured interview

c.

naturalistic observation

d.

structured observation

ANSWER:

c

86. Which statement about naturalistic observation is NOT true?

a.

Researchers try not to influence the behaviors of the individuals they are observing.

b.

Researchers must ensure that the effects they observe are due to the variables they intentionally manipulated.

c.

Obtaining sufficient interrater reliability is important.

d.

The principal objective is to observe how people act in their usual surroundings.

ANSWER:

b

87. Which statement about the troubled homes in Patterson's study is NOT true?

a.

Children responded to parents' punishment by behaving less aggressively.

b.

Children often acted in an angry manner.

c.

Children responded to their parents' anger with hostility.

d.

Parents reacted to children's hostility with increased anger.

ANSWER:

a

88. Which statement expresses a disadvantage of naturalistic observation?

a.

Memory of participants for past events is often inaccurate and incomplete.

b.

It can feel artificial to the participants.

c.

Reports are often biased to reflect favorably on the participants.

d.

It has a limited value for studying infrequent behaviors.

ANSWER:

d

89. Structured observation would probably be the method of choice for a researcher interested in which topic?

a.

how toddlers respond to their parents' encouragement to touch a dangerous object

b.

frequency of bullying behavior among school children

c.

beliefs of the children in an elementary school class about how smart their classmates are

d.

a single child's feelings about his friendships

ANSWER:

a

90. Kochanska and her colleagues probably chose to study toddlers' compliance with their mothers' requests with the methodology they used because

a.

children tend to feel most comfortable in their own homes.

b.

they wanted all children to be exposed to identical situations.

c.

they were interested in children's subjective experience of the event.

d.

of all of these factors.

ANSWER:

b

91. Which statement does NOT express a benefit of structured observation?

a.

The researcher can design the context to elicit the behavior of interest.

b.

Researchers are able to observe behaviors that occur only infrequently.

c.

Children feel comfortable in their own environment.

d.

All children are observed in the same situation.

ANSWER:

c

92. Attributes that vary across individuals and situations are termed

a.

variables.

b.

correlates.

c.

causes.

d.

coefficients.

ANSWER:

a

93. The extent to which two variables are related is referred to as their

a.

causal direction.

b.

coefficient.

c.

relativity.

d.

correlation.

ANSWER:

d

94. Professor Stetson would like to examine whether children who are high math achievers have better memories than do low math achievers. Her research should utilize

a.

a clinical interview.

b.

a laboratory experiment.

c.

a correlational design.

d.

random assignment.

ANSWER:

c

95. Variables X and Y are negatively correlated, indicating that as the level of X increases, the level of Y _____, and as the level of X decreases, the level of Y _____.

a.

increases; increases

b.

increases; decreases

c.

decreases; increases

d.

decreases; decreases

ANSWER:

c

96. Variables A and B are positively correlated, indicating that as the level of A _____, the level of B _____.

a.

increases; decreases

b.

increases; stays the same

c.

decreases; decreases

d.

decreases; stays the same

ANSWER:

c

97. A correlation of –1.00 indicates that

a.

there is no relationship between the two variables.

b.

the two variables increase together.

c.

the two variables decrease together.

d.

as one variable increases, the other variable decreases.

ANSWER:

d

98. Variables U and W have a correlation of –0.86. If it is known that Keira has a low score on U, which statement would be the BEST prediction about her score on W?

a.

Keira is likely to have a high score on W.

b.

Keira is likely to have a low score on W.

c.

Keira's score on W is likely to be higher than her score on U.

d.

Keira's score on W cannot be predicted from her score on U.

ANSWER:

a

99. A correlation coefficient of 0.00 indicates that as the level of one variable increases, the level of the other variable

a.

increases.

b.

decreases.

c.

varies randomly.

d.

stays constant.

ANSWER:

c

100. Which expression is MOST likely to represent the correlation between age of child and reading speed among children who are able to read?

a.

1.00

b.

0.60

c.

0

d.

–0.60

ANSWER:

b

101. A town committee learns that there is a strong negative correlation between the number of inches of daily rainfall and the number of children who use the neighborhood playgrounds each day. If the committee were to conclude that high rainfall is caused by children not using the playground, which type of problem would MOST likely be occurring?

a.

third-variable

b.

direction-of-correlation

c.

direction-of-causation

d.

insufficient-knowledge

ANSWER:

c

102. The possibility that the correlation between two variables may actually be the result of an additional unspecified attribute is referred to as the _____ problem.

a.

insufficient-variable

b.

third-variable

c.

experimental-design

d.

direction-of-causation

ANSWER:

b

103. Suppose a researcher found out that there was a strong positive correlation between the number of minutes parents spend reading to children and the number of minutes parents spend engaging in athletic activity with children. If the researcher concluded that engaging in high levels of athletic activity with children causes parents to read to them more often, which type of problem would MOST likely be occurring?

a.

third-variable

b.

direction-of-correlation

c.

direction-of-causation

d.

insufficient-knowledge

ANSWER:

a

104. The text describes a study examining the link between sleeping with a nightlight in infancy and later developing nearsightedness. This study exhibited which type of problem?

a.

negative-correlation

b.

third-variable

c.

causal-relationship

d.

direction-of-causation

ANSWER:

b

105. Which research design allows researchers to infer cause-and-effect associations between variables?

a.

structured

b.

correlational

c.

experimental

d.

none of these

ANSWER:

c

106. Researchers would be LEAST likely to examine the effect of _____ on _____ with experimental design.

a.

children's TV viewing habits; sibling relationships

b.

teachers' testing procedures; children's school achievement

c.

poverty; children's beliefs about intelligence

d.

social skills training; children's ability to make friends

ANSWER:

c

107. Which method is the BEST way to divide participants into groups for an experiment?

a.

dividing participants by hair color

b.

allowing participants to choose which group to join

c.

dividing participants by where their names fall on an alphabetic list

d.

flipping a coin for each participant

ANSWER:

d

108. Dr. Schmidt is studying the effectiveness of a new reading program on minority children who have experienced an impoverished family background and low maternal involvement. She will separate children into two groups; one that gets the new reading program and one that uses the current reading program. She will also use random assignment to create her two groups. The groups created in this manner would NOT be comparable with regard to which characteristic?

a.

minority status

b.

maternal involvement

c.

family income level

d.

paternal education level

ANSWER:

d

109. Groups created through random assignment would NOT be comparable with regard to

a.

socioeconomic status.

b.

number of children in family.

c.

IQ score.

d.

experimental group.

ANSWER:

d

110. Which statement BEST describes the value of random assignment in experimental designs?

a.

It enables researchers to fully control the specific experience of the different groups of participants.

b.

It helps to ensure that participants receiving different treatments are similar at the start of the experiment.

c.

It allows researchers to accurately determine the direction of causation.

d.

It removes the possibility of encountering the third-variable problem.

ANSWER:

b

111. A class of 3rd-grade children is split into two groups through random assignment. Group A is given training in a new game, and group B is not. Training in the new game is referred to as the _____ variable, and game-playing skill at the conclusion of the study is referred to as the _____ variable.

a.

dependent; independent

b.

independent; dependent

c.

control; experimental

d.

experimental; control

ANSWER:

b

112. A class of 3rd-grade children is split into two groups through random assignment. Group A is given training in a new game, and group B is not. Group A is referred to as the _____ group, and group B is referred to as the _____ group.

a.

dependent; independent

b.

independent; dependent

c.

control; experimental

d.

experimental; control

ANSWER:

d

113. To examine the effect of empathy training on teenagers' bullying behaviors, a researcher splits a group of high school students into two groups through random assignment. Group A is shown a movie about an interesting science experiment, and group B is shown a movie about students being harmed by bullies. Group A would be the _____ group, and group B would be the _____ group.

a.

dependent; independent

b.

independent; dependent

c.

control; experimental

d.

experimental; control

ANSWER:

c

114. What was demonstrated by the study on toddlers' play behaviors in which the TV show Jeopardy! was being shown in the room while the children were playing?

a.

Toddlers' play behavior is unaffected by background exposure to TV.

b.

Toddlers are likely to choose watching TV, rather than playing, even when the toys are interesting.

c.

Background exposure to TV is disruptive to toddlers, even if they watch little of the show.

d.

Toddlers are able to learn from TV if the items in the room are compatible with the content of the TV show.

ANSWER:

c

115. Which statement is NOT part of the logic of experimental designs?

a.

Two or more groups of participants vary on one or more variables at the outset.

b.

The participants within one group are given an experience that differs in only one way from the experience given to participants in the other group.

c.

The participants in different groups behave differently after the experiences.

d.

The different experiences are concluded to have caused the subsequent difference in behavior.

ANSWER:

a

116. Which variable is LEAST likely to be an independent variable in an experiment?

a.

TV-viewing behavior

b.

family size

c.

hours of teacher training

d.

parental involvement in school

ANSWER:

b

117. A researcher is interested in examining whether offering children candy as an incentive to share will increase preschoolers' sharing behavior. A group of preschoolers is brought into the laboratory to play with some interesting toys. The preschoolers are split into two groups through random assignment. Group A is told that they will get candy each time they share, and group B is not told anything about candy or sharing. Results indicate that preschoolers in group A share more than do preschoolers in group B, and the researcher concludes that offering children candy for sharing caused the children in group A to share more. Which statement BEST describes a possible limitation of this study?

a.

Children in group A may have been naturally kinder than were children in group B.

b.

Causation cannot be inferred from this type of study.

c.

These findings may not generalize beyond the laboratory setting.

d.

There may be a third-variable problem.

ANSWER:

c

118. Which is the GREATEST limitation of laboratory experiments?

a.

poor interrater reliability

b.

third-variable problem

c.

inability to ensure that all participants are exposed to the same scenario

d.

questionable external validity

ANSWER:

d

119. Which type of design compares the behavior of groups of children who are of different ages?

a.

microgenetic

b.

cross-sectional

c.

landscape

d.

longitudinal

ANSWER:

b

120. The study that examined the lying behavior of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds utilized which type of design?

a.

cross-sectional

b.

microgenetic

c.

experimental

d.

longitudinal

ANSWER:

a

121. A researcher is interested in the development of depression. She interviews children ages 5, 9, and 13 about their depressive symptoms. This is an example of which type of design?

a.

longitudinal

b.

experimental

c.

microgenetic

d.

cross-sectional

ANSWER:

d

122. A researcher would be MOST likely to use a cross-sectional design to examine which topic?

a.

typical pattern of age-related changes in a particular skill

b.

pattern of stability and change in individual children's development in a particular area

c.

how change in a particular skill occurs

d.

how individual differences remain stable over long periods of time

ANSWER:

a

123. What do longitudinal designs do?

a.

study children on the verge of a developmental change in order to examine the processes that produce changes

b.

compare groups of children who are of different ages on the same variable

c.

follow the same children over a period of time

d.

use random assignment

ANSWER:

c

124. Longitudinal design would be appropriate to examine

a.

the typical pattern of age-related changes in a particular skill.

b.

the pattern of stability and change in individual children's development in a particular area.

c.

how change in a particular skill occurs.

d.

all of these.

ANSWER:

b

125. Longitudinal designs are particularly useful for examining

a.

continuity and discontinuity in development.

b.

age differences on a particular variable.

c.

the processes that produce changes.

d.

cause-and-effect relationships.

ANSWER:

a

126. A longitudinal design would be MOST useful for which research question?

a.

Are older children better than younger children at playing hopscotch?

b.

What are the similarities and differences in the TV-viewing habits of elementary school students and junior high school students?

c.

Do children who are empathetic preschoolers become empathetic teenagers?

d.

How do children learn to solve jigsaw puzzles?

ANSWER:

c

127. Which statement about longitudinal design is TRUE?

a.

Loss of participants can threaten external validity.

b.

Longitudinal design is particularly useful for examining age-related changes in typical performance.

c.

Longitudinal design is the least time-consuming of the designs for examining development.

d.

Research questions regarding stability or change over time are not well-suited for longitudinal design.

ANSWER:

a

128. Which statement about the study on the development of popularity discussed in the text is TRUE?

a.

The microgenetic design allowed for conclusions to be made about age-related changes in popularity.

b.

The cross-sectional design allowed for age-related differences among children in popularity to be examined.

c.

The longitudinal design allowed for the investigation of how changes in popularity occur.

d.

The longitudinal design allowed for the stability of individual differences to be examined.

ANSWER:

d

129. Researchers interested in understanding the process of change are MOST likely to use a _____ design.

a.

correlational

b.

microgenetic

c.

longitudinal

d.

cross-sectional

ANSWER:

b

130. A researcher would be MOST likely to use a microgenetic design to examine which topic?

a.

basic pattern of age-related changes in a particular skill

b.

pattern of stability and change in individual children's development in a particular area

c.

how change in a particular skill occurs

d.

how individual differences remain stable over long periods of time

ANSWER:

c

131. Siegler and Jenkins's examination of the development of the counting-on strategy is an example of _____ design.

a.

longitudinal

b.

cross-sectional

c.

experimental

d.

microgenetic

ANSWER:

d

132. Which is NOT an ethical standard to which psychological researchers are expected to adhere?

a.

assisting participants to improve on the variables of interest

b.

obtaining informed consent

c.

counteracting negative outcomes of research

d.

preserving participants' anonymity

ANSWER:

a

133. Who bears the GREATEST responsibility for ensuring that children are unharmed when participating in psychological research?

a.

government

b.

university at which the research is conducted

c.

individual researcher

d.

participants

ANSWER:

c

134. A method that allows researchers to gather information from a large number of participants simultaneously by presenting them a uniform set of items is referred to as a(n)

a.

interview.

b.

cross-sectional study.

c.

longitudinal study.

d.

questionnaire.

ANSWER:

d

135. Third-variable problems are an issue with which type of research design?

a.

correlational

b.

experimental

c.

cross-sectional

d.

longitudinal

ANSWER:

a

136. Which research design has a limitation regarding being used to study many variables of interest at the same time?

a.

correlational

b.

experimental

c.

cross-sectional

d.

longitudinal

ANSWER:

b

137. Which research design fails to provide data regarding change over time?

a.

microgenetic

b.

experimental

c.

cross-sectional

d.

longitudinal

ANSWER:

a

138. External validity is an issue in which research design, due to repeatedly testing the same children?

a.

microgenetic

b.

experimental

c.

cross-sectional

d.

longitudinal

ANSWER:

d

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