Test Bank Human Development A Life-Span View , 7th Edition Robert V. Kail A+

$35.00
Test Bank Human Development A Life-Span View , 7th Edition Robert V. Kail A+

Test Bank Human Development A Life-Span View , 7th Edition Robert V. Kail A+

$35.00
Test Bank Human Development A Life-Span View , 7th Edition Robert V. Kail A+

ANSWER:

psychosocial​

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.2 - How do psychodynamic theories account for development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

176. The belief that each psychosocial strength has its own specific period of importance is based on the _______________ principle.

ANSWER:

​epigenetic

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.2 - How do psychodynamic theories account for development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

177. ​A(n) _______________ is a consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows.

ANSWER:

​punishment

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.3 - What is the focus of learning theories of development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

178. ​In social learning theory, imitation is referred to as _______________ learning.

ANSWER:

​observational

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.3 - What is the focus of learning theories of development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

179. ​_______________ theory describes cognition in terms of mental software and hardware.

ANSWER:

Information-processing​

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.4 - How do cognitive-developmental theories explain changes in thinking?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

180. ​In ecological theory, the _______________ consists of the people and objects in an individual’s immediate environment.

ANSWER:

​microsystem

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.5 - What are the main points in the ecological and systems approach?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

181. ​According to Bronfenbrenner, the culture in which a person is raised represents his or her _______________.

ANSWER:

​macrosystem

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.5 - What are the main points in the ecological and systems approach?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

182. ​The selective _______________ with compensation model focuses on the impact of elective selection, loss-based selection, and compensation.

ANSWER:

optimization​

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.6 - What are the major tenets of life-span and life-course theories?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

183. ​The _______________ perspective describes the ways in which various generations experience the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical contexts.

ANSWER:

life-course​

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.6 - What are the major tenets of life-span and life-course theories?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

184. ​In a(n) _______________ observation study, people are observed as they behave spontaneously in some real-life situation.

ANSWER:

naturalistic​

REFERENCES:

1.3 Doing Developmental Research

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.3.1 - How do scientists measure topics of interest in studying human development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

185. ​A subset of a population is called a(n) _______________.

ANSWER:

sample​

REFERENCES:

1.3 Doing Developmental Research

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.3.1 - How do scientists measure topics of interest in studying human development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

186. ​In an experiment, the experimenter manipulates the _______________ variable.

ANSWER:

​independent

REFERENCES:

1.3 Doing Developmental Research

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.3.2 - What research designs are used to study human development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

187. ​​A(n) _______________ design is the best design to address the limitations of longitudinal and cross-sectional designs.

ANSWER:

​sequential

REFERENCES:

1.3 Doing Developmental Research

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.3.2 - What research designs are used to study human development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Understand

188. ​A new developmental theory of personality emerges that states that adult personality is markedly different from personality in childhood, is completely determined by the environment, and develops pretty much the same across cultures. Describe the three recurring issues in human development and where this new theory stands in relationship to these three issues.

ANSWER:

The nature-nurture issue addresses the degree to which genetic or hereditary influences and experiential or environmental influences determine the kind of person you are. The new developmental theory proposes that only nurture contributes to personality. The continuity-discontinuity issue addresses whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span or a series of abrupt shifts. The new theory supports discontinuity. The universal and context-specific development issue concerns whether there is one path of development or several paths. The new theory supports universal development.

REFERENCES:

1.1 Thinking About Development

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.1.1 - What fundamental issues of development have scholars addressed throughout history?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

189. ​Use the biopsychosocial framework to describe four factors that could be important in the development of parenting skills.

ANSWER:

The biopsychosocial framework involves four interactive forces: biological, psychological, sociocultural, and life-cycle forces. Biological forces include all genetic and health-related factors that affect development. Biological variables such as an individual’s health can influence the development of parenting skills. Psychological forces include all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect development. Psychological variables such as attitudes about certain types of parenting styles can influence the development of parenting skills. Sociocultural forces include interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors that affect development. Sociocultural variables such as the perceptions of others or our culture can influence the development of our parenting skills. Life-cycle forces reflect differences in how the same event affects people of different ages. Life-cycle variables such as ages can influence the development of our parenting skills. A teen mother is likely to develop a parenting style that differs from a mother in her late thirties.​

REFERENCES:

1.1 Thinking About Development

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.1.2 - What are the basic forces in the biopsychosocial framework? How does the timing of these forces affect their impact?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

190. ​Describe the epigenetic principle and how it might relate to the continuity-discontinuity issue in developmental psychology.

ANSWER:

​The epigenetic principle is the idea that each psychosocial strength has its own special period of particular importance. During each stage of development, individuals are focusing on particular psychosocial challenges. The epigenetic principle supports the idea of discontinuity because the stages reflect a series of abrupt shifts in our development.

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.2 - How do psychodynamic theories account for development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

191. ​Two developmental psychologists are discussing the factors that are important in explaining one’s behavior. One is a proponent of operant conditioning, and the other supports a social learning approach. Select a famous person and describe one way these two psychologists may agree and one way they may disagree in their explanation of the celebrity’s behavior.

ANSWER:

​Lindsey Lohan has been in and out of rehab programs for substance abuse problems. The operant conditioning psychologist believes that Lindsey’s substance abuse stemmed from the reinforcement she received from early drinking experiences, such as having fun with friends and feeling less inhibited. The social learning psychologist believes that Lindsey’s substance abuse stemmed from observational learning because she grew up with a parent who abused alcohol and other substances. Both psychologists may agree that imitating her parent was reinforcing for Lindsey because she viewed herself as similar to this parent.

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.3 - What is the focus of learning theories of development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

192. ​Use the recurring issues in developmental psychology to explain whether you think Vygotsky’s theory is more closely related to Piaget’s theory or to information-processing theory.

ANSWER:

​All three theories support discontinuity because they believe that children’s thinking becomes more sophisticated as they develop and influences what they are capable of at different times. Both Piaget’s and information processing theory support universal development because they believe that individuals come into the world with a set of skills and ready to learn specific tasks. Vygotsky’s theory differs from both of these theories because his theory is context-specific and proposes that children’s thinking is influenced by the sociocultural context in which children grow up. In the nature-nurture issue, Vygotsky leans more toward nurture because he believed that every aspect of a child’s development is influenced by their sociocultural context. Information processing theory falls more on the nature side of the nature-nurture issue because our mental hardware and software influence development. Piaget’s theory seems to consider both aspects of nature and nurture because children are born with a set of cognitive skills but responses to their actions can influence development. This factor makes Piaget’s theory more closely related to Vygotsky’s theory.

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.4 - How do cognitive-developmental theories explain changes in thinking?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

193. ​Define the four levels of the environment as described in Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory. How do these levels relate to the biopsychosocial framework?

ANSWER:

​The microsystem consists of the people and objects in an individual’s immediate environment. The mesosystem provides connections across Microsystems. The exosystem consists of social settings that a person may not experience firsthand but that still influence development. The macrosystem consists of the cultures and subcultures in which the microsystem, mesosystems, and exosystem are embedded. The microsystem is where we would find the biological forces from the biopsychosocial framework influencing development. Psychological forces influence development in both the microsystem and mesosystem. Sociocultural forces influence development at the level of the mesosytem, exosystem, and the macrosystem. Life-cycle forces can influence development at all levels of Brofenbrenner’s ecological approach.

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.5 - What are the main points in the ecological and systems approach?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

194. ​Describe four key features of the life-span perspective. How do these features speak to the three recurring issues in developmental psychology?

ANSWER:

​Multidirectionality states that development involves both growth and decline. For example, people’s vocabulary tends to increase throughout life, but their memory skills weaken. Multidirectionality supports nature, discontinuity, and universal development. Plasticity states that one’s capacity is not predetermined or carved in stone. Many skills can be learned or improved with practice, even late in life. Plasticity supports nurture, discontinuity, and universal development. Historical context states that each of us develops within a particular set of circumstances determined by the historical time in which we are born and the culture in which we grow up. Historical context supports nurture, context-specific development, and does not address the continuity-discontinuity issue. Multiple causation states that our development is the result of biological, psychological, sociocultural, and life-cycle forces. Multiple causation supports both nature and nurture, context-specific development, and does not address the continuity-discontinuity issue.

REFERENCES:

1.2 Developmental Theories

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.6 - What are the major tenets of life-span and life-course theories?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

195. ​You are going to do a study of the development of teammate behavior on a college hockey team. Describe the research methods you would use and justify why these methods are most effective in this case.

ANSWER:

To study the development of teammate behavior on a college hockey team, one might use a qualitative study because it involves gaining in-depth understanding of human behavior and what governs it. The fact that a college hockey team is a small, focused sample rather than a large random sample makes qualitative research more feasible. Instead of gathering numerative data such as in experimental research, I would use video recordings of games and practices to gather data. Research reports of qualitative research are usually richer and provide more details about the behavior being observed. If my qualitative study revealed specific factors that exist in teammate behavior that could be further studied, I could go on to develop a quantitative research study to take a closer look at those factors.

Alternatively, a longitudinal study could be used because it is the most direct way to identify change and examine development over time. The same individuals on the team can be given self-reports which are questionnaires about people’s answers to questions about the topic of interest or, in this case, about teammate behavior. The self-reports can be administered at the both the beginning and the end of the hockey season to determine the level of change that may have occurred. One difficulty with longitudinal studies is participant drop-out. However, in the case of a college team, participants are likely to remain with the team for the entire season.

REFERENCES:

1.3 Doing Developmental Research

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.3.2 - What research designs are used to study human development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

196. ​A researcher is going to do a longitudinal study of cognitive development in elementary school-age children. What problems are this researcher going to have that could be avoided if she were to do a cross-sectional study instead?

ANSWER:

​In a longitudinal study, participants can drop out of the study and repeated testing can distort the results. Neither of these problems would be a factor in a cross-sectional study.

REFERENCES:

1.3 Doing Developmental Research

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.3.2 - What research designs are used to study human development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

197. ​A student researcher comes to you for advice regarding ethical guidelines for her study. Describe four guidelines common in professional ethical codes you think would be important for this student to know.

ANSWER:

​Minimize risks to research participants: Use methods that have the least potential for causing harm or stress. Describe the research to potential participants so that they can determine whether they want to participate. Avoid deception. Results should be anonymous or confidential.

REFERENCES:

1.3 Doing Developmental Research

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.3.4 - What ethical procedures must researchers follow?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

198. ​Demonstrate and understanding of operant conditioning by differentiating between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment.

ANSWER:

​Positive reinforcement involves giving a reward in order to increase the likelihood of a behavior reoccurring. Negative reinforcement involves taking away something unpleasant in order to increase the likelihood of a behavior reoccurring. Punishment is any consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior reoccurring. It can involve giving something unwanted or taking away something wanted.

REFERENCES:

1.3 Doing Developmental Research

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.2.3 - What is the focus of learning theories of development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

199. ​Salem has decided to do a correlational study on the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. How might this research be conducted? What are the major disadvantages of this type of research approach?

ANSWER:

​In a correlational study, two variables are studies as they exist in the natural world. Thus, a researcher could find data on how many people smoke and how many of those people have lung cancer. The main disadvantage is the inability to determine a cause-effect relationship between smoking and lung cancer.

REFERENCES:

1.3 Doing Developmental Research

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

KAIL.HDEV.16.1.3.2 - What research designs are used to study human development?

KEYWORDS:

Bloom’s: Thinking Critically

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