Test Bank Introduction to Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology 4th Edition by Robert Weis

$35.00
Test Bank Introduction to Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology 4th Edition by Robert Weis

Test Bank Introduction to Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology 4th Edition by Robert Weis

$35.00
Test Bank Introduction to Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology 4th Edition by Robert Weis

Test Bank Introduction to Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology 4th Edition by Robert Weis

Chapter 1: The Science and Practice of Abnormal Child Psychology

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

  1. Epidemiologists often report the prevalence of a medical or psychological disorder. What is “prevalence?”
  2. the number of people in a population with a given disorder
  3. the percentage of people in a population with a given disorder
  4. the number of new cases of a disorder in a population
  5. the percentage of new cases of a disorder in a population

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: How Common Are Mental Disorders in Children?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is NOT an essential component of the DSM-5 definition of a mental disorder?
  2. a pattern of behavior that occurs within an individual
  3. a behavior that reflects an underlying dysfunction
  4. The consequences of the behavior cause distress or disability.
  5. The disturbance is long-lasting.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: How Does DSM-5 Define Abnormality?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. How do developmental psychopathologists characterize abnormal behavior?
  2. behavior that interferes with children’s competence and does not meet the demands of the environment
  3. behavior that leads to psychological distress, impairment, and risk of harm to self or others
  4. behavior that leads to psychological distress, impairment, or risk of harm to self or others
  5. behavior that is statistically different than the behavior of the typical child

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Do We Mean by “Abnormal?”

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What type of treatment do psychologists provide?
  2. psychotherapy
  3. psychotherapy and nonmedical intervention
  4. medical and nonmedical intervention
  5. hypnosis

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Professionals Help Children and Families?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Wakefield’s (1992) concept of “harmful dysfunction” ______.
  2. provides criteria for differentiating normal from abnormal behavior
  3. requires all mental disorders to have an underlying biological cause
  4. asserts that genetic and biological factors play a greater role in psychopathology than social-cultural factors
  5. assumes that a biological or medical cause of a person’s psychopathology has been ruled out before a psychiatric diagnosis is assigned

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Do We Mean by “Abnormal?”

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is true of students providing services to children in need?
  2. If students have been trained to provide evidence-based treatment, the treatment will be effective.
  3. Students should not question the evidence for the intervention or the ethics behind the intervention.
  4. Once students have been trained to provide an intervention, it is safe and ethical for them to do so without supervision.
  5. It is recommended that students ask themselves whether there are alternative services that might provide greater benefits to the clients than the ones being provided.

Ans: D

Learning objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Students as Evidence-Based Helpers

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following statements about prevalence is true?
  2. Point prevalence can never be less than lifetime prevalence for a given disorder.
  3. Point prevalence can never be more than lifetime prevalence for a given disorder.
  4. Only lifetime prevalence measures the percentage of people with a disorder at each age.
  5. Only point prevalence measures the severity of people’s disorders.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Prevalence and Incidence

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following is a challenge mentioned in your text when determining prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents?
  2. There is no single agency that tracks the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents.
  3. There is no standard definition of what constitutes mental disorder.
  4. Epidemiological studies use similar methods to collect data.
  5. Some people want to participate in multiple prevalence surveys.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5. | 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension.

Answer Location: Prevalence and Incidence

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. How has the overall prevalence of mental health disorders among children changed over the past several decades?
  2. It has increased.
  3. It has decreased.
  4. It has remained unchanged.
  5. It increased initially and then decreased to former levels.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Prevalence and Incidence

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is true of comorbidity?
  2. It is rare.
  3. It refers to the experience of having one disorder, recovering, and then having a different disorder.
  4. It is especially common in individuals with depression.
  5. It is much more common in children than in adolescence.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Comorbidity and Costs

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Medication used to treat a psychological disorder is called ______.
  2. psychotropic
  3. behavioral
  4. neurotropic
  5. hallucinogenic

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Use of Medication

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following best describes the relationship between psychotropic medication and age?
  2. Adolescents are more likely to receive psychotropic medication, even though they are less likely than young children to experience psychological disorders.
  3. Children are more likely to receive psychotropic medication, typically because their psychological disorders tend to be more severe than adolescents’.
  4. Adolescents are more likely to receive psychotropic medication because they are more likely to experience psychological disorders, and the severity of these disorders tends to be greater than the severity of children’s disorders.
  5. There are no major differences in the rates of psychotropic medication prescriptions between children and adults.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Use of Medication

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What is the difference between evidence-based practice and evidence-based treatments?
  2. In evidence-based treatment, clinicians must tailor interventions to meet needs of children and families.
  3. In evidence-based practice, clinicians must tailor interventions to meet needs of children and families.
  4. In evidence-based treatment, clinicians use a manual to guide treatment.
  5. In evidence-based practice, clinicians incorporate the client’s culture into the treatment.

Ans: B

Learning objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: What Is Evidence-Based Practice?

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. In the past 20 years, the percentage of youth receiving medication to treat their psychological problems has ______; the percentage of youth receiving therapy to treat their psychological problems has ______.
  2. increased; stayed the same
  3. increased; decreased
  4. increased; increased
  5. stayed the same; increased

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Use of Medication

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What sociodemographic factors are considered important for understanding psychological disorders, according to your text?
  2. age and gender
  3. age and gender
  4. age, gender, and socioeconomic status
  5. gender and socioeconomic status

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Factors Influence the Prevalence of Childhood Disorders?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following best describes the relative rates of mental disorders in children and adolescents of different sexes?
  2. Boys are more likely than girls to experience mental disorders in childhood, but boys and girls are equally likely to experience mental disorders in adolescence.
  3. Boys are more likely than girls to experience mental disorders in childhood, but girls are more likely to experience mental disorders in adolescence.
  4. Boys and girls have equal rates of mental disorders in childhood and in adolescence.
  5. Boys and girls have equal rates of mental disorders in childhood, with boys experiencing more mental disorders in adolescence.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gender

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Your text describes a study (Hamilton, Strange, et al., 2015) about stressful events that involved important people or relationships in children’s and adolescents’ lives. The results of this study imply that ______.
  2. depression was related to the number of interpersonally dependent stressors the participants experienced
  3. depression was related to the timing of the interpersonally dependent stressors, with those occurring earlier in childhood having a greater impact
  4. depression was related to a feeling of personal responsibility over the stressors
  5. boys were more likely to ruminate over interpersonally dependent stressors

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. | 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Gender

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is represented in socioeconomic status (SES)?
  2. parents’ reputation in the community and parents’ level of education
  3. parents’ level of education and community the family resides in
  4. parents’ level of education and parents’ employment
  5. parents’ level of education, parents’ employment, and family income

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Socioeconomic Status

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Your textbook reports findings from a recent study (Frick, 2013) that found an association between single-parent families and increased mental health problems. Which of the following can we conclude from this study?
  2. Those with low SES will go on, more often than not, to develop mental disorders.
  3. Low SES causes mental disorders.
  4. Mental disorders makes it more likely for a second parent to leave the home.
  5. There is a relationship between single-parent households and increased rates of mental disorder, but the cause cannot be determined from this study.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Socioeconomic Status

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following best describes prevalence rates of mental disorders?
  2. Autism spectrum disorder has roughly the same prevalence across all ethnic groups in the United States.
  3. All childhood psychological disorders so far studied are more prevalent among African American and Latino children compared to White children.
  4. The prevalence of some disorders, such as anxiety disorders, is higher among White children than among non-White children.
  5. The prevalence of conduct problems is highest among Latino children, compared to those of other ethnic groups.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Race and Ethnicity

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What is the appropriate role of anecdotes (personal, individual stories of experiences) in clinical practice?
  2. Anecdotes alone can safely and ethically guide clinical practice.
  3. Anecdotes may contribute to clinical judgment and can be useful when combined with empirical evidence.
  4. Anecdotes should not be drawn upon at all in clinical practice, either in discussions with clients or in planning treatment.
  5. Anecdotes are safe to consider as models in certain cases, without additional empirical evidence, but only when the anecdote is very similar to the case at hand.

Ans: B

Learning objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer location: The Importance of Science

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Approximately what percentage of children and adolescents diagnosed with mental disorders receive treatment?
  2. 20%
  3. 50%
  4. 75%
  5. 100%

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Access to Treatment

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Compared to children and adolescents with other disorders, those with anxiety and mood disorders ______.
  2. were most likely to receive treatment
  3. were most likely to be treated by a pediatrician rather than a mental health professional
  4. were most likely to receive psychotropic medication
  5. were most likely to be from low-SES backgrounds

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Access to Treatment

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is a common barrier to treatment for psychological disorders of childhood?
  2. Families are unable to pay for evidence-based treatments.
  3. Evidence-based treatment is not accepted in the United States.
  4. Children are embarrassed and refuse to access treatment.
  5. No evidence-based treatments have been identified for most childhood psychological disorders.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Barriers to Treatment

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is consistent with the statistical deviancy approach to defining abnormality?
  2. Roughly 2% of the population has an IQ below 70; those with an IQ under 70 might, therefore, be considered abnormal.
  3. Those who act out against the rules of society and are thus considered deviant would meet the definition of abnormality.
  4. Those who are severely impaired by their inability to make and maintain meaningful social relationships would be considered abnormal.
  5. If 50% of the population had suicidal thoughts, this 50% would be considered abnormal.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: What Do We Mean by “Abnormal?”

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The belief that the degree of disability best defines abnormality is most consistent with which approach?
  2. statistical deviancy
  3. impairment
  4. psychological distress
  5. cultural deviancy

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Do We Mean by “Abnormal?”

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following approaches to defining abnormality is INCORRECTLY paired with one of that approach’s serious drawbacks?
  2. Statistical deviancy fails to account for the fact that something can be rare but not harmful.
  3. Impairment fails to account for the fact that some mental illnesses are not associated with impairment in functioning.
  4. Psychological distress fails to account for the subjectivity of quantifying distress.
  5. Cultural deviancy fails to account for how the norms of cultures vary.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: What Do We Mean by “Abnormal?”

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which is the best definition of beneficence?
  2. generosity
  3. helping and promoting others’ welfare
  4. sharing results of a study
  5. confidentiality

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify and apply four ethical principles that are important when helping children and families.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The APA Ethics Code

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is true of evidence-based practice?
  2. It relies on empirically validated methods, not on clinical judgment.
  3. It can only be implemented if individuals with sociocultural backgrounds similar to that of the client have been investigated empirically.
  4. It entails following well-established treatments rigidly to ensure validity.
  5. It is important for providing ethical care to children and families.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Importance of Science

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. According to APA, ______ are specific rules that guide professional practice and research.
  2. ethical standards
  3. ethical principles
  4. competence principles
  5. fidelity principles

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify and apply four ethical principles that are important when helping children and families.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The APA Ethics Code

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following is a way in which ethnicity and culture affect and interact with the diagnostic process?
  2. Different cultural values affect the behaviors that are considered problematic.
  3. Having a clinician who is of the same ethnicity as the client is vital to the diagnostic process.
  4. Ethnic minorities are often overrepresented in mental health research.
  5. Ethnicity and culture have not been found to interact with the diagnostic process.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Who assesses, diagnoses, and treats children with behavioral, cognitive, and social-emotional problems that interfere with their functioning at school?
  2. psychologists
  3. social workers
  4. school psychiatrists
  5. school psychologists

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Helping Professions

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. NIMH launched an initiative to identify the genetic and biological causes of each disorder. What is this initiative called?
  2. Research Domain Criteria initiative
  3. Genetic initiative
  4. Revised DSM-5 initiative
  5. Psychological Understanding initiative

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Research Domain Criteria

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Features of abnormality include ______.
  2. statistical deviation
  3. statistical deviation and distress
  4. statistical deviation, distress, and impairment
  5. maladaptive and adaptive functioning

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Do We Mean by “Abnormal?”

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ refers to the values, knowledge, and practices that people derive from their membership in social groups.
  2. Race
  3. Socioeconomic status
  4. Ethnicity
  5. Culture

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Your textbook describes behavior parent training as a well-established treatment for children with ADHD. This means it has ______.
  2. at least one study showing treatment is helpful, but with methodological limitations
  3. at least two large, randomized controlled studies, conducted by independent researchers, showing treatment is better than placebo or an existing treatment
  4. at least two large, randomized controlled studies showing treatment is better than placebo or an existing treatment
  5. at least one well-designed study showing treatment is better than no treatment or several studies with methodological limitations

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Importance of Science

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. When a child or adolescent is a client, who provides consent for services?
  2. the child or adolescent
  3. the child or adolescent’s parent/guardian
  4. the child or adolescent’s pediatrician
  5. the mental health clinician who is providing services

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify and apply four ethical principles that are important when helping children and families.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The APA Ethics Code

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What refers to the expectation that information that clients provide during the course of assessment or treatment will not be disclosed to others?
  2. fidelity
  3. secrecy
  4. privacy
  5. confidentiality

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify and apply four ethical principles that are important when helping children and families.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The APA Ethics Code

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ is a culturally constructed identity that is used to define groups of people and communities.
  2. Race
  3. Ethnicity
  4. Culture
  5. Multiculturalism

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Nonmaleficence can best be described by the saying ______.
  2. “First, do no harm”
  3. “There’s a bad apple in every bin”
  4. “Always see the silver lining”
  5. “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again”

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify and apply four ethical principles that are important when helping children and families.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The APA Ethics Code

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. When are limits of confidentiality shared with the client?
  2. before treatment begins
  3. during the first session
  4. during the last session
  5. never

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify and apply four ethical principles that are important when helping children and families.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The APA Ethics Code

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Robbie likes to talk about trains, in all situations: whether at home, at school, at church; whether with others or by himself, Robbie likes to talk about trains. Doing so makes him happy. This tendency might best be described as ______.
  2. cultural deviancy
  3. behavioral rigidity
  4. statistical anomaly
  5. psychological distress

Ans: B

Learning objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Do Psychologists Diagnose Mental Health Problems in Children?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The APA Ethics Code’s broad ethical principles are ______.
  2. rules psychologists abide by
  3. consistent with state laws regarding mental health treatment
  4. aspirational goals
  5. consistent with federal laws regarding mental health treatment

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify and apply four ethical principles that are important when helping children and families.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The APA Ethics Code

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is prognosis?
  2. the likely outcome of a disorder
  3. the likely cause of a disorder
  4. the likely comorbidity of a disorder
  5. the likely treatment of a disorder

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Possible Benefits

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What professionals treat mental health problems in children, adolescents, adults, and families and typically hold a master’s degree?
  2. school psychologists
  3. psychiatric mental health nurses
  4. licensed professional counselors
  5. social workers

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Helping Professions

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What professional treats children and adolescents with medical illness and can prescribe psychotropic medications?
  2. psychologists
  3. pediatricians
  4. psychiatrists
  5. psychiatric mental health nurses

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Helping Professions

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What helping professionals are trained in couples and family systems therapy?
  2. marriage and family therapists
  3. family dynamic therapists
  4. school psychologists
  5. family psychiatrists

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Helping Professions

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The APA Ethics Code describes how many general ethical principles?
  2. 2
  3. 5
  4. 8
  5. 12

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify and apply four ethical principles that are important when helping children and families.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The APA Ethics Code

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. The integration of the best available research with clinician’s expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is known as ______.
  2. holistic therapy
  3. humanistic therapy
  4. evidence-based practice
  5. clinical judgment

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Importance of Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Evidence-based practice begins with ______.
  2. scientific research--What methods of assessment and forms of treatment work best for a child with this disorder, according to the research literature?
  3. clinical expertise--What is the best way for me to assess and treat this child according to my own professional judgment and experience?
  4. historical perspective--What were past approaches to treating this problem and how do they apply to this case?
  5. patient characteristics--In what ways do the child’s age, gender, or sociocultural background or the family’s beliefs and preferences about therapy affect the treatment provided?

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Importance of Science

Difficulty Level: Hard

True/False

  1. Point prevalence is the percentage of individuals with a disorder at a certain point in time, while lifetime prevalence refers to all individuals with the disorder at any point in their life.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Prevalence and Incidence

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Incidence rates cannot exceed prevalence rates for a given disorder.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Prevalence and Incidence

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Abnormality depends upon age, environmental context, and culture.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Do We Mean by “Abnormal?”

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Ineffective interventions can harm clients and their families by undermining their trust in the therapeutic process.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Importance of Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. If there have been 100 new cases of post-traumatic stress disorder in children in a given town this year, that number would be the point prevalence rate.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Prevalence and Incidence

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Based on the best available data, 20% of youth in the United States currently suffer from a mental or behavioral disorder.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Prevalence and Incidence

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. One of the strengths of defining abnormality based on degree of impairment is that it takes into account the distress of those around the individual.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: What Do We Mean by “Abnormal?”

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The DSM-5 definition of mental disorder highlights how disorders are dependent on the relationships between people and do not merely exist within the diagnosed individual.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does DSM-5 Define Abnormality?

Difficulty Level: Medium

Essay

  1. Explain Wakefield’s (1992) concept of “harmful dysfunction.”

Ans: Must have both (a) dysfunction, a failure in some internal mechanism to work in an adaptive way (the way it was naturally selected to operate) and (b) this dysfunction must cause harm (limit or threaten the person in some way).

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Do We Mean by “Abnormal?”

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Describe the three different approaches to classification that the DSM-5 uses.

Ans: Categorical--involves dividing mental disorders into mutually exclusive groups, or categories, based on a set of essential criteria. Prototypical--based on the degree to which the individual’s signs and symptoms map onto the ideal picture or prototype of the disorder. Dimensional--assumes that disorders fall along a continuum of severity ranging from slight to severe.

Learning Objective: 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Do Psychologists Diagnose Mental Health Problems in Children?

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What are benefits to diagnosing children and adolescents using the DSM-5?

Ans: A DSM-5 diagnosis is parsimonious, it allows professionals to communicate clearly with each other, and it can be helpful in predicting outcomes and planning treatment. A diagnosis can also help children gain access to educational or psychological services, help caregivers understand their child’s behavior, and facilitate research.

Learning Objective: 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Diagnosing Children?

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. How common is the use of psychotropic medication among youth in the United States?

Ans: 7.5% of all school-age children and adolescents are taking at least one psychotropic medication.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Use of Medication

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. List and briefly describe APA’s five general ethical principles from the Ethics Code.

Ans: Beneficence and nonmaleficence: Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work, and they take care to do no harm; Fidelity and responsibility: Psychologists establish relationships of trust, . . . are aware of their professional and scientific responsibilities, . . . uphold professional standards of conduct, clarify their professional roles and obligations, [and] accept appropriate responsibility for their behavior; Integrity: Psychologists seek to promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness in science, teaching, and the practice of psychology; Justice: Psychologists recognize that fairness and justice entitle all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology; Respect for people’s rights and dignity: Psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all people and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, and self-determination.

Learning Objective: 1.5: Identify and apply four ethical principles that are important when helping children and families.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The APA Ethics Code

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What are the strengths and weaknesses of defining abnormality based on the child or adolescent’s degree of impairment?

Ans: Strengths: adequately takes into account the individual’s distress. Weaknesses: many mental disorders do not show overt impairment in functioning.

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: What Do We Mean by “Abnormal?”

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. How might an adolescent’s ethnicity, religion, or culture influence the likelihood that he might be diagnosed with a mental disorder or be considered “abnormal?”

Ans: “Members of minority groups living in the United States have different cultural values that affect their views of children, beliefs about child-rearing, and behaviors they consider problematic.” “Recent immigrants living in the United States often encounter psychosocial stressors associated with acculturation.” “Language and cultural differences can cause problems in assessment and diagnosis of minority youths.” “Ethnic minorities are often underrepresented in mental health research.”

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: How Do Social–Cultural Factors Affect Our Understanding of Mental Health?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. You are a volunteer at a residential treatment facility for children with intellectual disabilities. Over several weeks, you notice that the type of therapy practiced at the facility does not have empirical support and other methods of treatment that have greater empirical support are not being used. What would you do?

Ans: Talk to clinic director; bring evidence of other treatments. Call the authorities if necessary.

Learning Objective: 1.4: Describe the characteristics of evidence-based practice and the types of professionals who help children and families in need.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Students as Evidence-Based Helpers

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Your book describes how treatment rates of children’s disorders have increased by 24% in the past decade. Does this indicate that overall prevalence of disorder has increased? Why or why not?

Ans: Not necessarily. It could just be that the prevalence has stayed the same and more people are getting treated; correlation does not imply causation.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe the prevalence of childhood disorders and how it varies as a function of children’s age, gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Prevalence and Incidence

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What are some reasons to prevent mental disorder? Can you think of any reasons this might not be a useful goal?

Ans: Reasons to prevent include the negative effects on children and their families, the expense, the toll on caregivers, societal costs such as incarceration and rehabilitation, and special services at school. Reasons not to treat might include perpetuating stigma and neurotypicality, eliminating diversity in individuals, particularly when there’s no or little harm, and the harms associated with incorrect treatment.

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis.

Answer location: Prevalence and Incidence

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What are some of the challenges of a statistical deviancy approach to defining abnormality?

Ans: Not all infrequent behaviors are indicative of mental disorders. They may be minor, for instance. Also, there is an inequivalence of the extremes. Someone who is extremely intelligent usually wouldn’t be considered as having a disorder.

Learning Objective: 1.1: Critically evaluate the concept of a mental disorder as it applies to children and adolescents. | 1.2: Explain how mental health professionals diagnose youths using DSM-5.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis.

Answer location: What Do We Mean by “Abnormal?”

Difficulty Level: Medium.

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