Test Bank life span development 17th edition santrock

Test Bank life span development 17th edition santrock

Test Bank life span development 17th edition santrock

Test Bank life span development 17th edition santrock

Test Bank life span development 17th edition santrock

Life Span Development, 17e (Santrock)

Chapter 1 Introduction

1) Development can be defined as the pattern of movement or change that

A) begins at childhood and continues until adulthood.

B) begins at conception and continues until adulthood.

C) begins at birth and continues through the human life span.

D) begins at conception and continues through the human life span.

2) Who among the following is most likely taking the traditional approach to the study of development?

A) Daren who emphasizes developmental change throughout adulthood as well as childhood

B) Nick who emphasizes extensive change in adulthood

C) James who emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age

D) Gregory who emphasizes development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual

3) The ________ approach to the study of development emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, especially during infancy, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age.

A) prescriptive

B) constructivist

C) traditional

D) evolutionary

4) When taking his psychology class, Professor Sharma emphasizes that developmental change occurs throughout adulthood as well as childhood. Professor Sharma is taking a(n) ________ approach to developmental change.

A) life-span

B) evolutionary

C) normative

D) constructivist

5) In the context of Laura Carstensen's view on life expectancy, which of the following statements is true?

A) There has been a remarkable decrease in the number of people living to an old age.

B) The conception of work as a full-time endeavor ending in the early 60s is well suited for long lives.

C) Science, technology, and social expectations have not kept pace with the increase in the number of people living to an old age.

D) There should be a change from a world constructed mainly for the elderly to a world that is more compatible for young people.

6) On your first day of class, Professor Red-Elk claims that for too long we have focused on the development of young children, especially infants. She argues that the development of adults and elderly people is just as important. This professor is articulating a(n) ________ approach.

A) evolutionary

B) constructivist

C) normative

D) life-span

7) The maximum life span of humans

A) has increased over time.

B) has not changed since the beginning of recorded history.

C) has matched their life expectancy in recent times.

D) is about sixty-five years as the first decade of the twenty-first century draws to a close.

8) Which of the following is true of life expectancy in the United States?

A) It decreased by 15 years in the beginning of the 21st century.

B) It has remained unaffected by improvements in sanitation and nutrition.

C) It increased by 32 years in the 20th century.

D) It has remained unpredictable and has confused demographers.

9) The life expectancy in the United States is currently

A) 60 years.

B) 79 years.

C) 85 years

D) 53 years.

10) According to Paul Baltes's perspective of life-span development, which of the following statements is true?

A) Development stops during adolescence.

B) Development is multidimensional.

C) Development is unidirectional.

D) Development occurs independent of context.

11) The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is

A) plastic.

B) contextual.

C) multidimensional.

D) lifelong.

12) Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is

A) lifelong.

B) contextual.

C) multidimensional.

D) plastic.

13) Many individuals become wiser as they age, but their performance on tasks that require speed in processing information starts to decline. This illustrates how throughout life some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink, or how development is

A) plastic.

B) contextual.

C) multidisciplinary.

D) multidirectional.

14) Jeremy becomes fluent in English at the age of 4. At the age of 6, he becomes fluent in French. However, when Jeremy's parents try to teach him Spanish when he is 8 years old, they find that Jeremy's capacity to acquire a new language has decreased. This scenario most likely illustrates Paul Baltes's view that development is ________.

A) plastic

B) contextual

C) multidisciplinary

D) multidirectional

15) ________ means the capacity for change.

A) Elasticity

B) Plasticity

C) Contextuality

D) Tenacity

16) Bruce Chan, a 57-year-old accountant, decides to enroll in a short-term course on creative writing. He performs well in the course and is surprised that he does so despite not having engaged in creative writing for over 25 years. This scenario most likely illustrates Paul Baltes's view that development is

A) plastic.

B) multidisciplinary.

C) lifelong.

D) contextual.

17) Divya is 65 years old. She undergoes training and uses effective strategies to improve her memory. As a result, her memory does not decline but rather improves as she ages. According to Paul Baltes's view, which of the following aspects of the life-span perspective most likely explains the improvement in Divya's memory?

A) Development is plastic.

B) Development is contextual.

C) Development is multidirectional.

D) Development is multidimensional.

18) According to Paul Baltes's life-span perspective, which of the following is true of contexts?

A) They have a biological impact on development.

B) They are influenced by genetic factors.

C) They remain constant over time.

D) They refer to the capacity for change.

19) As people enter adolescence, they start focusing more time on romantic relationships and spend less time with friends as a result. This illustrates how development is

A) plastic.

B) contextual.

C) multidisciplinary.

D) multidirectional.

20) According to Paul Baltes, which of the following statements most likely supports the view that development is plastic?

A) Early adulthood is not the end point of development; rather, no age period dominates development.

B) The cognitive skills of older adults can be improved through training and acquisition of effective strategies.

C) Development has biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions.

D) All development occurs within a context, or a setting that changes.

21) Psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers all share an interest in unlocking the mysteries of development through the life span. This indicates how development is

A) multidirectional.

B) plastic.

C) multidisciplinary.

D) multidimensional.

22) "Individuals are changing beings in a changing world." Which characteristic of development is reflected in this statement?

A) Development is multidisciplinary.

B) Development is contextual.

C) Development is multidimensional.

D) Development is multidirectional.

23) According to Paul Baltes, which of the following do normative age-graded influences include?

A) sociocultural factors and environmental processes

B) economic, political, and social upheavals

C) long-term changes in the cultural makeup of a population

D) long-term changes in the genetic composition of a population

24) By age 51, most women enter menopause. This is an example of how a biological process can exert a ________ influence on development.

A) normative history-graded

B) nonnormative multidirectional

C) normative age-graded

D) nonnormative age-graded

25) Influences that generally affect a generation (for example, the effect of the Vietnam War on the baby boomers) are considered ________ influences.

A) nonnormative multidirectional

B) normative age-graded

C) nonnormative age-graded

D) normative history-graded

26) The cultural makeup of the U.S. population has changed over the past few years because of immigration and other factors. Such long-term changes in the genetic and cultural makeup of a population are part of

A) nonnormative multidirectional change.

B) normative historical change.

C) nonnormative life events.

D) nonnormative demographic change.

27) When she was a child, Anna's home was wrecked by a tornado and her neighbor was killed. More than 30 years later, she is still terrified of storms. This is an example of how a ________ event can influence a person's development.

A) normative age-graded

B) normative generational

C) nonnormative life

D) normative history-graded

28) According to Paul Baltes, which of the following is true of nonnormative life events?

A) They do not happen to all people.

B) They are similar for individuals in a particular age group.

C) They do not influence the lives of individual people.

D) They are usual occurrences.

29) Thomas is a teenager who lives with his parents in an American city. During one of his high school years, Thomas's house gets destroyed in a fire, forcing his family to relocate to a rural area. According to Paul Baltes, this incident is likely to affect Thomas's development and life and is most likely an example of a

A) normative history-graded influence.

B) nonnormative life event.

C) minority influence.

D) cohort effect.

30) Agatha is 83 years old. According to Baltes and his colleagues, ________ and ________ in her capacities will take center stage.

A) growth; maintenance

B) maintenance; regulation of loss

C) regulation of loss; augmentation

D) growth; regulation of loss

31) Wang Ying is a clinical psychologist who specializes in counseling young adults. She helps her clients cope with depression, anxiety, and life transitions. In this scenario, Wang is most likely to

A) work individually with clients.

B) instruct clients to resolve their problems without seeking outside help.

C) refrain from referring clients to medical facilities.

D) conduct research on the effects of specific policies on children's well-being.

32) ________ encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.

A) Culture

B) Genotype

C) Phenotype

D) Ethnocentricity

33) Dr. Wilman is researching the place women occupy in families in Japan and the United States. Dr. Wilman is conducting a(n) ________ study.

A) longitudinal

B) ethnocentric

C) cross-cultural

D) decentralized

34) Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to

A) the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.

B) a person's position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.

C) the degree to which development is similar or universal across cultures.

D) a social label placed on a similar group of people based on their heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.

35) ________ is a government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.

A) Social policy

B) Generational policy

C) Cultural legislation

D) Equity policy

36) According to a study that analyzed the exposure to six stressors among poor children and middle-income children in the United States, which of the following is a difference between children in poor families and children in middle-income families?

A) Unlike children in poor families, children in middle-income families were much more likely to separate from a parent.

B) Unlike children in poor families, children in middle-income families were much less likely to have a peaceful home.

C) Unlike children in middle-income families, children in poor families were much more likely to be exposed to violence.

D) Unlike children in middle-income families, children in poor families were much less likely to be exposed to family turmoil.

37) Compared with earlier decades, U.S. adults today are

A) more likely to be married.

B) more likely to be childless.

C) less likely to be living alone.

D) less likely to need social relationships and support.

38) In the context of technology, which of the following was invented in the 1950s and contributed to changing human life permanently?

A) bluetooth

B) smartphones

C) global Positioning System (GPS)

D) television

39) Changes in motor skills, nutrition, exercise, the hormonal changes of puberty, and cardiovascular decline are all examples of ________ processes that affect development.

A) cognitive

B) biological

C) socioemotional

D) cultural

40) ________ processes refer to changes in the individual's thought, intelligence, and language.

A) Cognitive

B) Biological

C) Socioemotional

D) Cultural

41) ________ processes involve changes in the individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality.

A) Cognitive

B) Biological

C) Socioemotional

D) Polycentric

42) The connection across biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes is most obvious in the two rapidly emerging fields of

A) developmental cognitive neuroscience and developmental social neuroscience.

B) developmental biological neuroscience and developmental social neuroscience.

C) developmental socioemotional pharmacology and developmental biological pharmacology.

D) developmental cognitive biology and developmental cognitive biology.

43) The developmental period, when one is an infant, adolescent, or middle-aged person, refers to

A) a historical circumstance common to people of a particular generation.

B) a time frame in a person's life that is characterized by certain features.

C) a time frame in which a person experiences maximum change.

D) a time frame in a nation's history that is characterized by rapid development.

44) The ________ period is the time from conception to birth.

A) perinatal

B) prenatal

C) neonatal

D) postnatal

45) Daniel is 10 months old and is completely dependent on his parents. He is just beginning to acquire language and develop symbolic thought. In this scenario, which of the following developmental periods is Daniel most likely in?

A) adolescence

B) middle childhood

C) early childhood

D) infancy

46) Jenny is 4 years old. She becomes self-sufficient and develops school readiness skills. In this scenario, identify the developmental period that Jenny is most likely in.

A) infancy

B) early childhood

C) prenatal period

D) late childhood

47) Which of the following is a characteristic of the developmental period known as early childhood?

A) extreme dependency on adults

B) development of school readiness skills

C) formal exposure to the larger world

D) development of sexual characteristics

48) Alex is 8 years old and in the 3rd grade; his main focus is success in school, as he is gradually exposed to more and more information about the world at large. The developmental period Alex is currently in is

A) early childhood.

B) middle childhood.

C) adolescence.

D) adulthood.

49) Joey has shot up in height over the past year, has developed a deeper voice, and is starting to grow facial hair. He is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time with friends and less with family. Which of the following periods of development is Joey in?

A) middle childhood

B) adolescence

C) early adulthood

D) late childhood

50) Brittany is preoccupied with the pursuit of independence and identity and is spending more time with friends and less with family. Her thoughts are more logical, abstract, and idealistic. She is also experiencing rapid physical changes such as gaining height and weight. Which of the following periods of development is Brittany most likely in?

A) middle childhood

B) late adulthood

C) late childhood

D) adolescence

51) ________ is a time of establishing personal and economic independence, career development, and for many, selecting a mate, learning to live with that person in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing children.

A) Early adulthood

B) Late adolescence

C) Middle adulthood

D) Late adulthood

52) Travis spends a great deal of time working and trying to establish his career. He is also wondering if he should move in with his girlfriend and about their long-term prospects. Travis is most likely in the ________ period of development.

A) late adolescence

B) early adulthood

C) middle adulthood

D) late adulthood

53) Johnathan and his wife, Tracy, are in their mid-50s. They are expanding their personal and social responsibilities and assisting their children in becoming competent, mature individuals. Which of the following developmental periods are Johnathan and Tracy currently in?

A) early adulthood

B) emerging adulthood

C) middle adulthood

D) adolescence

54) Peter is a senior partner at his law firm and is an important member of his church and community. Both his children are in college. Peter's situation is most representative of which period of development?

A) early adulthood

B) middle adulthood

C) late adulthood

D) retirement

55) Late adulthood is a time of

A) life review, adjustment to new social roles, and diminishing strength and health.

B) expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility.

C) establishing personal and economic independence and advancing in a career.

D) selecting a mate, learning to live with that person in an intimate way, starting a family, and rearing children.

56) Jessica spends a lot of time thinking about the choices she has made in her life and the events she has witnessed. She is adjusting to decreasing strength and health, and she has made several lifestyle changes as a result. Jessica is most likely in the ________ period of development.

A) adolescence

B) early adulthood

C) middle adulthood

D) late adulthood

57) Which of the following is true of the period of development known as late adulthood?

A) It involves rapid physical changes and the development of sexual characteristics.

B) It is a time of establishing economic independence and advancing in a career.

C) It begins in the early 20s and lasts through the 30s.

D) It is a time of life review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles.

58) Katie-Lou is 88 years old. Katie would most likely be characterized as

A) young-old.

B) old-old.

C) oldest-old.

D) late-old.

59) Which of the following statements about the "young-old" is true?

A) They are people between 60 and 65 years of age.

B) They have little potential for physical and cognitive fitness.

C) They show considerable loss in cognitive skills.

D) They can develop strategies to cope with the gains and losses of aging.

60) Sharon is a 30-year-old stay-at-home mother to a toddler. Life-span developmentalists would consider her to be

A) in the second age of prime adulthood.

B) transitioning from early adulthood to middle adulthood.

C) a middle-aged woman.

D) in an adult latency period.

61) Life-span developmentalists who focus on adult development and aging describe life-span development in terms of four "ages." The "third age" in this conceptualization spans from

A) adolescence to prime adulthood.

B) twenties through fifties.

C) approximately 60 to 79 years of age.

D) approximately 80 years to the time of death.

62) Who among the following most likely exhibits the developmental pattern of successful aging?

A) Khalid who is 79 years old and has started experiencing a modest decline in his psychological functioning

B) Shyam who is 81 years old and frequently forgets where he places his belongings

C) Carlo who is 78 years old and suffers from Parkinson's disease, which impairs his daily functioning

D) Selena who is 80 years old and capable of walking without the support of a cane

63) The developmental pattern experienced by most people in which psychological functioning peaks in early middle age and starts to decline in the early eighties is called

A) normal aging.

B) pathological aging.

C) everyday aging.

D) successful aging.

64) Andrew is 60 and is starting to have memory lapses and struggling to complete things that used to take him no time at all. He finds himself forgetting driving routes that he used to know. Andrew might be experiencing the developmental pattern called ________.

A) normal aging

B) pathological aging

C) everyday aging

D) successful aging

65) According to an increasing number of studies in the United States, compared with younger people, older people

A) are more pressured to achieve.

B) have better relationships with people they care about.

C) are less content with what they have in their lives.

D) have less time for leisurely pursuits.

66) Determining ________ age involves knowing the functional capacities of a person's vital organs.

A) social

B) chronological

C) biological

D) psychological

67) Ramada, 69, an avid golfer and fitness enthusiast, recently got a comprehensive health exam done, and her physician remarked that her vital organs were in such good shape that her ________ age was about 10 years less than her chronological age.

A) social

B) mental

C) biological

D) psychological

68) ________ age is an individual's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age.

A) Social

B) Psychological

C) Physical

D) Biological

69) In predicting an adult woman's behavior, it may be more important to know that she is the mother of a 3-year-old child than to know whether she is 20 or 30 years old. This reflects the concept of

A) chronological age.

B) social age.

C) psychological age.

D) biological age.

70) Which of the following statements is true of chronological age?

A) It has become a less accurate predictor of life events in American society when compared with other conceptions of age.

B) It is the sole component of the overall age profile of an individual from the life-span perspective.

C) It is determined by knowing the functional capacities of a person's vital organs, which may be better or worse than those of other people of comparable age.

D) It refers to connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt.

71) In the nature-nurture issue, nature refers to an organism's ________, nurture to its ________.

A) personality traits; abilities

B) attributes; ecological heritage

C) biological inheritance; environmental experiences

D) acquired traits; heredity

72) The question of whether a fun-loving, carefree adolescent is bound to have difficulty holding down a 9-to-5 job as an adult most likely reflects the

A) epigenetic view.

B) stability-change issue.

C) nature-nurture issue.

D) continuity-discontinuity issue.

73) Gina's therapist attributes her delinquent behavior to heredity and to the gross neglect she suffered as a baby at the hands of her alcoholic mother. Gina's therapist appears to be emphasizing the ________ aspect of her development.

A) personality

B) life-long learning

C) discontinuity

D) stability

74) In the continuity-discontinuity issue in development, continuity refers to ________, while discontinuity implies ________.

A) abrupt change; stability

B) gradual change; distinct stages

C) qualitative change; quantitative change

D) discrete stages; gradations

75) The concept of discontinuity is characterized by

A) qualitative change.

B) quantitative change.

C) collective change.

D) measured change.

76) Lisa is a clinical psychologist. She decides to conduct a study on whether the progression of memory loss in older adults with Alzheimer's disease can be slowed down. According to the scientific method, which of the following describes the sequence Lisa should follow?

A) Collect data, conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, analyze data, and draw conclusions.

B) Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, collect data, analyze data, and draw conclusions.

C) Collect data, analyze data, conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, and draw conclusions.

D) Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied, draw conclusions, collect data, and analyze data.

77) Dr. Perkins predicts that children who spend years playing a musical instrument are smarter than children who do not play music. This testable prediction is known as a(n)

A) hypothesis.

B) classification.

C) variable.

D) axiom.

78) ________ theories describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion.

A) Behavioral

B) Social cognitive

C) Evolutionary

D) Psychoanalytic

79) Dr. Berenstein holds the view that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that a true understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind. Dr. Berenstein can be described as a(n)

A) psychoanalytic theorist.

B) evolutionary theorist.

C) cognitive theorist.

D) behavioral theorist.

80) Identify the correct sequence of the five stages of psychosexual development described in Freud's theory of development.

A) genital, oral, anal, phallic, and latency

B) oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

C) anal, genital, oral, phallic, and latency

D) oral, phallic, anal, latency, and genital

81) According to Sigmund Freud, which of the following statements is true?

A) Children's social interaction with more-skilled adults and peers is indispensable to their cognitive development.

B) Children go through four stages of cognitive development as they actively construct their understanding of the world.

C) The primary motivation for human behavior is social in nature.

D) People's basic personality is shaped during the first 5 years of their life.

82) Most contemporary psychoanalytic theorists believe that Sigmund Freud

A) proposed a theory that has stood the test of time and needs no revisions.

B) overemphasized sexual instincts

C) overemphasized cultural experiences as determinants of an individual's development.

D) underestimated the role of the unconscious mind in determining development.

83) The theory that was created by Erik Erikson is known as the ________ theory of development.

A) psychobiological

B) psychogenic

C) psychosocial

D) psychoanatomical

84) One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that

A) Freud underestimated the role of the unconscious mind in determining the life-span development of an individual.

B) Erikson believed that development lasted only until the age of 20.

C) Erikson emphasized the importance of both early and later experiences.

D) Erikson overemphasized the role of sexuality in the life-span development of an individual.

85) According to Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory, a lifelong expectation that the world will be a good and pleasant place to live sets in during the ________ stage.

A) industry versus inferiority

B) intimacy versus isolation

C) initiative versus guilt

D) trust versus mistrust

86) The first stage in Erikson's theory is

A) autonomy versus shame and doubt.

B) initiative versus guilt.

C) generativity versus stagnation.

D) trust versus mistrust.

87) Kelly responds to her infant's needs in a consistent and timely way. When he is tired she puts him down for a nap, and when he is hungry she feeds him. Erikson would say that Kelly is helping her son to develop a sense of

A) autonomy.

B) initiative.

C) trust.

D) integrity.

88) Two-year-old Julia is learning to talk, and her parents would say that her favorite word is "no." This would be considered normal for a child in Erik Erikson's life-span stage of

A) initiative versus guilt.

B) intimacy versus isolation.

C) autonomy versus shame and doubt.

D) trust versus mistrust.

89) McKenzie, age two, wants to do everything on her own. Her mother punishes her when she attempts to pour her own milk or tries to answer the phone. Erikson would say that McKenzie is likely to develop a sense of

A) inferiority.

B) autonomy.

C) stagnation.

D) shame and doubt.

90) Johnny is attempting to resolve the crisis of initiative vs. guilt. According to Erik Erikson, he is most likely in

A) preschool.

B) elementary school.

C) junior high school.

D) high school.

91) Erik Erikson's developmental theory consists of ________ stages that last from the first year of life to ________.

A) seven; early adulthood

B) eight; late adulthood

C) six; adolescence

D) nine; death

92) Edwin was a neglected child in his infancy. Now, at 31 years of age, he is highly cynical about the world and feels that no one can be relied upon. In his relationship, he is suspicious toward his partner, and these feelings eventually lead to the breakup of the relationship. According to Erikson's psychosocial theory, this indicates that Edwin did not successfully resolve the ________ stage of development, which in turn is causing him to experience ________ in his current developmental stage.

A) identity versus identity confusion; stagnation

B) trust versus mistrust; isolation

C) autonomy versus shame and doubt; confusion

D) trust versus mistrust; despair

93) The elementary school years where children need to direct their energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills is when Erikson's stage of ________ takes place.

A) intimacy versus isolation

B) integrity versus despair

C) autonomy versus shame and doubt

D) industry versus inferiority

94) Jessica, 16, is in the process of deciding what she wants to study in college. She wants to be an engineer one day and a painter the next day. Erik Erikson would say Jessica is in the ________ stage of development.

A) intimacy versus isolation

B) identity versus identity confusion

C) initiative versus guilt

D) industry versus inferiority

95) During early adulthood, Erik Erikson's developmental stage of ________ occurs.

A) intimacy versus isolation

B) integrity versus despair

C) initiative versus guilt

D) industry versus inferiority

96) Caitlin, age 25, has a good job as a financial analyst but she has few friends and has had no success in dating. She admits that being close to others is a problem for her. According to Erikson's psychosocial theory, Caitlin is at a risk of reaching the state of

A) stagnation.

B) guilt.

C) isolation.

D) shame and doubt.

97) The term "generativity" as described in Erikson's seventh stage of development primarily reflects a concern for

A) helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives.

B) forming healthy friendships and an intimate relationship with another.

C) developing healthy ego boundaries.

D) feeling secure in one's job.

98) The final stage of Erik Erikson's developmental theory is

A) generativity versus stagnation.

B) trust versus mistrust.

C) integrity versus despair.

D) intimacy versus isolation.

99) Roger looks back on his life and feels that he failed to reach his potential, squandered opportunities, and hurt a lot of people. At 82 years of age, he knows it is too late to make amends. Roger is slipping into

A) stagnation.

B) identity confusion.

C) despair.

D) mistrust.

100) Psychoanalytic theories are criticized for

A) not emphasizing sexual underpinnings.

B) not emphasizing unconscious aspects of the mind.

C) creating an image of people that is too negative.

D) stressing the importance of cognitive thoughts.

101) Dr. Wong is a cognitive developmental theorist, so we know that he will stress the importance of ________ in understanding development.

A) conscious thoughts

B) repressed memories

C) biological processes

D) the effects of genes and evolution on the development of intelligence

102) According to Piaget's theory, two processes underlie children's cognitive construction of the world

A) assimilation and generalization.

B) adaptation and abstraction.

C) association and abstraction.

D) organization and adaptation.

103) According to Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental theory, which of the following is true of the sensorimotor stage?

A) It is the second stage of cognitive development.

B) It lasts from birth to about 2 years of age.

C) It is the longest stage of cognitive development.

D) It involves developing images of ideal circumstances.

104) Piaget's four stages of cognitive development

A) start at conception and continue until adulthood.

B) start at birth and end at death.

C) span from conception to death.

D) start at birth and continue through adulthood.

105) Lynne, five, loves to draw and color. She represents the world with words and her drawings. According to Piaget's cognitive development theory, Lynne is in the ________ stage of cognitive development.

A) preoperational

B) sensorimotor

C) formal operational

D) concrete operational

106) Hidalgo, eight, is very good at addition and subtraction, but he has a hard time understanding the complex algebraic problems that his 14-year-old sister does. Hidalgo is currently in which of Jean Piaget's stages of development?

A) preoperational

B) concrete operational

C) formal operational

D) conceptual operational

107) Sandrine is now able to use abstract thought as well as logic; Piaget would argue that she is in the ________ stage of development.

A) preoperational

B) concrete operational

C) formal operational

D) conceptual operational

108) Vygotsky's theory emphasizes how ________ guides cognitive development.

A) culture and social interaction

B) biology

C) the unconscious mind

D) genetic makeup

109) A characteristic feature of information-processing psychologists is that they are most likely to

A) emphasize the influence of culture on development.

B) emphasize that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it.

C) state that individuals develop a gradually decreasing capacity for processing information.

D) state that thinking does not constitute information processing.

110) Behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize

A) unconscious motives.

B) discontinuity in behavior.

C) continuity in development.

D) that development occurs in stage-like fashion.

111) Dr. Nasrin believes that associating behavior with consequence can shape the probability of a behavior occurring. He is arguing that ________ conditioning is important for behavioral modification.

A) stimulus

B) operant

C) classical

D) cognitive

112) Nellie, three, bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. How could Skinner's concept of operant conditioning be applied to address this behavior?

A) explore experiences from Nellie's early childhood and address them in therapy

B) test Nellie to determine her current level of cognitive functioning

C) investigate her psychosocial environment and eliminate stressors

D) reward Nellie when she does not bang her head and punish the head-banging behavior

113) B. F. Skinner, a behaviorist, would argue that the most important things that shape development are ________.

A) thoughts and feelings

B) unconscious motivations

C) rewards and punishments

D) culture and society

114) Danny's mother is even-tempered, fair, and tactful. Seeing this, Danny is growing up to be a polite, good-natured boy too. This imitation or modeling of behavior mirrors the concept of ________ in Bandura's social cognitive theory.

A) operant conditioning

B) observational learning

C) salient stimuli

D) classical conditioning

115) Bandura's most recent model of learning and development includes three elements: behavior, environment, and

A) person/cognition.

B) culture.

C) education level.

D) motivation.

116) Fernando believes that the presence or absence of certain experiences in life has a long-lasting influence on individuals. He further believes that there is rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen and that this learning takes place at a critical period very early in the life of an animal. In this scenario, Fernando is most likely taking a(n) ________ approach to human development.

A) behavioral

B) ethological

C) social cognitive

D) psychoanalytic

117) Human infants go through an attachment period. John Bowlby calls this a ________ period, meaning that for optimal development attachment should occur during this period.

A) positive

B) critical

C) sensitive

D) severe attachment

118) A recent television documentary concluded that, from birth, girls are more nurturing than are boys. Daniel agrees with this because he believes nurturing is an evolutionary trait passed on through the generations, because females needed to be more nurturing to aid the survival of the species. Daniel's view reflects the ________ perspective of development.

A) ideological

B) clinical

C) ethological

D) theological

119) Konrad Lorenz performed research with goslings and found that many, upon hatching, identified him as their mother. He called this form of attachment

A) conditioning.

B) imprinting.

C) internalizing.

D) acclimatizing.

120) In Lorenz's view, imprinting needs to take place at a certain, very early time in the life of the animal, or else it will not take place. This period of time is called the

A) receptive period.

B) sensitive period.

C) critical period.

D) bonding period.

121) According to Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory, a person's family, peers, school, and neighborhood constitute his/her

A) microsystem.

B) mesosystem.

C) chronosystem.

D) macrosystem.

122) The ________ involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts.

A) metasystem

B) mesosystem

C) chronosystem

D) macrosystem

123) The ________ consists of links between a social setting in which an individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context.

A) microsystem

B) mesosystem

C) exosystem

D) macrosystem

124) The ________ involves the culture in which individuals live.

A) chronosystem

B) mesosystem

C) ethnosystem

D) macrosystem

125) Which of Urie Bronfenbrenner's environmental systems consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances?

A) the mesosystem

B) the chronosystem

C) the macrosystem

D) the exosystem

126) The idea that no singular theory can explain life-span development as a whole, but that each theory plays an important role, is referred to as a(n)

A) eclectic theoretical orientation.

B) mixed theoretical orientation.

C) abridged theoretical orientation.

D) severed theoretical orientation.

127) Which of the following is true of physiological measures used in the study of life-span development?

A) They are based on the assumption that a person's behavior is consistent and stable, yet personality can vary with the situation.

B) They involve the use of a standard set of questions to obtain people's self-reported beliefs about a particular topic.

C) They involve the use of electromagnetic waves to construct images of a person's brain tissue and biochemical activity.

D) They provide insights that sometimes cannot be attained in the laboratory and are used at sporting events and child-care centers.

128) Flevy, a marketing researcher, is conducting an extensive market study and has hired a big group of college students to hand out a standard set of questions to shoppers at malls and supermarkets and to seek their responses. Which of the following methods of data collection is Flevy using?

A) laboratory research

B) surveys

C) naturalistic observation

D) physiological measures

129) Cynthia is conducting a survey on the prevalence and patterns of substance abuse in her city. Which of the following problems is she likely to encounter while using this method of data collection?

A) the assumption that a person's behavior is consistent and stable

B) the inability to sample a large number of people

C) the assumption that surveys have to be conducted only in person

D) some participants may not tell the truth and instead give socially acceptable answers

130) Which of the following is a criticism of standardized tests?

A) They allow a person's performance to be compared with that of other individuals.

B) They assume a person's behavior is consistent and stable.

C) They provide information about individual differences among people.

D) They are difficult to design.

131) Ariel wants to describe the strength of the relationship between the number of airplane companies in the world and global warming. Which of the following kinds of research is Ariel most likely to perform?

A) descriptive

B) correlational

C) collaborative

D) discrete

132) Dr. Jackson's research has found that the correlation between IQ and head circumference is +.10. From this information, we can conclude that

A) people with large heads have a higher IQ than people with small heads.

B) there is a weak relationship between head size and IQ.

C) people with small heads tend to have a higher IQ than people with large heads.

D) head circumference is an important predictor of IQ.

133) Which of the following correlations is the strongest?

A) -.65

B) +.46

C) +.70

D) -.77

134) A(n) ________ is a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.

A) case study

B) survey

C) experiment

D) correlation

135) A researcher is interested in the effect of exercise on stamina in elderly patients. The patients are randomly assigned to be in a high-exercise or low-exercise training program for eight weeks. At the end of the program, their stamina is measured by seeing how long they can walk comfortably on a treadmill. In this study, the dependent variable is

A) the number of minutes on the treadmill.

B) the exercise program (high versus low).

C) the number of elderly patients.

D) the eight-week duration of the exercise program.

136) In an experimental study, the ________ group serves as a baseline against which the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared.

A) control

B) experimental

C) dependent

D) independent

137) The cross-sectional approach to developmental research compares

A) various research methodologies.

B) various developmental theories.

C) individuals of different ages.

D) individuals of different genders.

138) Dr. McLean has designed a study to test the cognitive skills of people in their 30s, 50s, and 70s, where data is collected over the course of a day through a series of tests. What type of research approach is Dr. McLean using?

A) longitudinal

B) cohort

C) latitudinal

D) cross-sectional

139) The longitudinal method of research consists of studying

A) the same individuals over a long period of time.

B) individuals of different ages.

C) individuals from around the globe.

D) individuals born in the same year.

140) A group of people who are born at a similar point in history and share similar experiences as a result is referred to as

A) a cult.

B) a clan.

C) a cohort.

D) a posse.

141) According to APA's guidelines, all participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop. This guideline addresses which of the following issues?

A) deception

B) debriefing

C) informed consent

D) confidentiality

142) When researchers use surface labels such as "Blacks," "Hispanics," and "Caucasians," they underrepresent the differences that exist among people within the same racial group. This practice is referred to as

A) ethnic gloss.

B) euphemization.

C) acculturation.

D) ethnic cleansing.

143) Identify the term that refers to the characteristics of people as males and females.

144) According to Paul Baltes, what is a co-construction of biological, cultural, and individual factors working together?

145) Which field of study explores links between development, cognitive processes, and the brain?

146) In the context of the conceptions of age, ________ refers to connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt.

147) Apart from the issues of stability versus change and continuity versus discontinuity, which developmental issue characterizes development throughout the human life span?

148) Which group of theorists emphasizes that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that a true understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind?

149) Which theorist proposed that psychosexual development occurs in the following five stages: the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic stage, the latent stage, and the genital stage?

150) Which theorist proposed eight psychosocial stages of development?

151) Which theorist developed the theory of operant conditioning?

152) Riley argues that behavior is strongly influenced by biology; it is tied to evolution and characterized by critical or sensitive periods. What theoretical orientation does Riley most likely take?

153) What term describes the method of gathering data by means of observing behaviors in real-world settings, making no effort to manipulate or control the situation?

154) Which type of research design by itself cannot prove what causes some phenomenon but can reveal important information about people's behavior?

155) What are the three developmental patterns of aging? Explain the difference between them.

156) In addition to chronological age, list and briefly describe the three other ways that "age" has been conceptualized.

157) What is the connection between age and happiness? What evidence is there for this relationship and why does it exist?

158) Define theory and hypothesis. Illustrate your answer with an example.

159) What are the four important ethical issues that the APA research guidelines address? Name them and explain why they are important.

160) List Freud's psychosexual stages, and explain how adult personality is determined as a result of these stages.

161) Describe two characteristics of the life-span perspective on development. Provide an example for each.

162) List and briefly describe Urie Bronfenbrenner's five environmental systems.

163) Define life expectancy. Describe a challenge presented by the dramatic increase in life expectancy in the United States.

164) Name one advantage and one disadvantage of using surveys as a way to collect data.

165) If, as a developmental researcher, one wished to study in-depth the life and mind of Ted Kaczynski—the notorious Unabomber—which method of data collection would one adopt and why?

166) Briefly explain the importance of studying life-span development.

167) Compare and contrast the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches to research, listing the advantages and disadvantages of both.

168) In the context of studies conducted on life-span development, explain the effect of gender bias.

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