Test Bank Life The Science of Biology 11th Edition by David E. Sadava A+

Test Bank Life The Science of Biology 11th Edition by David E. Sadava A+

Test Bank Life The Science of Biology 11th Edition by David E. Sadava A+

Test Bank Life The Science of Biology 11th Edition by David E. Sadava A+
  1. An organism

A) always contains more than one cell.

B) can evolve.

C) cannot do biological work.

D) can be generated from nonliving materials.

E) must reproduce to ensure survival of its kind.

  1. According to current thinking about the rise of life on Earth, what two critical types of molecules evolved in what order before the first primordial cells formed?

A) Carbohydrates followed by lipids

B) Nucleic acids followed by proteins

C) Enzymes followed by DNA

D) Photosynthetic pigments followed by amino acids

E) Oxygen followed by ozone

  1. Which are the two main lineages of prokaryotes that diverged early in life's history?

A) Bacteria and Eukarya

B) Protista and Bacteria

C) Eukarya and Protista

D) Bacteria and Archaea

E) Archaea and Eukarya

  1. The organisms that produced the oxygen gas in Earth's early atmosphere were

A) anaerobic eukaryotes.

B) aerobic eukaryotes.

C) photosynthetic prokaryotes.

D) aerobic prokaryotes.

E) completely unlike modern organisms.

  1. Evidence from which type of data supports the common origin of all life on Earth?

A) DNA structure

B) Atmospheric oxygen levels

C) Age of oldest fossil

D) Mitochondrial function

E) Cellular specialization

  1. Genetic information

A) is identical for all living cells.

B) continues unchanging from one generation to the next.

C) originates in the proteins in a cell.

D) can be passed on to offspring.

E) is only found in animal and plant cells.

  1. Prior to the industrial revolution in the mid-1800s, a species of moth had light-colored wings speckled with small black spots. This coloration camouflaged the moths resting on the birch trees growing in their native habitat, since birch bark has similar coloring. In the early 1900s, this changed as dark soot produced by industrial pollution coated birch trees such that the trees lost their speckled coloring. Years later, it was observed that the moths of this species had changed from being light and speckled to being solid black. Which is the most plausible reason for this change?

A) The moths changed their coloration to match their habitat as a response to increases in birds that preyed on the moths.

B) Black moths migrated into the habitat while speckled moths migrated out to decrease their chances of becoming prey for birds.

C) Birds evolved to become better predators of the speckled moths since there were more of them available as a food source.

D) Both birds and moths evolved to become better able to survive since evolution always causes change in the direction of improving any species.

E) Speckled moths declined and darker variants rose in numbers, as birds could more easily prey on speckled moths and less easily prey on black moths.

  1. Refer to the figure below showing the tree of life.

Based on this figure, which statement is true?

A) Most of the species that were ever present on Earth have already been discovered.

B) The diversity of organisms on Earth has increased since life arose.

C) Protists are prokaryotes.

D) Plants and bacteria do not share a common ancestor.

E) Fungi are more closely related to plants than to animals.

  1. Which evolutionary development paved the way for the tremendous diversity of life forms observed on Earth today?

A) Predation

B) Cellular differentiation

C) Flight

D) Cell division

E) Anaerobic metabolism

  1. Which set of outcomes is most likely if cell processes become unregulated and homeostasis is lost?

A) Mutation and genetic change

B) Metabolic readjustment and healing

C) Malfunction and disease

D) Adaptation and survival

E) Differentiation and cell specialization

  1. A population differs from a community in that a community

A) consists of just one species.

B) includes the abiotic environment.

C) includes many species.

D) is synonymous with an ecosystem.

E) is individuals of the same species that interact with each other.

  1. A researcher poses the hypothesis that plants grow tallest under a full spectrum of visible light. The researcher runs an experiment in which she plants seeds of the same plant species in pots and places different groups of pots under different lighting conditions. Group 1 receives the full spectrum of visible light, while groups 2 through 6 receive narrow ranges of visible wavelengths of light. All lighting conditions are at the same intensity. The researcher observes that the plants growing tallest are those exposed to blue light. After making these observations, which step is she most likely to carry out next?

A) Discard her original hypothesis and formulate a new one.

B) Repeat the experiment at a different level of light intensity.

C) Discard her question that asks what factors influence plant growth and why.

D) Design a follow-up experiment to change soil type and water conditions simultaneously as tests of these variables on plant growth.

E) Run a control trial to be sure that a valid conclusion can be made based on the results.

  1. In the scientific method, a hypothesis is

A) a final answer to a question.

B) formulated by statistical analysis of data.

C) an alternative to an experiment.

D) the basis for making predictions.

E) formulated solely by speculation.

  1. A biologist hypothesizes that keeping mice on a restricted diet with minimal calories will increase their aggression. The biologist designs an experiment in which 100 mice are to be housed in individual cages under similar conditions and diets. He then plans to place pairs of mice together in the same cage to observe their interactions. What is true about this study design?

A) The study is well designed since it uses a large sample of mice.

B) The study is not controlled.

C) The study includes too many variables.

D) The study is flawed because the hypothesis is not testable.

E) The study is unnecessary because the results are obvious.

  1. A research group hypothesizes that diet influences the distribution of bacterial species inhabiting the human digestive system. The researchers define two populations with very different diets—one in England and another in Africa—for sample collection. They take fecal samples from each group and measure the percentage of each species of bacteria present in the samples. How is this investigation classified and why?

A) This investigation is a controlled investigation because it was carried out using defined study populations.

B) This investigation is a controlled investigation because controlled methods were used for the collection and analysis of fecal samples.

C) This investigation is a comparative study because it compares a characteristic of two different groups that could be influenced by many variables.

D) This investigation is a comparative study because it tests a hypothesis that was formulated by comparing the diets of two populations.

E) This investigation is both a controlled and comparative study because it controls all but one variable influencing two study groups and then compares how that variable differs.

  1. Which is a reason to use statistics to evaluate data?

A) It provides a way for proving that your hypothesis is correct.

B) It facilitates the exclusion of data that do not fit your hypothesis.

C) It makes it possible to avoid having to consider the null hypothesis.

D) It enables you to predict experimental results.

E) It accounts for variation in scientific measurements.

  1. Refer to the table below.

A student created the table to categorize various scenarios as representing science or non-science. Which statement best evaluates the student's table?

A) The table is accurate as written and requires no changes.

B) Polling is not scientific, so the scenario regarding polling the population should be moved to the non-science section of the table.

C) Consulting a farmer's almanac is not scientific, so this statement should be moved to the non-science section of the table.

D) Using the Internet is scientific since the searching process is unbiased, so both statements regarding Internet use should appear on the science section of the table.

E) Self-diagnosing a medical issue is not scientific, so both statements regarding this scenario should be moved to the non- science section of the table.

  1. In 1928, British bacteriologist Alexander Fleming made an accidental discovery. He noticed that a fungus had contaminated one of the agar plates he had streaked with a bacterial species to be studied. The fungus prevented the bacteria from growing in the immediate area surrounding the fungus. Upon further investigation, Fleming found that the fungus produced a substance that was the agent responsible for killing the bacteria. He called this substance penicillin. Given this information, which statement best explains why Fleming's discovery is relevant to the general public today?

A) Fleming's work revealed the ability of bacteria to mutate, which necessitates the constant search for new antibiotics.

B) Fleming's discovery enabled the development of chemical substances as antibiotics to treat deadly bacterial infections.

C) Fleming's research spawned new questions about the ecological interactions between fungi and bacteria.

D) Fleming's attention to detail diverted his efforts to investigate bacteria and likely robbed humanity of important discoveries that he would have otherwise made.

E) Fleming's sloppiness in the lab serves as a reminder to all researchers that sterile technique is critical to preventing unwanted fungal growth on bacterial plates.

  1. Biologists have discovered through research on bacteria that they can use enzymes from these organisms to make specific changes of their choosing in the DNA of living bacterial cells. Are these discoveries relevant to people in their everyday lives? Why or why not?

A) No, because changes made to the DNA of bacteria are unrelated to anything that would affect the average person.

B) No, because work carried out in a laboratory setting would not be applicable to events that occur in the natural world.

C) No, because human cells are eukaryotic and bacterial cells are prokaryotic, so cellular processes in the two cells differ in too many ways.

D) Yes, because all organisms on Earth use the same genetic code, so techniques developed using bacterial DNA are applicable to human DNA.

E) Yes, because all cells use the same enzymes to carry out metabolic reactions, so human cells will have the same enzymes discovered in bacterial cells.

  1. A couple of recent movies depict terrifying scenarios in which pathogenic bacteria or viruses kill most of the people they infect. Which statement best answers whether it is possible for such a scenario to occur in real life and explains why?

A) It is not possible, because modern medicine has developed vaccines that protect us from harmful pathogens.

B) It is not possible, because even if someone does become infected, the medical community has so much knowledge and capability that it can effectively suppress any pathogen.

C) It is not possible, because bacteria and viruses found today are much less dangerous than they were many years ago when they caused so many human deaths.

D) It is possible because the more pathogenic the microbe, the easier it is for that microbe to infect someone.

E) It is possible because bacteria and viruses have such short life spans and large populations, they can quickly evolve new and very harmful characteristics.

  1. The basic structural and physiological unit of most living organisms is the

A) aggregate.

B) organelle.

C) genome.

D) membrane.

E) cell.

  1. Unmanned space probes are searching for signs of life on Mars. Which of the following would provide the best evidence for the presence of living organisms on Mars?

A) Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

B) Different nucleic acids and amino acids from those found on Earth

C) Fatty acid molecules

D) Complex molecules containing genetic information

E) Simple organic molecules

  1. The seed of a desert plant may be dormant for many years without growing, but it is still considered to be alive because it

A) is always converting molecules.

B) contains a genome and is capable of growing into a fully functional organism.

C) is always regulating its internal environment.

D) is reproducing.

E) is extracting energy from its environment.

  1. Which of the following statements about viruses is true?

A) They do not mutate or evolve.

B) They do not contain genetic information.

C) They carry out physiological functions on their own.

D) They depend on cellular organisms to reproduce.

E) They are composed of cells.

  1. Which is not a characteristic of most living organisms?

A) Regulation of internal environment

B) One or more cells

C) Ability to produce biological molecules

D) Ability to extract energy from the environment

E) Ability to change traits according to need

  1. Earth is approximately years old.

A) 5.5 million

B) 40–50 million

C) 4.5 billion

D) 5 trillion

E) 40 trillion

  1. There has been life on Earth for approximately years. A) 10,000

B) 4 million

C) 100 million

D) 1 billion

E) 4 billion

  1. The oldest rocks on Earth are approximately years old. A) 4,000‒5,000

B) 400,000‒500,000

C) 2–3 million

D) 4–4.5 billion

E) 8 billion

  1. The critical step for the evolution of life was the

A) formation of fatty acids.

B) formation of simple molecules.

C) appearance of proteins that could replicate themselves.

D) appearance of nucleic acids that could replicate themselves.

E) synthesis of proteins.

  1. Cells are characterized by

A) an aggregation of proteins.

B) the synthesis of proteins with stable shapes.

C) the enclosure of biological molecules by a membrane.

D) complex proteins being dissolved in water.

E) the formation of reactants and products.

  1. Refer to the figure below showing life's “timeline.”

Based on the timeline, which statement is true?

A) The oldest fossils include photosynthesizers.

B) The first photosynthesizers were prokaryotic.

C) Multicellularity arose before the evolution of eukaryotic cells.

D) The oldest fossils include multicellular organisms.

E) The first photosynthesizers were multicellular.

  1. An abundance of O2 led to the evolution of

A) photosynthetic eukaryotes.

B) aerobic eukaryotes.

C) anaerobic prokaryotes.

D) photosynthetic prokaryotes.

E) anaerobic eukaryotes.

  1. O2 is critical for terrestrial life on Earth because it

A) allows for anaerobic metabolism.

B) blocks UV radiation.

C) provides energy to some basic forms of life.

D) provided food for early prokaryotes.

E) once led to production of ozone in the upper atmosphere.

  1. The accumulation of allowed organisms to grow larger.

A) O2 in the atmosphere

B) CO2 in the atmosphere

C) CO2 in the water

D) O3 in the atmosphere

E) O3 in the water

  1. Which statement about aerobic metabolism is false?

A) It is more efficient than anaerobic metabolism.

B) It can occur in O2-rich environments.

C) It allows organisms to grow.

D) It is used by the majority of organisms on Earth today.

E) It provides protection from UV radiation.

  1. Which event was most directly responsible for increasing oxygen in Earth's atmosphere?

A) The cooling of the planet

B) The emergence of eukaryotes

C) The development of multicellularity

D) The evolution of photosynthesis

E) The rise of prokaryotes

  1. Photosynthesis was a major evolutionary milestone for several reasons. One reason is that

A) photosynthetic organisms contributed ozone to the environment, which led to the evolution of aerobic organisms.

B) photosynthesis led to conditions that allowed life to arise on land.

C) photosynthesis is the only metabolic process that consumes oxygen.

D) photosynthesis provides oxygen for anaerobic organisms.

E) photosynthesis changed the levels of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere.

  1. Refer to the figure below.

The figure compares data from four different organisms. The data include the first 35 amino acids that make up the protein cytochrome c, which functions in cellular respiration. Each capital letter represents a different amino acid. What do these data indicate about relationships among these four organisms?

A) The four organisms are unrelated because each has a unique sequence of amino acids that make up the cytochrome c


B) All four organisms have a common origin because the same protein is found in all four with only small differences in structure among the four.

C) All four organisms have a common origin because cells in all four contain large and complex biomolecules that carry out metabolic reactions that sustain life.

D) Only rattlesnake and dog have a common origin because only their cytochrome c sequences are similar.

E) Only wheat is unrelated to the other three, as shown by differences in cytochrome c structures, because wheat is a plant and the others are animals.

  1. Bacterial cells and human cells share many similar features. Which feature can be used as support for the claim that humans and bacteria have a common origin?

A) Both extract energy from their environment.

B) Both undergo cell division.

C) Both use chemical reactions to maintain the living state.

D) They contain proteins with similar compositions.

E) They have similar percentages of water.

  1. Suppose a space probe is successful in discovering a living organism on a distant planet. Which would be the best approach to collect data that would show whether this organism shares a common origin with Earth organisms?

A) Observe the organism's reproduction rate.

B) Test the organism's ability to adapt to an Earth environment.

C) Analyze the chemical makeup of the organism's genome.

D) Determine whether the organism can use oxygen in its metabolism.

E) Investigate whether a population of that type of organism is able to undergo evolutionary change.

  1. Refer to the figure below showing DNA as life's “blueprint.”

Which statement is not supported by evidence presented in the figure?

A) Genes are composed of DNA.

B) Information in DNA is used to construct proteins.

C) Nucleotides contain genetic information.

D) DNA is composed of nucleotides.

E) Proteins are composed of genes.

  1. The exposure of DNA to excessive levels of ultraviolet radiation produces dimers of thymine (a nucleotide); if unrepaired, these can lead to production of skin cancer. This mutation would

A) have no effect on genes.

B) have no effect on proteins.

C) affect both genes and proteins.

D) affect only proteins.

E) affect only genes.

  1. The information needed to produce proteins is contained in

A) nutrients.

B) tissues.

C) evolution.

D) organs.

E) genes.

  1. The ultimate source of new genetic variation is

A) perfect replication of the genome.

B) mating.

C) artificial selection.

D) mutations in the genome.

E) structural adaptations.

  1. Natural selection functions

A) by causing mutations in the genome.

B) by producing structural and functional changes within organisms.

C) through differential probabilities of survival and reproductive success.

D) through sexual selection and genetic drift.

E) by allowing unlimited growth of populations.

  1. Change in the genetic makeup of populations over time is known as

A) evolution.

B) speciation.

C) growth.

D) ecological change.

E) global change.

  1. The thorns on cacti are modified leaves and represent an example of a(n)

A) evolution.

B) binomial.

C) expressed gene.

D) genome.

E) adaptation.

  1. The toe pads of arboreal (tree) frogs and the webbed feet of aquatic frogs are examples of

A) genetic drift.

B) structural adaptations.

C) sexual selection.

D) artificial selection.

E) cooperation.

  1. Which is the feature or component of organisms that allows for their success in such a wide variety of environments on Earth?

A) Prokaryotic cells

B) Eukaryotic cells

C) Homeostasis

D) Adaptation

E) Model systems

  1. Which does not contribute to adaptation in the wild?

A) Artificial selection

B) Genetic drift

C) Natural selection

D) Sexual selection

E) Environmental conditions

  1. Which of the following is not true of life?

A) Life has a common ancestry.

B) Life is made up of living organisms.

C) Living organisms are all descended from a common origin.

D) Life has multiple origins.

E) Life has striking similarities across gene sequences.

  1. A species consists of

A) all the populations of different organisms that live together in a particular area.

B) all the populations found in a community.

C) a group of individuals of the same type of organism that share a common genome.

D) all the populations found in an ecosystem.

E) a group of individual organisms in an area that do not interact.

  1. The same DNA code is used by Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. However, when the sequences of genes encoding proteins of similar function are compared, certain groups of genes in Eukarya are more similar to those in Archaea than to those in Bacteria, while other groups of genes in Eukarya are more similar to those in Bacteria than to those in Archaea. Which statement is consistent with these findings?

A) The origins of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya are all different and unique from one another.

B) Archaea and Bacteria have the same common ancestor that differs from the one each shares with Eukarya.

C) Eukarya and Bacteria have the same common ancestor, and Eukarya and Archaea have the same common ancestor, but Archaea and Bacteria do not share a common ancestor.

D) Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya represent lineages that came from a single common ancestor.

E) Eukarya and Archaea have the same common ancestor that differs from the one each shares with Bacteria.

  1. A node on a phylogenetic tree represents

A) an extinction event.

B) a hybridization event between two variants of a species.

C) a common ancestor of two lineages.

D) a die-off of a population.

E) a new generation.

  1. Species are given a distinctive scientific name formed from two Latin names called a

A) minimal.

B) biannual.

C) normal.

D) binomial.

E) polynomial.

  1. Which scientific name is written incorrectly?

A) Homo sapiens

B) Branta Canadensis

C) Acer saccharum

D) H. neanderthalensis

E) Canis lupus

  1. A phylogenetic tree

A) classifies all plant species based on their habitats.

B) diagrams the evolutionary history of a particular group of organisms.

C) is based on binomial nomenclature.

D) only catalogues fossil plants.

E) only uses genome sequencing data.

  1. Once a phylogenetic tree has been constructed,

A) it cannot be changed.

B) it cannot be consolidated into any other phylogenetic tree.

C) it can be modified only using genetic data.

D) it can be modified only as organisms continue to evolve.

E) it can be modified or enlarged as new evidence warrants.

  1. Scientists' ability to reconstruct evolutionary history has been most enhanced in recent decades by

A) new fossil-hunting techniques.

B) advances in anatomical dissection.

C) improved microscopic technologies.

D) accurate genetic sequencing techniques.

E) an increase in research in animal developmental biology.

  1. Evolutionary relationships among living organisms can be determined by comparing

A) their genomes.

B) their physiological states.

C) their life stages.

D) their genders.

E) their ages.

  1. You propose a set of experiments to test whether present-day chloroplasts originated from a single or multiple endosymbiotic events. Which experimental approach would provide the most detailed test of these hypotheses?

A) Testing whether different groups of photosynthetic organisms have similar pigments in their chloroplasts

B) Testing whether the chloroplasts of different groups of photosynthetic organisms have the same structure

C) Performing an instrumental test to determine whether the wavelengths of light absorption by chloroplast pigments are the same in different groups of photosynthetic organisms

D) Using structural chemistry to test whether the light-absorbing pigments in different groups of photosynthetic organisms are the same

E) Comparing the genomes of chloroplasts found in different groups of photosynthetic organisms to determine their evolutionary relationship to one another as well as to free-living species

  1. Plants, fungi, and animals are most closely related to different groups of

A) protists.

B) endosymbiotic bacteria.

C) Archaea.

D) cyanobacteria.

E) inorganic molecules.

  1. Plants are

A) eukaryotic unicellular aerobes.

B) eukaryotic multicellular aerobes.

C) eukaryotic multicellular anaerobes.

D) prokaryotic unicellular anaerobes.

E) prokaryotic multicellular aerobes.

  1. Which group is most distantly related to protists?

A) Plants

B) Archaea

C) Birds

D) Fungi

E) Mammals

  1. A scientist has isolated the same gene from ten different species. Once these ten pieces of DNA have been sequenced, the scientist will line up the sequences to compare them. She should be able to draw conclusions about the evolutionary relationships among these ten species by using the following as a guide: The the in gene sequences for two species, the the time span since these species diverged from a common ancestor during their evolution.

A) greater; similarities; shorter

B) fewer; similarities; shorter

C) greater; similarities; longer

D) fewer; differences; longer

E) greater; differences; shorter

  1. Refer to the diagram below showing the evolutionary tree of life.

According to the relationships indicated by this phylogeny, which statement is true?

A) Animals are equally related to plants and fungi.

B) Animals are more closely related to fungi than they are to plants or any protists.

C) Fungi evolved more recently than did plants.

D) Most eukaryotes are protists.

E) Plants evolved more recently than did archaea.

  1. Refer to the diagram below showing the evolutionary tree of life.

Which statement is supported by this diagram?

A) Plants contain chloroplasts but not mitochondria.

B) No members of Eukarya contain both mitochondria and chloroplasts.

C) Chloroplasts are found in bacteria.

D) Mitochondria evolved before chloroplasts.

E) Mitochondria are found in bacteria.

  1. In the names of organisms, the is placed first and the is placed second.

A) species; genus

B) genus; domain

C) domain; genus

D) genus; species

E) domain; species

  1. Which factors are taken into consideration in the biological classification of organisms?

A) Physical characteristics only

B) Molecular characteristics only

C) Physical characteristics and fossil records only

D) Physical characteristics and molecular characteristics only

E) Physical characteristics, fossil records, and molecular characteristics

  1. Some plants have a vascular system composed of a type of tissue called vascular tissue. Plant vascular tissue functions to carry water, minerals, and nutrients to cells throughout the plant. In an analogous way, some animals have a vascular system, which is composed of several types of tissues that function collectively to move water, minerals, and nutrients to cells throughout the animal's body. Which statement makes an accurate comparison of plant and animal vascular systems?

A) Because both systems have the same basic function, they are composed of cells that are structurally similar.

B) Both plant and animal vascular systems evolved from a common origin, because they share the same biological function.

C) Animals are more complex than plants, implying that the vascular systems in animals are more complex than the vascular systems in plants.

D) The vascular systems in plants are not true vascular systems like those in animals, because plants do not have hearts.

E) Both systems evolved as the result of cell differentiation that took different paths in plants and animals but resulted in similar functions.

  1. Refer to the figure below showing changes in the diversity of vertebrate life forms inhabiting Earth over its history.

Which statement is accurate and also describes factors that most contributed to the trend depicted in the figure?

A) The range of animal body forms increased tremendously over the history of life on Earth because cell differentiation opened up new structural possibilities.

B) Over time, animals have experienced increasing survival rates because evolution moves in the direction of improving on past forms.

C) Simple vertebrates slowly evolved into more complex vertebrates, because the more complex forms are more highly evolved.

D) Biologists are less able to document the variety of life forms that inhabited Earth the farther back in time they search for clues.

E) The environment on Earth has changed: it was least hospitable to life in its earliest stages but has grown more and more hospitable to life over its long history.

  1. Which feature is the same in muscle cells and gut cells?

A) Cell function

B) Local cell environment

C) Expressed genes

D) Genome

E) Proteins formed

  1. Which provides evidence of the ability of cells to become specialized?

A) Replacing the nucleus in a sheep's cell with the nucleus from a mouse cell results in a cell with characteristics of a mouse cell.

B) Cells removed from a multicellular animal can undergo cell division in culture dishes indefinitely when provided a continued source of nutrients.

C) Cells from a mouse embryo can be isolated and used to repair an injury in the central nervous system of an adult mouse.

D) A virus can infect a human cell and insert some of its DNA into a human chromosome, where it will be replicated and carried along during division of the human cell.

E) Mouse cells grown in culture dishes undergo cell division at a slower rate at temperatures colder than 37°C.

  1. A group of cells that work together to carry out a similar function is known as a(n)

A) tissue.

B) organ system.

C) unicellular organism.

D) protein.

E) gene.

  1. Refer to the figure below.

The Cnidaria are simple marine animals that have either of the two basic body plans shown in the figure. You may be familiar with sea anemones, which have the body plan shown on the left, and you are likely familiar with jellyfish, which have the body plan shown on the right. What feature shared by both of these cnidarians could have been important in providing the conditions that enabled the rise of multicellularity on Earth?

A) Marine habitat

B) Tentacles

C) Shared mouth and anus

D) Separate internal and external layers

E) Symmetrical body shape

  1. Scientists hypothesize that multicellularity evolved when groups of cells exposed to an internal environment specialized to perform tasks needed by groups of cells exposed to the external environment, and vice versa. Which biological structures existing today could be used as examples to explain this concept?

A) The blood cells moving in a fish's circulatory system and the fish's lung tissue

B) The lining of a snake's intestine and the snake's skin

C) The bark on an oak tree and the waxy cuticle on an oak leaf

D) The trachea (airway) in a blackbird's neck and the heart in the blackbird's chest

E) The whiskers on a cat's face and the fur on the cat's tail

  1. Of the following, which is the smallest biological entity that maintains homeostasis?

A) Molecule

B) Cell

C) Tissue

D) Organ

E) Organism

  1. Homeostasis is

A) the mechanism by which organisms acquire nutrients from the environment.

B) the maintenance of a narrow range of internal conditions.

C) the sensory system of an organism.

D) the mechanical movement of molecules from one cellular location to another.

E) the maintenance of extracellular fluids.

  1. Which is not an attribute of homeostasis in a multicellular organism?

A) Maintaining a stable internal environment

B) Maintaining the extracellular fluid within a range of physical conditions

C) Maintaining a stable external environment

D) Physiological systems that can change in response to regulatory signals

E) Physiological systems that work cooperatively

  1. Which represents the correct order of the levels of complexity at which life is studied, from most inclusive to least inclusive?

A) Cell, tissue, organ, organism, population, community

B) Community, population, organ, organism, tissue, cell

C) Community, population, organism, organ, tissue, cell

D) Community, organism, population, organ, tissue, cell

E) Community, organism, population, cell, organ, tissue

  1. Refer to the image below.

Which is the smallest (lowest) level of biological organization that is visible and easily distinguished?

A) Community

B) Organism

C) Molecule

D) Cell

E) Population

  1. Which usually results from a scientific investigation?

A) Proof of the hypothesis

B) Refinement of the experimental design to produce qualitative data

C) Formulation of new questions that result in additional experimentation

D) Repetition of statistical tests to verify results

E) Development of additional technologies to meet the needs of scientists

  1. Which is not one of the major steps in the approach that uses a hypothesis and then a prediction?

A) Stating an opinion

B) Forming a hypothesis

C) Making an observation

D) Asking a question

E) Testing a prediction

  1. After observing that fish live in clean water but not in polluted water, researchers state that “polluted water kills fish.” Scientifically, this statement is an example of a(n)

A) fact.

B) observation.

C) opinion.

D) theory.

E) hypothesis.

  1. A biologist listens to frogs singing at a local pond and hypothesizes that the sounds are mating calls. What would be the next step in the hypothesis-and-prediction method?

A) Controlling an environment

B) Making an observation

C) Forming a hypothesis

D) Making a prediction

E) Testing a prediction

  1. A biologist hypothesizes that the sounds made by lions at night in the Serengeti are territoriality calls and predicts that two lions inhabiting the same territory will roar even louder. She selects an area inhabited by one lion, records its calls, and plays them back in the same area. She records her observations and notes that the lion does indeed roar more often as a result of this experiment. What would be the next step in the hypothesis-and-prediction method?

A) Asking new questions

B) Making an observation

C) Forming a hypothesis

D) Making a prediction

E) Testing a prediction

  1. The main purpose of any single experiment is to

A) obtain accurate quantitative measurements.

B) prove unambiguously that a particular hypothesis is correct.

C) avoid a merely comparative analysis.

D) answer as many key questions as possible.

E) test a prediction that is based on a hypothesis.

  1. A rapid decline of amphibian populations has been observed worldwide. Which could not be one of the proposed hypotheses related to this decline?

A) A fungal disease is the cause.

B) Increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the cause.

C) Exposure to agricultural chemicals is the cause.

D) Exposure to an oil spill is the cause.

E) Frogs die naturally.

  1. Which question cannot be answered by means of the hypothesis-and-prediction approach?

A) Are eastern meadowlark populations declining faster than western meadowlark populations?

B) Is the song of the western meadowlark prettier than that of the eastern meadowlark?

C) Do eastern and western meadowlarks interbreed?

D) Do meadowlarks benefit from prairie habitat restoration?

E) Have the migration paths of western meadowlarks been affected by climate change?

  1. Refer to the diagram below showing the steps in the scientific method.

Which step in the diagram best illustrates the use of inductive logic?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) 5

  1. Refer to the graph below showing the results of a study that exposed male frogs to atrazine, a chemical used in killing weeds in agricultural areas.

According to the data in the graph, higher atrazine concentrations do not result in a higher rate of gonadal abnormality. Which conclusion can be drawn from these results?

A) Low levels of atrazine are not as dangerous to amphibians as high levels of atrazine.

B) A dosage of 15 ppb would cause a rate of abnormality between the one caused by the 0.1 ppb dosage and the one caused by the 25 ppb dosage.

C) The effect of the atrazine exposure is not proportional to the level of exposure.

D) Atrazine is only hazardous in a natural ecosystem, where it is naturally diluted in the waterways.

E) Atrazine usage should be banned.

  1. Which is not a step in the scientific method?

A) Observing

B) Recording quantitative data

C) Discarding data that disprove a hypothesis

D) Formulating a hypothesis

E) Asking questions

  1. The advantage of controlled scientific experiments is that

A) all variables except one are held constant.

B) the hypothesis can be proven correct.

C) patterns can be predicted.

D) investigations can be carried out in the field.

E) a massive amount of data can be synthesized.

  1. Which is a characteristic of a comparative experiment?

A) It has only independent variables.

B) It has only one dependent variable.

C) It compares one independent variable with one dependent variable.

D) It starts with groups or samples that are as similar as possible.

E) It starts with the prediction that there will be a difference between groups or samples.

  1. A researcher collected frog and water samples from eight widely separated sites across the United States and studied the incidence of abnormalities in frogs exposed to different levels of the herbicide atrazine. This was a(n) experiment.

A) comparative

B) controlled

C) inductive

D) logic

E) deductive

  1. A statistical test starts with

A) a null hypothesis.

B) deductive logic.

C) inductive logic.

D) a hypothesis.

E) a model system.

  1. Refer to the table below.

A biologist studied plant growth using two plant species grown over a 2-week period. For each species, 20 plants were used, randomly split into control and experimental groups. Except for CO2 exposure, conditions were identical for all plants. The table summarizes results as average height increase, along with a plus/minus value indicating the range of individual plant heights measured. Which is the null hypothesis that would be developed when using statistics to analyze these results?

A) The growth rates of certain species of plants are more influenced by CO2 levels than others.

B) Differences in growth rate at the different CO2 levels could be due to random variations in the samples of both species.

C) All plants show variation in growth rate when environmental variables are changed.

D) Carbon dioxide is one of many variables that can influence plant growth rate.

E) The effect of CO2 on plant growth rate depends on the species of plant being investigated.

  1. Bacteria can be used as a model system to study chemical reactions in cells. These reactions can be related to similar processes in humans because bacteria and humans

A) share a genetic code.

B) are both prokaryotes.

C) have exactly the same genome.

D) have the same number of chromosomes.

E) share the same habitat.

  1. Much of what we know about the biochemistry of photosynthesis was discovered in experiments with

A) fruit flies.

B) zebrafish.

C) roundworms.

D) Arabidopsis.

E) Chlorella.

  1. Scientific explanations for a natural phenomenon

A) can be tested only in the laboratory.

B) are always based on an ethical point of view.

C) are based on reproducible and quantifiable observations.

D) are based on untested hypotheses.

E) cannot be rejected.

  1. Which statement represents a scientific point of view?

A) Earth was created by a supernatural force.

B) The positions of the sun, moon, and stars provide guidance for making decisions.

C) Inner strength comes from the beauty in nature.

D) Meditation helps to solve health problems.

E) Testing the effect of antibiotics on E. coli can help prevent deaths from food poisoning.

  1. Many possible applications of scientific knowledge raise ethical issues for some people. Which application, however, would be rejected by all responsible scientists?

A) Selecting the sex of one's children

B) Using stem cells as part of medical treatments

C) Modifying the human genome

D) Using scientific knowledge to dictate how the world ought to be

E) Moving genes from one organism to another

  1. In which organisms have modern agricultural practices been used to develop new breeds or strains?

A) Animals

B) Plants

C) Fungi and plants

D) Animals and plants

E) Animals, plants, and fungi

  1. Which scientific field is providing us with knowledge that will help in the control of possible future tuberculosis epidemics?

A) Fungal bioinformatics

B) Agricultural biology

C) Plant genomics

D) Marine ecology

E) Molecular biology

  1. New vaccines to protect against the influenza virus are developed every year because of the virus's

A) high rate of infection.

B) high rate of evolution.

C) long generation time.

D) low mutation rate.

E) short life span.

  1. Which problem is directly related to global climate change?

A) Development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

B) Overfishing of bluefin tuna

C) Engineering of drought-resistant crops

D) Consumption of fossil fuels

E) Genetic diseases

  1. Overfishing in the Atlantic bluefin tuna breeding ground has resulted in a serious decline in the tuna's population. In response, an international commission drew a line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean with the intent of allowing western populations of bluefin tuna to recover by restricting fishing quotas in that hemisphere. Why did this policy fail to achieve the desired result?

A) Tracking data showed that the tuna's breeding ground is identical to its feeding ground.

B) Tracking data showed that western bluefin tuna feed all across the Atlantic Ocean.

C) Tracking data showed that eastern and western bluefin tuna populations are geographically isolated in terms of their feeding grounds.

D) No tuna caught on the eastern side of the line were from the western breeding population.

E) All tuna caught on the western side of the line were from the eastern breeding population.

  1. Which is not a direct concern for biologists?

A) The origin of the universe

B) The extraction and consumption of fossil fuels

C) The rate of change in the world's ecosystems

D) The increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

E) The rapid rate of climate warming

  1. The term “anthropogenic” refers to

A) human-caused fires.

B) the study of insects.

C) human-generated effects upon the environment.

D) the study of human biology.

E) the study of agriculture.

  1. A young child becomes very ill and is taken for medical evaluation. The analysis reveals a genetic disorder, and he is sent home with medication to alleviate his symptoms. Other members of the family are concerned about how the child's illness can affect them. Which statement provides reasonable advice to these family members?

A) Isolate the sick child as much as possible to prevent any other family members from contracting the illness.

B) Have only adult family members come into contact with the sick child, and keep younger members of the family away from the child and any of his things.

C) Allow family members to interact with the child as long as they avoid contact with his body fluids and wash their hands immediately after interactions with him.

D) Give everyone in the family the same medication as the child to prevent their contracting the illness from the child.

E) Assure all family members that the illness is not contagious and that the best course of action is to make the child as comfortable as possible and stick to the prescribed dosage and timing when administering his medication.

  1. are the basic structural and physiological units of living organisms.

  1. In the course of evolution, fatty acids were the critical ingredient in the enclosure of biological molecules in membranous films because these molecules are not in water.

  1. The two membrane-enclosed compartments within cells that are thought to have arisen from prokaryotes engulfing other prokaryotes are mitochondria and .

  1. Single-celled organisms that lack discrete intracellular compartments belong to the groups Archaea and .

  1. In contrast to eukaryotic cells, prokaryotes lack intracellular compartments referred to as .

  1. The use of energy from sunlight to synthesize complex molecules is known as .

  1. The sum total of all the chemical transformations and other work done in a living organism is called its .

  1. Scientists have been able to show that organisms as different as fruit flies and dogs share a majority of their genes. In these investigations, scientists compare the DNA of two or more organisms by looking for similarities in nucleotide .

  1. The total of all the information encoded by an organism's genes constitutes its .

  1. The change in genetic makeup of biological populations through time is called .

  1. Charles Darwin called the differential survival and reproduction among individuals in a population .

  1. are structural, physiological, or behavioral traits that enhance an organism's chance of survival and reproduction in its environment.

  1. A Pacific tree frog has the scientific nomenclature Hyla regilla. This particular tree frog belongs to the genus .

  1. The three major groups of multicellular eukaryotes are the plants, animals, and fungi. They evolved independently from different groups of unicellular eukaryotes generally known as .

  1. Genome sequencing and other molecular techniques have allowed biologists to study the evolution and classification of life's diverse organisms. By examining the fossil record and by identifying similarities and differences among living species, they have been able to construct trees to diagram evolutionary relationships.

  1. A group of individuals of the same species that interact is called a population, a group of populations of different species that live and interact in the same area make up a community, and communities together with the nonliving environment constitute a(n) .

  1. A claim has been made that populations of songbirds in a forest ecosystem will decline as the result of proposed increases in human activity in a nearby area. One means of testing this claim would be to collect quantifiable on the bird populations before the human activity begins and at various times after.
  2. Refer to the diagram below showing the steps in the scientific method.

Step 4 illustrates the use of logic.

  1. After observing new data, scientists apply logic in order to propose a possible explanation, which is called a hypothesis.

  1. A scientist is designing an experiment to test a bacterium's ability to use carbon sources other than glucose for nourishment. She inoculates four different flasks with samples of the bacterium and observes whether the bacteria grow. All of the flasks contain minimal media plus a carbon source. The carbon source is glucose in flask A, arabinose in flask B, galactose in flask C, and lactose in flask D. Flask A is a in this experiment.

  1. Frogs are amphibians and spend time both on land and in water. Female frogs are vulnerable to predation by fish when they enter the water to lay eggs. A hypothesis has been proposed that frogs rely on chemical detection of predators in addition to visual detection. In other words, frogs detect the presence of predator fish by chemicals released by fish into the water. In designing an experiment to test this hypothesis, a scientist constructed two test ponds that were identical except for the presence of compounds released by fish. This condition was the only that differed in the two setups used in the experiment.

  1. Platelets are cell fragments that are critical for blood clotting, a process that involves the release of proteins from platelet storage granules. Platelet granules contain approximately 300 different proteins. One hypothesis about the packaging of proteins into these granules is that each protein is delivered in precisely measured amounts to each granule. An alternative hypothesis is that each protein is targeted to the individual storage granules randomly. The second hypothesis is an example of a(n) hypothesis.

  1. Because of the similarities shared by many life forms, scientific knowledge gained about one type of organism can often be generalized to other organisms. Biologists studying photosynthesis, for example, have experimented with the Chlorella alga, knowing that they could extend their findings to plants. In this case, photosynthesis in the alga was considered a system.

  1. The study of cellular metabolism in the bacterium Escherichia coli has allowed scientists to understand many cellular reactions that take place in human cells as well. This is an example of how biologists use model systems to extend their findings to many different types of .

  1. Changes in the global climate, leading to the extinctions of large numbers of species and the spread of new and old diseases, are caused largely by the activities of .

  1. What hypothesis has been proposed to explain the emergence of eukaryotic cells?

  1. Cellular life is divided into three major lineages. What are these three lineages, and what are their key similarities and differences?
  2. What is the significance of the fact that mitochondria and chloroplasts contain the DNA that instructs their form and function?

  1. Biologists can now isolate genes from organisms and decode their DNA. When the nucleotide sequences from the same gene in different species are compared, differences are discovered. How could you use those data to deduce the evolutionary relationships among the organisms in your comparison?

  1. Refer to the figure below.

The diagram depicts the life cycle of an organism known as a slime mold, which can be found in temperate forest ecosystems. A slime mold begins as a group of single cells that function independently when nutrients are readily available. However, these cells begin aggregating to form a multicellular slug and then a fruiting body when starved. The fruiting body produces spores and dies after releasing the spores. Provided that they land in a nutrient-rich environment, spores then develop into individual cells that can begin the process over again. Using this information, explain how cell specialization contributes to the biological success of slime molds.

  1. Refer to the figure below.

The figure shows early steps in the embryonic development of a simple vertebrate animal. Each figure represents a cross- sectional view of a developing embryo. The blastula can be described as a ball of cells. These cells formed from a fertilized egg that underwent several rounds of cell division. The blastula then undergoes invagination to form the gastrula as shown in the diagram. During invagination, some cells are pushed up into the center of the ball, creating a cell-lined pocket on the inside of the gastrula. This pocket later becomes the digestive tract of the developing animal. All vertebrate animals follow this pattern of development. Analyze the diagram to explain why the process of gastrulation provides the opportunity for the evolution of cell specialization and multicellularity in animals.

  1. Multicellular organisms must regulate their internal environment. Explain the concept of homeostasis, why it is necessary, and how organisms maintain homeostasis.

  1. The study of biology can be organized from the most basic unit, the molecule, up to the biosphere. Describe how each level is connected with the level below it.
  2. Refer to the image below, which shows a group of organisms.

According to the hierarchy of biological systems, what level is represented by this group of organisms? Explain your reasoning. If nonliving components such as soil, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water are included with these organisms, what level is represented? Explain.

  1. Refer to the graph below.

The graph shows data collected between 1993 and 2003 relating to a population of birds. Suppose that in 2003 another biologist observed a sudden decrease in the population of an insect that was the major component of the diet of this bird species. Explain how both sets of observations would have provided a basis for developing a testable hypothesis.

  1. Refer to the figure below.

Gregor Mendel observed that some crosses between short and tall pea plants yielded the results shown in the figure. Explain why this observation did not fit with what someone of Mendel's time might have expected, and how this relates to the scientific investigations that Mendel pursued.

  1. Why is it important in science to design and perform experiments that are capable of falsifying a hypothesis?

  1. Discuss how the process of scientific inquiry is different from other forms of inquiry. Include in your discussion a description of the hypothesis-and-prediction approach.
    1. Scientists interested in human biology typically perform experiments with other model systems. Why do scientists use model systems in this way?

  1. Modern biological scientific research has greatly increased the cure rate for many diseases. How has biological research improved the development of disease treatments?

  1. Imagine that NASA's next probe to one of Jupiter's moons takes a sample from one of its methane lakes. Pictures taken under a microscope reveal a cell-like structure remarkably similar to that of a simple prokaryotic organism. NASA calls it a “Xenop.” Based on the textbook's discussion of the common aspects of living organisms on Earth, which of the following pieces of information about the Xenop is paired with its logical conclusion?

A) The Xenop is the same size and shape as some prokaryotes and, therefore, is or was a living organism.

B) The Xenop contains different nucleic acids and amino acids from organisms on Earth and, therefore, is not and never was a living organism.

C) The Xenop can go many years without extracting energy from its environment and, therefore, is not and never was a living organism.

D) The Xenop does not contain genetic information or reproduce and, therefore, is not and never was a living organism.

E) The Xenop contains complex molecules and, therefore, is or was a living organism.

  1. All living organisms acquire from their environment.

A) sunlight

B) nutrients

C) carbon dioxide for photosynthesis

D) cues for forming different tissue types

E) oxygen

  1. Nutrients acquired by animals

A) are all synthesized by the cells of other organisms.

B) are all broken down outside of cells.

C) are a source of matter but not energy for the animals.

D) are broken down to produce usable energy for cellular processes.

E) do not play a role in the synthesis of complex molecules.

  1. Viruses

A) can mutate.

B) can extract energy from their environment.

C) can synthesize DNA or RNA on their own.

D) can reproduce on their own.

E) are cellular.

  1. If samples were brought back from a distant planet, which would be the first evidence of life in them, assuming their evolution followed the same path as on Earth?

A) Presence of nucleic acids

B) Multicellular life forms

C) Presence of oxygen

D) Cell membranes

E) Presence of fatty acids

  1. Scientists postulate that the enclosure of complex proteins and other biological molecules by membranes resulted in the first cells with the ability to

A) reproduce.

B) photosynthesize.

C) carry out aerobic respiration.

D) live in nonaqueous environments.

E) differentiate.

  1. Life arose on Earth approximately years ago. A) 4,000

B) 400,000

C) 4 million

D) 1.5 billion

E) 4 billion

  1. Which correctly lists the order of important first events in the history of life?

A) First archaea, chemical evolution, first chloroplasts, first nucleus, first cyanobacteria

B) Chemical evolution, first archaea, first cyanobacteria, first nucleus, first chloroplasts

C) Chemical evolution, first cyanobacteria, first archaea, first chloroplasts, first nucleus

D) First cyanobacteria, first nucleus, first archaea, first chloroplasts, chemical evolution

E) First cyanobacteria, chemical evolution, first archaea, first nucleus, first chloroplasts

  1. Scientists estimate that for more than years after cells originated, all organisms consisted of one cell. A) 2,500

B) 250,000

C) 2 million

D) 2 billion

E) 2 trillion

  1. A cell

A) always contains a nucleus.

B) is found only in plants and animals.

C) is the fundamental unit of life.

D) is never an entire organism.

E) is always prokaryotic.

  1. All chemical transformations and other work done in an organism contribute to its

A) mechanical work.

B) synthesis.

C) breakdown.

D) metabolism.

E) electrical work.

  1. Metabolism is

A) the consumption of energy.

B) the release of energy.

C) all chemical transformations in a cell or organism.

D) the production of heat by chemical reactions.

E) the exchange of nutrients and waste products with the environment.

  1. Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that a eukaryotic cell has

A) genes.

B) proteins.

C) a membrane-bound nucleus.

D) membranes.

E) nucleic acids.

  1. The early organisms that produced the first oxygen gas in Earth's atmosphere were

A) aerobic eukaryotes.

B) anaerobic eukaryotes.

C) photosynthetic prokaryotes.

D) aerobic prokaryotes.

E) completely unlike modern organisms.

  1. The initial accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere was the result of photosynthesis from an organism most like modern

A) algae.

B) mosses.

C) kelp.

D) eukaryotes.

E) cyanobacteria.

  1. Photosynthesis was a major evolutionary milestone because

A) photosynthetic organisms contributed oxygen to the environment, which led to the evolution of aerobic organisms.

B) photosynthesis led to conditions that allowed unicellular organisms to thrive in marine environments.

C) photosynthesis is the only metabolic process that can convert the chemical energy stored in chemical bonds into biological work.

D) photosynthesis reduces the harmful effects of ultraviolet light.

E) photosynthetic organisms provided a way for the elements carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen to be recycled from the biosphere back into the physical environment.

  1. The emergence of which of the following is hypothesized to have led to changes in Earth's atmosphere that in turn led to totally new avenues of evolution?

A) Sexual reproduction

B) Eukarya

C) Photosynthesis

D) Multicellularity

E) Aerobic metabolism

  1. The organisms that produced oxygen gas in Earth's atmosphere paved the way for the type of metabolism used by larger organisms, called metabolism.

A) anaerobic

B) photosynthetic

C) aerobic

D) homeostatic

E) heterotrophic

  1. Ozone is important to life on Earth because it

A) is toxic to all forms of life.

B) can be used in place of oxygen.

C) blocks much ultraviolet radiation.

D) provides energy to some basic forms of life.

E) acts as a disinfectant.

  1. A final prerequisite for the survival of life on land was the accumulation of a protective layer of

A) O2 in the atmosphere.

B) CO2 in the atmosphere.

C) water vapor in the atmosphere.

D) O3 in the atmosphere.

E) bacteria in the soil.

  1. Refer to the table below.

Which data provide evidence that these two organisms have a common origin?

A) Cell sizes

B) Time for one cell division cycle

C) Number of genes

D) DNA base identities

E) Identity of most prevalent molecule in a cell

  1. Suppose that a microorganism is discovered on a distant planet. Which investigation could be expected to yield information that could either support or refute the hypothesis that life originated only once in the universe?

A) Study of the organism's ability to synthesize new molecules

B) Investigation into the ability of the organism to reproduce itself

C) Identification of the molecule(s) that encode the organism's biological information

D) Evaluation of the organism's rate of nutrient intake

E) Analysis of the organism's cell surface area-to-volume ratio

  1. In the human body you can find a variety of cells, including skin cells, blood cells, bone cells, nerve cells, and muscle cells. You can find the same variety of cells in a frog. Which statement is true about these cells?

A) As a result of descent from a common ancestor, similar genes are expressed in similar types of cells in frog and human.

B) A common ancestor of frog and human lost similar genetic components that led to cell specialization.

C) Different ancestors of frog and human were exposed to similar environmental pressures that led to cell specialization.

D) Cell specialization was an evolutionary event that occurred after the human and frog lineages split apart from their common ancestor.

E) To express the same types of cells, humans and frogs have identical genetic components.

  1. A genome is

A) not subject to change.

B) usually made of RNA.

C) made of proteins.

D) the sum of all genetic information in a cell.

E) only found in an animal or plant cell.

  1. All cells in a complicated multicellular organism

A) contain a subset of the genome.

B) have the same function.

C) express the same parts of the genome at the same time during development.

D) have controlled expression of their genome.

E) randomly express parts of the genome.

  1. Which of the following statements about mutations is incorrect?

A) All mutations are harmful.

B) Mutations occur spontaneously.

C) Mutations can be induced by outside environmental factors.

D) Mutations occur each time the genome is replicated.

E) A mutation can improve the functioning of an organism.

  1. Which statement is correct?

A) All cells from a single complex organism express the same genes.

B) Mutations are always caused by chemicals or radiation.

C) Mutations can occur spontaneously.

D) Most mutations are harmful, so evolution proceeds more rapidly when no mutations occur.

E) Mutations affect proteins but not the DNA.

  1. Which is required for natural selection to occur?

A) Organisms in a population must have the same traits.

B) A trait must be heritable so that it is capable of being passed on to future generations.

C) A trait must decrease survival.

D) A trait must decrease reproductive success.

E) A trait must be capable of change within a single individual.

  1. Populations of organisms have been able to inhabit a wide variety of environments on Earth because they

A) have a genome.

B) contain organelles.

C) carry out photosynthesis.

D) adapt through evolution.

E) are similar to model organisms.

  1. Darwin referred to the differential reproductive success of individuals with particular variations as

A) evolution.

B) artificial selection.

C) the cell theory.

D) natural selection.

E) inheritance of acquired characteristics.

  1. A key point in Darwin's explanation of evolution is that

A) the biological structures most likely to be inherited are those that have become best suited to the environment through constant use.

B) all mutations that occur are those that will help future generations fit more successfully into their environments.

C) any trait that confers even a small increase in the probability that its possessor will survive and reproduce will be favored and will spread through the population.

D) genes change to help organisms cope with problems encountered within their environments.

E) extinction is nature's way of weeding out undeserving organisms.

  1. Which statement is true?

A) The diversity of life has depended on similar environments and ecological communities around the globe.

B) Sexual selection and genetic drift contribute to the diversity of life.

C) Earth has existed and changed over a few thousand years, at most.

D) All ancestral forms of life were very similar to organisms that currently exist.

E) All organisms are closely related genetically.

  1. Evolution is

A) only relevant to the study of biology.

B) the change in the genetic makeup of a population through time.

C) the change in protein expression of an individual organism through time.

D) not influenced by natural selection.

E) always improving a species.

  1. Relationships between living organisms can best be gleaned by comparing

A) the fossil record.

B) the genomes of living organisms.

C) the patterns of embryological development of living organisms.

D) anatomical features of living organisms.

E) anatomical features of fossils.

  1. A phylogenetic tree

A) shows ecological relationships among different organisms.

B) relies on evidence from controlled experiments.

C) helps us predict the future challenges facing living organisms.

D) shows the order in which populations split and evolved into new species.

E) is not subject to change once it has been constructed.

  1. The Eukarya include all of the following except

A) archaea.

B) plants.

C) fungi.

D) animals.

E) protists.

  1. Refer to the figure below.

Which is demonstrated in this diagram of the tree of life?

A) There are three groups of Eukarya.

B) Protists and bacteria have no common ancestor.

C) Plants and fungi have a more recent common ancestor than plants and animals do.

D) Plants, fungi, and animals are descendants of a common eukaryotic ancestor.

E) Archaea is the most ancient group in terms of the evolutionary history of all organisms on Earth.

  1. A group of differentiated cells that work together to carry out a similar function is known as a(n)

A) tissue.

B) organ system.

C) unicellular organism.

D) protein.

E) gene.

  1. Suppose that multicellular life had never evolved on Earth. Which characteristic would be absent in the life forms observed today in that case?

A) The ability to carry out photosynthesis

B) The ability to move about

C) The ability to prey on other organisms

D) The ability to digest food molecules

E) Nervous systems

  1. Refer to the figure below showing the steps carried out in a laboratory using cells obtained from a mouse embryo.

What statement is true based on the experiment depicted in the figure?

A) The processes involved in a developing multicellular organism are too complex to study in the lab.

B) External factors are unimportant in determining the path of specialization of cells in a developing embryo.

C) Specialization of each cell in a multicellular organism relies solely on which genetic factors are present in the cell.

D) A multicellular organism develops from a group of identical cells into nonidentical specialized cells that perform different functions.

E) Cells become specialized as a mouse embryo develops, but their specialized identities can be changed to different identities at times along the way.

  1. Suppose that you are working in a research lab investigating the nature of multicellularity. Which evidence could you gather from two different types of cells obtained from an adult multicellular animal to show that they are specialized?

A) Presence of cell machinery needed to synthesize proteins

B) Ability to take in nutrients

C) Differences in genes being expressed

D) Changes to the total amount of DNA present

E) Responses of cells to waste buildup

  1. Which is evidence that an organ system provides a level of function not possible with individual organs operating independently?

A) Bears grow thick fur on their bodies.

B) Blood circulates to all tissues of a horse's body.

C) Humans produce antibodies that bind to invading pathogens.

D) Bones in mammals are composed of living cells.

E) The dog stomach produces digestive enzymes.

  1. Refer to the figure below.

The figure shows a simple sponge that lives attached to the ocean floor. The sponge consists of an outer layer of epidermal cells, an inner layer of collar cells and amebocytes, and pore cells that allow water to move from the outside to the inside. The water is propelled by the beating of flagella attached to the collar cells on the inside cavity. Collar cells trap food particles that are digested by the amebocytes. A student claims that a simple sponge could be a model organism used to study how multicellular organisms evolved. Which statement best evaluates this student's claim?

A) The student's statement is correct because the sponge lives attached to the ocean floor and would therefore be a model for multicellular plant evolution.

B) The student's statement is correct because the sponge demonstrates a simple structure made up of cells that have specialized to serve different functions.

C) The student's statement is incorrect because the sponge does not have any recognizable organs or organ systems.

D) The student's statement is incorrect because the sponge has only four different types of cells while other multicellular organisms have many more.

E) The student's statement cannot be evaluated, because there is not enough information to support or refute the claim.

  1. Sea squirts are marine organisms that have a simple bag-like body structure. The sea squirt draws water through slits in its body into the body interior. It filters food from the moving water and squirts the water along with waste materials through an opening in its body. What is likely true about the sea squirt's body cells?

A) The body cells are all identical in structure and function, so each cell has the ability to conduct every task needed for survival.

B) The body cells are all identical in structure but have different functions depending on location in the animal's body.

C) The body cells on the inside have evolved to rely on the cells on the outside for a function they cannot carry out, and vice versa.

D) The body cells on the inside and outside have evolved to perform every function, giving the best chance of survival if environmental conditions change.

E) The body cells on the outside must be dead, since they are not in contact with the food source and only provide a protective role.

  1. Refer to the table below.

The table shows a list of symptoms observed in an older domestic cat. The veterinarian observing these symptoms suspects a problem involving the thyroid gland. This gland produces and secretes thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone is involved in controlling cell metabolism and its use of energy. It also is involved in controlling heart rate, breathing rate, and other organ functions. Should this be a concern to the cat's owner?

A) Yes, because the cat's internal body systems are not in balance and will continue to be out of balance until thyroid hormone levels are restored to the normal range.

B) Yes, because the cat could infect the owner with the disorder during cleanup of waste resulting from the cat's diarrhea.

C) No, because the symptoms are not debilitating and the cat is not likely to die from the disorder.

D) No, because this is likely to be a temporary problem that the cat will eventually recover from on its own.

E) There is not enough information to make a judgment.

  1. Gaucher disease is a genetic disorder in which the cells do not produce an enzyme necessary for breaking down fatty substances. Persons afflicted with Gaucher disease experience severe problems, including swelling, bruising, anemia, neurological problems, and bone abnormalities. Some patients die of the disease. Which statement explains why the lack of an enzyme leads to the problems observed in patients with Gaucher disease?

A) Fatty substances accumulate and block normal cell functions.

B) Cells are forced to use fatty substances as a nutrient source.

C) DNA mutates at a greater rate upon exposure to fatty substances.

D) Fatty substances break down proteins and DNA in cells.

E) Enzymes other than the missing one catalyze their reactions at accelerated rates.

  1. Homeostasis involves the maintenance of a

A) variable internal environment.

B) constant external environment.

C) constant internal environment.

D) constant rate of natural selection.

E) variable rate of natural selection.

  1. In terms of increasing complexity, the order of parts of a multicellular animal is

A) cell, macromolecule, tissue, organ, organ system.

B) molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system.

C) tissue, cell, molecule, organ system, organ.

D) molecule, tissue, cell, organ, organ system.

E) tissue, molecule, cell, organ, organ system.

  1. Which represents a correct ordering of the levels of complexity at which life is studied, from most simple to most complex?

A) Community, population, organism, organ, tissue, cell

B) Cell, organ, tissue, organism, population, community

C) Cell, tissue, organ, organism, population, community

D) Cell, tissue, organ, population, organism, community

E) Tissue, organ, cell, population, organism, community

  1. Which sequence gives the correct ordering of levels from smallest to largest?

A) Population, organism, ecosystem, community

B) Organism, population, community, ecosystem

C) Community, ecosystem, organism, population

D) Ecosystem, community, population, organism

E) Organism, community, population, ecosystem

  1. Suppose fish caught at one location in a bay are tagged with simple, numbered, plastic tags. Which kind of information can a scientist gain if she catches one of these fish in another bay distant from the first?

A) How deep it swam

B) The route it took before it was caught

C) How far it can swim

D) Exactly how far it swam

E) Whether it was chased by a predator fish

  1. A biologist plans to investigate whether different species of mammals have different ranges of body temperature. Evaluate the following information collection procedures, and determine which will be the best to use during this investigation.

A) One measurement will need to be taken from 20 different species, using an instrument that can be read to 1°C.

B) Multiple measurements will need to be taken from 2 different species, using an instrument that can be read to 1°C.

C) One measurement will need to be taken from 2 different species, using an instrument that can be read to 0.1°C.

D) Multiple measurements will need to be taken from 20 different species, using an instrument that can be read to 0.1°C.

E) Multiple measurements will need to be taken from 2 different species, using an instrument that can be read to 0.01°C.

  1. A fungus species is observed to undergo asexual reproduction at some times and sexual reproduction at other times. A researcher hypothesizes that the nutrient levels available to the fungus may be responsible for this effect. Which data could be used to test this hypothesis?

A) Compare the genome of a mutant that is not able to switch from asexual to sexual reproduction to the genome of the normal fungus.

B) Observe the sexual behavior of the fungus grown in a laboratory under various conditions such as pH, temperature, and water availability.

C) Find samples of the fungus growing in the wild, record their reproductive behavior, and collect samples of the substrate they are growing on for chemical analysis.

D) Collect information from cells about which genes are being expressed under the two types of reproductive behaviors.

E) Grow fungi on high levels of nutrients in the lab, and observe reproductive behavior before and after adding additional nutrients.

  1. In the scientific method, a hypothesis

A) is a final answer to a question.

B) is tested by polling many scientists' opinions.

C) is never proven wrong, but only proven right.

D) is the basis for making predictions.

E) is proven to be correct when evidence is found to support it.

  1. Which statement about the scientific method is true?

A) After forming a hypothesis, scientists apply deductive logic to make predictions from the hypothesis.

B) The most informative experiments are those that have the greatest probability of supporting the hypothesis.

C) In a comparative experiment, a scientist compares groups that differ in a variable that has been manipulated in one of the groups and left unaltered in the other group.

D) Controlled experiments are valuable when we do not know or cannot control the critical variables.

E) A statistical test of a hypothesis starts with the premise that a significant difference exists between the groups in the study.

  1. After observing that frogs live in clean water but not in polluted water, researchers state that “polluted water kills frogs.” This simple statement is an example of

A) scientific inquiry.

B) biological evolution.

C) a prediction.

D) a hypothesis.

E) a fact.

  1. Which question cannot be answered by means of the method that uses a hypothesis and then a prediction?

A) Are bees more attracted to red roses than to yellow roses?

B) Are red roses more beautiful than yellow roses?

C) Why are red roses red?

D) Do red roses bloom earlier than yellow roses?

E) Are red roses more susceptible to mildew than yellow roses?

  1. Which of the following is not a feature of scientific hypotheses?

A) They cannot be falsified.

B) They make predictions.

C) They are based on observations.

D) They can be tested by experimentation.

E) They can be tested by observational analysis.

  1. Comparative experiments are designed to answer questions that require

A) experimental groups and control groups.

B) little or no data collection.

C) a final, definitive answer.

D) the collection of qualitative data.

E) observation and comparison rather than controlled variables.

  1. In an experiment, researchers subjected frogs to various levels of the herbicide atrazine while keeping all other variables constant. This is an example of a experiment.

A) controlled

B) repeated

C) laboratory

D) comparative

E) biased

  1. Refer to the figure below.

The graph shows results from a study on a pathogen that infects and destroys grape plants. The pathogen reproduces asexually to form spores. These spores are easily transported by wind to new plant hosts to begin a new round of infection. In this study, scientists infected grape vine plants with viable spores and placed the plants in a vineyard. The scientists then collected spores that were produced from this infection. They collected some spores at various times on hot, dry days and collected other spores at various times on cool, cloudy days. Then they tested both sets of spores to see how well they caused infection in a new round of host plants. Which statement can be made about this study?

A) This was a comparative experiment because it was conducted using living plants in a field study.

B) This was a controlled experiment because only one variable differed between the two sets of spores.

C) This was a comparative experiment because the viabilities of two sets of spores were being compared.

D) This was a controlled experiment because the plants being studied were limited to a certain number.

E) This was both a comparative and a controlled experiment because it was conducted in a field while specific variables were kept constant.

  1. A research group collected fossilized snails of a particular species from various locations and brought them into the lab for study. They used electron microscopy to study the physical features of the shells as well as chemical methods for analyzing their chemical makeup. They also used analytical lab techniques to date the fossils. The results of this work enabled the researchers to draw conclusions about evolutionary changes in the snails. Which statement can be made about this study?

A) This was a comparative experiment because the subjects of the study were collected from field locations.

B) This was a controlled experiment because all of the analyses were conducted in a laboratory where conditions could be controlled.

C) This was a comparative experiment because the characteristics of different samples collected from different locations were compared.

D) This was a controlled experiment because the samples being studied were limited to one species of snail.

E) This was both a comparative and a controlled experiment because it involved comparisons of field samples carried out in a laboratory setting.

  1. Which does not result from a scientific investigation?

A) Refinement of the experimental design

B) Formulation of new questions that result in additional experimentation

C) Use of statistical tests to evaluate the significance of the results

D) Experiments repeated and verified by others

E) A conclusion based on the investigator's opinion

  1. Refer to the table below.

Groups of 50 house flies were kept in three chambers under the same conditions except for temperature. After 4 hours, the number of surviving flies in each chamber was counted and expressed as a percentage of the initial 50 flies. Which is the null hypothesis that would be developed when using statistics to analyze these results?

A) No fly can survive equally well at all temperatures.

B) Differences in genetic makeup can explain differences between individual flies in their ability to survive at extreme temperatures.

C) Temperature is not the only variable that can affect fly survival rate.

D) Some flies are more able to survive extremes in temperature than other flies.

E) Differences in percent survival at the different temperatures could be due to random variations in the samples.

  1. Which statement about statistical analysis in science is false?

A) Statistical methods are applied to data to definitively prove a hypothesis.

B) Statistical tests analyze variation and calculate the probability that observed differences in an experiment could be due to random variation.

C) Statistical tests can be used to evaluate both comparative and controlled experiments.

D) Scientists generally conclude that the differences they measure are significant if the statistical tests show that the probability of error is 5 percent or lower.

E) Statistical analyses often begin with stating the null hypothesis, which states that the data can be explained by random variation alone.

  1. Which statement about model systems is false?

A) The results of a study of a model system might be extended to humans.

B) Much of what we know about the genes that control animal development has come from work on Arabidopsis thaliana.

C) Basic understanding of chemical reactions in cells came from research on bacteria.

D) The biochemistry of photosynthesis was worked out from experiments on Chlorella.

E) Knowledge of how animals develop has come from work on sea urchins.

  1. Much of what we know about the genes that control plant development was discovered in experiments with

A) fruit flies.

B) zebrafish.

C) roundworms.

D) Arabidopsis thaliana.

E) Chlorella.

  1. Analyze the following question to determine whether it is a scientific question or a non-scientific question, and explain why: What causes cancer?

A) This is a non-scientific question because today's scientists do not have all of the tools they would need to answer it.

B) This is a scientific question because it deals with a medical topic and medicine is a branch of science.

C) This is a non-scientific question because scientists have been working to try to answer it for decades and still cannot answer it completely.

D) This is a scientific question because scientists can gather data through experimentation that provide support for answers to this question.

E) This question does not qualify as either a scientific or non-scientific question because it is too broad to classify.

  1. Which claim has a scientific basis and why?

A) Animals can understand the meanings of words, because it has been shown that they respond to specific oral commands.

B) Psychological factors improve some health conditions, because people taking pills containing no medication have shown health improvements.

C) A huge aquatic creature inhabits the extremely deep lake in Loch Ness, Scotland, because parts of it have been observed by many people over many decades.

D) Life must exist on other planets, because there are so many other planets that it would be impossible for all of them to be devoid of life.

E) Extrasensory perception has been claimed to be a real phenomenon, because so many people have experiences that have no other explanation.

  1. Which is an example of science?

A) An article in a national news magazine about using astrology to buy stocks

B) A book about a woman overcoming cancer with dietary changes

C) A religious text stating predictions about future events

D) An almanac with 40 years of daily temperature and precipitation data used as a farmer's planting guide

E) A report on the comprehensive effects of an oil spill covering the time immediately after the spill

  1. For a hypothesis to be scientifically valid, it must be , and it should be possible to it.

A) testable; prove

B) testable; reject

C) controlled; prove

D) controlled; reject

E) testable; control

  1. Which is the oldest example of a human application of biological principles?

A) Vaccinations

B) Stem cell therapies

C) Molecular genetic technologies

D) Plant breeding techniques

E) Antibiotic production

  1. Which of the following predates modern-day medical practice and knowledge of biology?

A) Knowing that infections can be passed from one person to another

B) Understanding how living organisms work

C) Knowing that many diseases are genetic

D) Understanding the origin, basis, and effects of disease

E) Knowing that bacteria evolve

  1. Many of the microbial organisms that are periodically epidemic in human populations have

A) short generation times and low mutation rates.

B) short generation times and high mutation rates.

C) long generation times and low mutation rates.

D) long generation times and high mutation rates.

E) long generation times and no mutations.

  1. Scientists develop new vaccines for flu every year because of the

A) high rate of infection by the influenza virus in humans.

B) long incubation time of the influenza virus in the human body.

C) high rate of mutation of the influenza virus.

D) long generation time of the influenza virus.

E) low rate of transmission of influenza virus from person to person.

  1. Which of the following should not derive from the study of biology?

A) Modern agriculture

B) Public policy

C) Understanding ecosystems

D) Medical practice

E) Political influence

  1. When applying biology to public policy,

A) the recommendations of scientists are always followed.

B) the economic issues of a policy are not considered.

C) several countries may be involved.

D) there are no ethical issues involved.

E) the correct course of action is always evident.

  1. An international commission drew a line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean with the intent of allowing western populations of bluefin tuna to recover from ocean fishing. Which statement is false?

A) The policy had little effect on bluefin populations, as the eastern and western Atlantic populations freely mix.

B) Tracking data revealed that bluefin tuna feed across the Atlantic Ocean.

C) Bluefin tuna populations recovered in the western Atlantic Ocean.

D) Bluefin fishing was restricted in the western Atlantic Ocean but not in the eastern Atlantic Ocean.

E) It was initially assumed that bluefin tuna populations had geographically separated feeding grounds.

  1. Which is not something that a governmental institute should consider in crafting public policy?

A) Harmful effects of a herbicide on wild species

B) Potential farming income losses due to a ban on an insecticide

C) Special handling procedures required to safely use a substance

D) Stock holdings by a government official in a chemical company

E) Widespread utility of a drug versus detrimental side effects

  1. Which is not an effect of a vastly increasing human population on the environment?

A) Changing global climate

B) Evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

C) Extinctions of a great number of species

D) Spreading of disease

E) Influencing the frequency of volcanic eruptions around the world

  1. Which human activities do not rely on biodiversity?

A) Bird-watching

B) Gardening

C) Farming

D) Hunting

E) Fishing

  1. Which statement is true?

A) Biologists have discovered almost all of the species that inhabit Earth.

B) Biologists have discovered about three-quarters of the species that inhabit Earth.

C) Biologists have discovered about half of the species that inhabit Earth.

D) Biologists have discovered only a small percentage of the species that inhabit Earth.

E) Biologists have discovered a small percentage of the species that inhabit Mars.

  1. Pesticides are not used in organic farming, and so agricultural pests must be managed using other methods. Biologists have determined that the organism that causes potato blight, Phytophthora infestans, is an obligate parasite of the potato plant and several other host plants. That means that this unicellular organism can only survive in stems, leaves, tubers, or spores of its hosts. Knowing this information, which practice is an organic farmer likely to carry out?

A) Plant all potato crops in the same or adjacent fields.

B) Plow under potato plants after a harvest to serve as fertilizer for the next crop.

C) Allow plants to grow from seeds that blow by chance onto a field.

D) Rotate crops so that potato plants fully decompose before another potato crop is started.

E) Burn the soil and all plant waste in every field after every harvest.

  1. Tsetse flies are parasites that live off fresh blood they obtain by biting their hosts in hot, humid areas in Africa. Their natural hosts are wild pig and bushbuck, a type of antelope, but they have a broad host range. A second parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, is a unicellular organism that spends part of its life cycle in the tsetse fly. This microorganism causes African sleeping sickness in humans and is transmitted into human blood through the bite of a tsetse fly. Humans are increasingly moving into regions where the tsetse fly lives. This has increased deforestation of the natural habitats of pigs and bushbucks, which has caused declines in their populations. Listed below are several possible outcomes of these changes. Evaluate the likelihood of each of the outcomes listed, and select the most likely outcome.

A) Tsetse fly populations will decline, causing a decline in Trypanosoma brucei infections in humans.

B) The symptoms of African sleeping sickness in humans will decrease in intensity and duration.

C) African sleeping sickness incidence in humans and livestock will increase.

D) The tsetse fly will lose its ability to transmit Trypanosoma brucei to humans.

E) Trypanosoma brucei will move to a new host other than the tsetse fly.

  1. For many years, scientists have been debating whether to totally eradicate mosquitoes from the planet. The main reason for eliminating all mosquitoes is that they carry pathogens that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus disease. Listed below are characteristics of mosquitoes. Which could be argued as a reason for not totally eradicating these insects?

A) Mosquitoes consume as much as 300 mL of blood per day from a single large animal in some areas of the world.

B) Mosquitoes pass through a larval stage and a pupal stage, both of which are aquatic.

C) Both male and female adult mosquitoes feed on plant nectar, but only females also feed on blood.

D) Mosquitoes are the primary pollinators of some tropical crops such as cacao.

E) Mosquitoes inhabit regions that are warm, temperate, or cold, including the Arctic.

  1. During development, cells in a human embryo divide and take on varying shapes and functions. For example, some embryonic cells divide and become osteoclasts while others become osteoblasts, two types of cells that make up bone. This process is called .

  1. Peeling skin syndrome is a disease in which outer skin tissue peels off in large sheets in affected individuals. This disease has a genetic basis. Research has identified that patients with this disease produce a nonfunctional protein. This protein normally becomes embedded in skin cell membranes and functions in adhesion between cells to hold them together to stabilize skin tissue. Continued investigation into this disease would likely focus on locating the in the gene encoding the nonfunctioning adhesion protein in these patients.
  2. Diabetes type 1 is a disease in which the hormone insulin is not produced. Insulin promotes the uptake of glucose by cells, so when insulin is absent, cells do not take up glucose from the blood. This causes elevated blood glucose levels and leaves cells starved for an energy source. Injecting insulin as needed by these patients is a solution that allows their bodies to maintain a state of .

  1. A researcher conducting a field study records the number of eggs laid by female wood ducks in a region over several breeding seasons. The researcher also records observations of wood duck mating and nesting behavior. The measurements of egg numbers are called because they can be subjected to mathematical and statistical methods of analysis.

  1. Refer to the following table.

The table summarizes data collected by a student during an investigation to determine the effects of blue light on plant growth. Group 1 represents the group in this investigation.

  1. Refer to the table below.

The table summarizes data collected during an investigation to determine the effects of lack of sleep on human problem- solving ability. Group 2 represents the group in this investigation.

  1. An agricultural researcher is interested in finding the minimal amount of a chemical fertilizer that, when applied to a corn crop, will support a certain yield of corn. The researcher sets up an experiment in which groups of corn plants are divided into fields and given different quantities of fertilizer. The fertilizer represents the in this investigation.

  1. Medical researchers interested in finding effective treatments for human diseases often use mice or rats in their work. The reason for this is that it is unethical to do certain kinds of experiments on humans, and so another animal that has characteristics similar to those of humans is used as a system.

  1. Some folk medicines have been found to have a scientific basis. For example, the practice of chewing on willow bark to relieve pain was shown to have merit when it was discovered that willow bark contained the compound salicylic acid. A modified form of this compound, acetylsalicylic acid, is now used as the active ingredient in aspirin. If willow bark were put to the test, experiment after experiment would show that this folk medicine was effective at relieving pain. This is an example of the concept that to be scientific, observations that support a hypothesis must be .

  1. A region of Amazon rainforest has been targeted for deforestation so that the land can be used for growing a single crop—a species of palm that will be harvested for its palm oil. What harm could this cause? A biologist might be expected to give the following answer: Because this land will go from harboring many hundreds of thousands of species to having just one species, it is an example of land that will undergo extreme loss of .

Answer Key

  1. E
  2. B
  3. D
  4. C
  5. A
  6. D
  7. E
  8. B
  9. B
  10. C
  11. C
  12. A
  13. D
  14. B
  15. C
  16. E
  17. A
  18. B
  19. D
  20. E
  21. E
  22. D
  23. B
  24. D
  25. E
  26. C
  27. E
  28. D
  29. D
  30. C
  31. B
  32. B
  33. E
  34. A
  35. E
  36. D
  37. B
  38. B
  39. D
  40. C
  41. E
  42. C
  43. E
  44. D
  45. C
  46. A
  47. E
  48. B
  49. D
  50. A
  51. D
  52. C
  53. D
  54. C
  55. D
  56. B
  57. B
  58. E
  59. D
  60. A
  61. E
  62. A
  63. B
  64. B
  65. A
  66. C
  67. D
  68. D
  69. E
  70. E
  71. A
  72. D
  73. C
  74. A
  75. D
  76. B
  77. B
  78. B
  79. C
  80. C
  81. B
  82. C
  83. A
  84. E
  85. D
  86. A
  87. E
  88. E
  89. B
  90. C
  91. C
  92. C
  93. A
  94. E
  95. A
  96. A
  97. B
  98. A
  99. E
  100. C
  101. E
  102. D
  103. E
  104. E
  105. B
  106. D
  107. B
  108. A
  109. C
  110. E
  111. Cells
  112. soluble
  113. chloroplasts
  114. Bacteria
  115. organelles
  116. photosynthesis
  117. metabolism
  118. sequences
  119. genome
  120. evolution
  121. natural selection
  122. Adaptations
  123. Hyla
  124. protists
  125. phylogenetic
  126. ecosystem
  127. data
  128. deductive
  129. inductive
  130. control
  131. variable
  132. null
  133. model
  134. organisms
  135. humans 136.















  1. D
  2. B
  3. D
  4. A
















































































































































































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