Test Bank Mastering the World of Psychology 6th Edition by Samuel E. Wood A+

$35.00
Test Bank Mastering the World of Psychology 6th Edition by Samuel E. Wood A+

Test Bank Mastering the World of Psychology 6th Edition by Samuel E. Wood A+

$35.00
Test Bank Mastering the World of Psychology 6th Edition by Samuel E. Wood A+

1. Psychology is _____

a) a collection of theories that have yet to be tested.

b) the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

c) the study of spiritual phenomena.

d) the collective term for various forms of therapy.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.1: Explain why psychologists use the scientific method

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

2. The scientific method starts with _____

a) a theory.

b) a hypothesis.

c) an experiment.

d) observations.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.1: Explain why psychologists use the scientific method

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

3. _____ is the most objective method known for acquiring knowledge.

a) Observational research

b) The scientific method

c) A pilot study

d) A case study

Answer: b

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.1: Explain why psychologists use the scientific method

Item Analysis: % correct 33 a = 14 b = 33 c = 7 d = 47 r = .22

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

4. A theory is _____

a) proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related.

b) a testable prediction about mental processes or behavior.

c) a set of observations.

d) proven by peer review.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.1: Explain why psychologists use the scientific method

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

5. “If children watch violent cartoons, then they will become more aggressive.” According to the scientific method, this statement is a _____

a) guess.

b) theory.

c) hypothesis.

d) fact.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.1: Explain why psychologists use the scientific method

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

6. Which of the following represents a replication?

a) Josh did the first-ever study on color perception in hummingbirds.

b) Hunter repeated Josh’s study as exactly as possible.

c) Lyta’s study was peer reviewed.

d) Orlando’s study was published.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.1: Explain why psychologists use the scientific method

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

7. Rory is a college student who intends to become a scientist. In order for his work to be considered science, he must _____

a) correctly employ the scientific method when acquiring knowledge.

b) stay away from the hard sciences like physics or chemistry.

c) give up psychology as his major.

d) get a doctoral degree.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.1: Explain why psychologists use the scientific method

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

8. Dr. Sardonicus is studying the effectiveness of a new medication for anxiety, and he has found positive results. Before assuming the medication is effective, it would be best to _____

a) replicate the study.

b) start with a new hypothesis.

c) wait until his study is published.

d) try the medicine himself.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.1: Explain why psychologists use the scientific method

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

9. Professor Jimenez wants to share her research and wants others to know it was methodologically sound. Therefore, she should _____

a) self-publish and describe her methods.

b) submit her work to a journal for peer review.

c) give a talk at a conference.

d) get on a morning news show.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.1: Explain why psychologists use the scientific method

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

10. The goals of psychology are to _____

a) explore the unconscious functions of the mind.

b) understand, compare, and analyze human behavior.

c) improve psychological well-being in all individuals.

d) describe, explain, predict, and influence behavior.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.2: List the goals of psychology

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

11. Using research results to solve practical problems is an example of the goal of ____

a) prediction.

b) influence.

c) explanation.

d) replication.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.2: List the goals of psychology

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

12. Proposing reasons for behaviors and mental processes is an example of _____

a) description.

b) explanation.

c) influence.

d) prediction.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.2: List the goals of psychology

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

13. Which of the following is an example of applied research?

a) Studying what methods work to improve memory

b) Studying the difference between short and long-term memory

c) Studying the neurochemistry of memory

d) Altering memory in mice to better understand memory storage

Answer: a

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.2: List the goals of psychology

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

14. A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of _____

a) description.

b) explanation.

c) prediction.

d) influence.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.2: List the goals of psychology

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

15. Using knowledge obtained through the scientific method to develop cohesive _____ can help us understand complex phenomena.

a) hypotheses

b) theories

c) experiments

d) predictions

Answer: b

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.2: List the goals of psychology

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

16. Kayla thinks she has noticed a pattern of differences in her male and female friends’ video game scores and she wonders why. She notices her male friends spend more time playing and thinks that may be the reason. Which of the following is an attempt to achieve the goal of prediction?

a) Calculating her friends’ average scores

b) Making the males in her study play with one hand

c) Hypothesizing scores will be equivalent if they play the same amount of time

d) Using the study results to improve female’s scores

Answer: c

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.1.2: List the goals of psychology

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

17. Gunnar observes that when he dresses in business casual, people seem more comfortable approaching him. He wants to know if this is true because it is very important to him that he meet new people at college. If Gunnar uses the scientific method to investigate this, what type of research would he be doing?

a) Replication

b) Experimental

c) Basic

d) Applied

Answer: d

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.1.2: List the goals of psychology

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

18. Jorge is a psychology student who is writing a report on the behaviors kindergarten children demonstrate on the playground. Because he notices that many of the children like to play tag, he takes detailed notes on tag-playing behavior. Which of the goals of psychology did Jorge meet?

a) Predict

b) Describe

c) Influence

d) Prove

Answer: b

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.2: List the goals of psychology

Topic: An Introduction to the Science of Psychology

19. Psychology was recognized as a formal academic discipline when _____

a) Sigmund Freud began publishing his theories.

b) the focus moved to mental processes.

c) the scientific method was used.

d) hypnosis was introduced and used successfully in therapy.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.1: Recall the early psychologists’ contributions to the field of psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

20. Who is considered the “father” of psychology?

a) Charles Darwin

b) Wilhelm Wundt

c) Gustav Fechner

d) Sigmund Freud

Answer: b

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.1: Recall the early psychologists’ contributions to the field of psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

21. _____ set up the first formal psychological lab at the University of Leipzig in Germany and used _____ as the primary research method.

a) Freud; reflection

b) Skinner; case studies

c) Wundt; introspection

d) Wundt; hypnosis

Answer: c

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.1: Recall the early psychologists’ contributions to the field of psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

22. Which of the following early schools of thought studied the basic elements of conscious mental experience?

a) Behaviorism

b) Functionalism

c) Structuralism

d) Psychoanalysis

Answer: c

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.1: Recall the early psychologists’ contributions to the field of psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

23. When different researchers using the technique of introspection were exposed to the same stimulus, they often reported different experiences. For this reason, structuralism was criticized for _____

a) being just observational.

b) not being objective.

c) using experimentation.

d) not using measurement.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty:Applied

Learning Objective: 1.2.1: Recall the early psychologists’ contributions to the field of psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

24. James tells his research subjects to report their stream of consciousness so that he can study how they adapt to their environment. James is part of the early school of psychology called _____

a) cognitive psychology.

b) structuralism.

c) functionalism.

d) psychoanalysis.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.1: Recall the early psychologists’ contributions to the field of psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

25. Today, minorities in America are _____ among professional psychologists.

a) underrepresented

b) overrepresented

c) equal in number

d) the majority

Answer: a

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.1: Recall the early psychologists’ contributions to the field of psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

26. Psychologists Mamie and Kenneth Clark’s research helped to _____

a) explain color vision.

b) end racial segregation in schools.

c) develop methods for studying memory.

d) found behaviorism.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.1: Recall the early psychologists’ contributions to the field of psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

27. Feelings of depression have convinced Nyla to seek out a therapist. When she met with the therapist, she answered the following questions regarding her behavior: Has your sleeping pattern changed? Has your appetite changed? Have you been crying? Have you been unable to go to work? The therapist only seemed interested in her behaviors, not her thoughts or early childhood. Most likely, Nyla’s therapist subscribes to which school of thought?

a) Behaviorist

b) Psychoanalytic

c) Humanistic

d) Information Processing

Answer: a

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.2: Describe the seven major schools of thought in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

28. Which of the following statements would most likely be made by Sigmund Freud?

a) Because behavior is learned, it can easily be unlearned.

b) Unconscious forces may contain conflicts that can be a detriment to psychological health and development.

c) Thoughts that precede behavior should be the focus of psychological interventions.

d) Because we have free will, individuals can choose to overcome psychological difficulties.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Evaluate

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.2: Describe the seven major schools of thought in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

29. Heather decides to seek out a therapist to help her work through feelings of anxiety. Her therapist allows her to direct the therapy sessions and discuss what she feels is relevant. Her therapist, who views Heather as an innately good person, also suggests she attend group therapy to learn how to make better choices for herself. Based on this information, to which school of thought does Heather’s therapist most likely adhere?

a) Sociocultural

b) Psychoanalytic

c) Behaviorism

d) Humanistic

Answer: d

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.2: Describe the seven major schools of thought in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

30. The scientific study of psychological characteristics, such as optimism, that enable individuals and communities to thrive in the face of adversity is called _____ Psychology.

a) Emotional

b) Positive

c) Cognitive-Behavioral

d) Gestalt

Answer: b

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.2: Describe the seven major schools of thought in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

31. The school of thought that sees humans as active seekers of experiences, who use mental processes to shape those experiences, is _____ Psychology.

a) Cognitive

b) Humanistic

c) Gestalt

d) Behaviorist

Answer: a

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.2: Describe the seven major schools of thought in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

32. “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts” is a statement associated with the perspective of _____

a) introspection.

b) functionalism.

c) psychoanalysis.

d) Gestalt psychologists.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.2: Describe the seven major schools of thought in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

33. The early perspective called Gestalt psychology has evolved into the current perspective called _____

a) psychoanalytic psychology.

b) cognitive psychology.

c) behavioral psychology.

d) social psychology.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.2: Describe the seven major schools of thought in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

34. Which school of thought in psychology would be most concerned with behavior changes that promote survival in the face of environmental pressures?

a) Gestalt

b) Psychoanalytic

c) Sociocultural

d) Evolutionary

Answer: d

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.2: Describe the seven major schools of thought in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

35. Professor Beverly approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes bodily events and chemicals, such as hormones, associated with behavior. Which of the following psychological perspectives is she most likely to adopt?

a) Biological

b) Learning

c) Cognitive

d) Sociocultural

Answer: a

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.2: Describe the seven major schools of thought in psychology

Item Analysis:

% correct 91 a = 91 b = 2 c = 6 d = 1 r = .49

% correct 93 a = 93 b = 0 c = 0 d = 7 r = .56

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

36. Assunta was raised in a strict, traditional Italian family that had close ties with the tight-knit Italian community in which she lived. Years later, when she was studying to become a psychologist, she realized just how much of an influence her upbringing and ethnicity had in molding her views and personality. This particular insight led Assunta to realize just how important _____ can be in an individual’s psychological development.

a) the information-processing theory

b) psychoanalytic perspectives

c) humanistic psychology

d) the sociocultural approach

Answer: d

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.2: Describe the seven major schools of thought in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

37. When we examine how factors like poverty, peers, and parents interact to produce antisocial behavior in teens, we are using the _____

a) systems perspective.

b) multifactor design model.

c) information processing theory

d) humanistic approach.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.2: Describe the seven major schools of thought in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

38. Dr. Rodriguez, an educational psychologist, looks at the student-environment interaction to determine how to improve a student’s performance. He is taking the _____ perspective.

a) cognitive

b) evolutionary

c) sociocultural

d) behavioral

Answer: d

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

39. Diana wants to find a therapist who will help her explore her unconscious motivations and how her early childhood experiences are affecting her now. She should look for a therapist with a _____ perspective.

a) psychoanalytic

b) humanistic

c) biological

d) sociocultural

Answer: a

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

40. Kim wants to talk with a therapist who will see him in a positive light and respect his personal experience while helping him understand his feelings and create a meaningful life. Kim will be most satisfied with a therapist who takes the _____ perspective.

a) psychoanalytic

b) humanistic

c) biological

d) sociocultural

Answer: b

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

41. Sherrod sees himself as a thinker; he believes that his experience and behavior are shaped by how he perceives, thinks about, and remembers things. He would find a counselor who takes the _____ perspective most compatible with his beliefs.

a) psychoanalytic

b) humanistic

c) cognitive

d) sociocultural

Answer: c

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

42. Russ is having difficulty in his romantic relationships. He finds himself feeling most attracted to women for their physical attributes, even if they are not the type of women he really wants for a life partner, and he can’t understand why. A counselor who takes the _____ perspective might have an explanation based on inherited tendencies that would help him understand this.

a) psychoanalytic

b) evolutionary

c) biological

d) sociocultural

Answer: b

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

43. Geoff’s father is being treated successfully for depression with antidepressant medication. Geoff is experiencing similar symptoms of depression including disturbed sleep, poor appetite, low energy, and hopelessness. A professional person taking the _____ perspective will take his family history and the physical basis of his symptoms into account.

a) psychoanalytic

b) humanistic

c) biological

d) sociocultural

Answer: c

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

44. Lee is not very interested in academics and performs poorly in school. This is causing problems at home in his traditional Chinese family where academic success is highly valued. In order to help him reconcile his values and maintain better relationships at home, he is likely to do best with a counselor who has a _____ perspective.

a) psychoanalytic

b) humanistic

c) biological

d) sociocultural

Answer: d

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

45. The psychological perspective that is most concerned with how the environment-person interaction affects us is the _____ perspective.

a) environmental

b) behavioral

c) humanistic

d) evolutionary

Answer: b

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

46. A counselor who takes the humanistic perspective would focus most on _____

a) environmental influences.

b) behavior.

c) subjective experience.

d) inherited tendencies.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

47. A therapist who takes the evolutionary perspective would focus most on _____

a) environmental influences.

b) behavior.

c) thought processes.

d) inherited adaptive tendencies.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

48. Which of the following perspectives focuses on unconscious motivation and early childhood experience?

a) Behavioral

b) Psychoanalytic

c) Cognitive

d) Sociocultural

Answer: b

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

49. Which of the following psychological perspectives emphasizes the role of mental processes such as perception, thinking and memory?

a) Sociocultural

b) Rationalist

c) Neurological

d) Cognitive

Answer: d

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

50. Which of the following psychological perspectives emphasizes the role of physical processes and structures, as well as familial heredity, in explaining behavior?

a) The biological perspective

b) The medical perspective

c) The evolutionary perspective

d) The humanistic perspective

Answer: a

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

51. In thinking about her future career as a counselor, Taisha thinks she will be most concerned with her client’s subjective experience and biological processes. She will also want to know if any family member has symptoms of an inheritable psychological problem. It sounds as though Taisha will be adopting a(n) _____ perspective toward working with her clients.

a) mixed

b) medical

c) eclectic

d) illogical

Answer: c

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.3: Identify the seven contemporary psychological perspectives

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

52. Jaden works at a clinic where he sees individuals with schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. His job is to find the appropriate diagnosis and treatment for these individuals. Jaden is likely a(n) _____

a) forensic psychologist.

b) industrial/organizational psychologist.

c) clinical psychologist.

d) educational psychologist.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.4: List the specialty areas that exist in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

53. Dr. Bùi has been asked by the defense attorney to evaluate a client convicted of assault and write a report that will be presented to the judge before sentencing. Dr. Bùi is most likely a _____ psychologist.

a) counseling

b) forensic

c) legal

d) physiological

Answer: b

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.4: List the specialty areas that exist in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

54. A school psychologist would be most likely to _____

a) conduct an experiment.

b) counsel a disruptive student.

c) treat a student with schizophrenia.

d) study teaching methods.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.4: List the specialty areas that exist in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

55. A psychologist who teaches a corporation how to keep employees motivated would most likely be a(n) _____ psychologist, according to your textbook.

a) social

b) educational

c) consulting

d) industrial/organizational

Answer: d

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.4: List the specialty areas that exist in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

56. Educational psychologists specialize in which of the following?

a) Educating corporations about employee management

b) Counseling troubled students

c) Studying teaching and learning

d) Treating students with major psychiatric illnesses

Answer: c

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.4: List the specialty areas that exist in psychology

Topic: Psychology Then and Now

57. One of the primary characteristics psychologists evaluate is whether theories are _____

a) true.

b) proven.

c) false.

d) useful.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.1: Demonstrate how psychologists evaluate theories

Topic: Thinking about Theories and Research

58. Theories help psychologists achieve the _____ goal by generating testable _____

a) prediction; hypotheses.

b) influence; designs.

c) description; predictions.

d) observation; data.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.1: Demonstrate how psychologists evaluate theories

Topic: Thinking about Theories and Research

59. Rudy’s research hypothesis was not supported by his results. His work did stimulate debate and motivate more related research. Rudy’s work has _____

a) no value.

b) heuristic value.

c) damaged his career.

d) practical value.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.1: Demonstrate how psychologists evaluate theories

Topic: Thinking about Theories and Research

60. We continue to teach about structuralists and functionalists and rate Freud’s theory as very important because of the _____ of these ideas.

a) success

b) practical value

c) predictive value

d) heuristic value

Answer: d

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.1: Demonstrate how psychologists evaluate theories

Topic: Thinking about Theories and Research

61. The process of objectively evaluating claims, propositions, and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence is known as _____

a) critical thinking.

b) evaluation.

c) heuristic thinking.

d) suspension of judgment.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.2: Describe how critical thinking helps you evaluate research

Topic: Thinking about Theories and Research

62. Carla was driving to work when she heard a report from a medical center on the radio saying, “Upon conception, the sex of the baby is determined by the person who is least stressed out.” Knowing Carla is a critical thinker, which of the following thoughts did she most likely have?

a) “Because the report is from a medical center, it must be true.”

b) “Before I believe that report, I need to check other sources.”

c) “Wow, it must be true or they wouldn’t put it on the radio.”

d) “Wait until I tell my partner that he must have determined the sex of our two sons.”

Answer: b

Skill Level: Analyze

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.2: Describe how critical thinking helps you evaluate research

Topic: Thinking about Theories and Research

63. To think critically we must get rid of the habit of assuming that our limited personal, or _____ evidence, is reliable evidence.

a) heuristic

b) anecdotal

c) experiential

d) substantiary

Answer: b

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.2: Describe how critical thinking helps you evaluate research

Topic: Thinking about Theories and Research

64. A critical thinker would most likely say, “What I need to know most is _____

a) whether the source is an authority.”

b) whether this fits with what I already think.”

c) how they got this information.”

d) how many people agree with this.”

Answer: c

Skill Level: Apply

Difficulty: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.3.2: Describe how critical thinking helps you evaluate research

Topic: Thinking about Theories and Research

65. Anthony read a study with several hundred subjects in the Journal of the American Medical Association that stated there is a link between working night shifts and the risk of heart attacks. Anthony knew the study was not correct because his Dad and his uncles had worked the night shift for decades and none of them had heart trouble. Anthony is not thinking critically because he is being swayed too much by _____

a) independent thinking.

b) anecdotal evidence.

c) heuristic value.

d) the journal’s authority.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Evaluate

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.2: Describe how critical thinking helps you evaluate research

Topic: Thinking about Theories and Research

66. Anthony heard a report about a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association that stated working night shifts causes heart attacks. When he read the study he found that the researchers had compared the rates of heart attacks between day and night shift workers. This was not an experimental design and subjects were not randomly assigned. If Anthony thinks critically about this study he would conclude that _____

a) this is good evidence that night shift work causes heart attacks.

b) this proves it is unhealthy to work night shifts.

c) this study shows a correlation, proving causality, between night shifts and heart attacks.

d) this type of study can’t provide evidence of causes.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Evaluate

Difficulty: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.3.2: Describe how critical thinking helps you evaluate research

Topic: Thinking about Theories and Research

67. Which of the following is not a descriptive research method?

a) surveys

b) naturalistic observation

c) experimentation

d) laboratory observation

Answer: c

Skill Level: Understand

Difficulty: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.1: Compare the pros and cons of observational and case studies

Topic: Descriptive Research Methods

68. Which of the following is an advantage to using naturalistic observation as a research method?

a) We can infer cause-and-effect relationships.

b) We can study behavior in naturally occurring environments.

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