Test Bank Microbiology Fundamentals A Clinical Approach 3rd Edition, Cowan

Test Bank Microbiology Fundamentals A Clinical Approach 3rd Edition, Cowan

Test Bank Microbiology Fundamentals A Clinical Approach 3rd Edition, Cowan

Test Bank Microbiology Fundamentals A Clinical Approach 3rd Edition, Cowan

Test Bank Microbiology Fundamentals A Clinical Approach 3rd Edition, Cowan

Microbiology Fundamentals: A Clinical Approach, 3e (Cowan)

Chapter 1 Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks

1) When humans manipulate the genes of microorganisms, the process is called ________.

A) bioremediation

B) genetic engineering

C) epidemiology

D) immunology

E) taxonomy

2) Which of the following is not considered a microorganism?

A) Mosquito

B) Protozoan

C) Bacterium

D) Virus

E) Fungus

3) All microorganisms are best defined as organisms that ________.

A) cause human disease

B) lack a cell nucleus

C) are infectious particles

D) are too small to be seen with the unaided eye

E) can only be found growing in laboratories

4) Which activity is an example of biotechnology?

A) Bacteria in the soil secreting an antibiotic to kill competitors

B) A microbiologist using the microscope to study bacteria

C) Egyptians using moldy bread on wounds

D) Escherichia coli producing human insulin

E) Public health officials monitoring diseases in a community

5) Living things ordinarily too small to be seen with the unaided eye are termed ________.

A) bacteria

B) viruses

C) parasites

D) microorganisms

E) prokaryotes

6) The microorganisms that recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter and wastes are called ________.

A) decomposers

B) prokaryotes

C) pathogens

D) eukaryotes

E) fermenters

7) Cells, like bacteria and archaea, that do not have a nucleus in their cells have traditionally been called ________.

A) decomposers

B) prokaryotes

C) pathogens

D) eukaryotes

E) fermenters

8) The first cells appeared about ________ billion years ago.

A) 5.2

B) 4.6

C) 3.8

D) 2.9

E) 1.5

9) Which of the following is not a human use of microorganisms?

A) Making bread

B) Treating water and sewage

C) Manufacturing copper wire

D) Mass producing antibiotics

E) Cleaning up oil spills

10) Using microbes to detoxify a site contaminated with heavy metals is an example of ________.

A) biotechnology

B) bioremediation

C) decomposition

D) immunology

E) epidemiology

11) Disease-causing microorganisms are called ________.

A) decomposers

B) prokaryotes

C) pathogens

D) eukaryotes

E) fermenters

12) The most prevalent worldwide infectious diseases are ________.

A) AIDS-related diseases

B) diarrheal diseases

C) malaria diseases

D) measles

E) respiratory diseases

13) Which of the following is a unique characteristic of viruses that distinguishes them from the other major groups of microorganisms?

A) Cause human disease

B) Lack a nucleus

C) Cannot be seen without a microscope

D) Contain genetic material

E) Lack cell structure

14) Helminths are ________.

A) bacteria

B) protozoa

C) molds

D) parasitic worms

E) infectious particles

15) Which group of microorganisms is composed only of hereditary material wrapped in a protein covering?

A) Viruses

B) Bacteria

C) Parasites

D) Fungi

E) Helminths

16) Which statement correctly compares the sizes of different microorganisms?

A) Bacteria are larger than viruses

B) Bacteria are larger than eukaryotic microorganisms

C) Eukaryotic microorganisms are smaller than viruses

D) Archaea are larger than eukaryotic microorganisms but smaller than bacteria

17) The Dutch merchant who made and used quality magnifying lenses to see and record microorganisms was ________.

A) Francesco Redi

B) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

C) Louis Pasteur

D) Joseph Lister

E) Robert Koch

18) Koch's postulates are criteria used to establish that

A) microbes are found on dust particles.

B) a specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease.

C) life forms can only arise from preexisting life forms.

D) a specific microbe should be classified in a specific kingdom.

E) microbes can be used to clean up toxic spills.

19) The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery was ________.

A) Joseph Lister

B) Ignaz Semmelweis

C) Robert Koch

D) Louis Pasteur

E) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

20) Sterility refers to

A) being pathogen free.

B) having an absence of spores.

C) having an absence of any life forms and viral particles.

D) being pasteurized.

E) being homogenized.

21) Which scientist showed that anthrax was caused by the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis?

A) Joseph Lister

B) Ignaz Semmelweis

C) Robert Koch

D) Louis Pasteur

E) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

22) If you were a microbiologist in 1950, which of the following scientific principles would you already know?

A) Aseptic techniques could reduce the number of wound infections in the surgical setting.

B) Biofilms can form on implanted objects in the human body and be responsible for infection.

C) Enzymes found in bacteria can be used to cut DNA.

D) Very little DNA is transcribed into RNA that is then translated into proteins.

23) Taxonomy does not involve ________.

A) nomenclature

B) classification

C) taxa

D) identification

E) common name

24) Which scientific field is involved in the identification, classification, and naming of organisms?

A) Nomenclature

B) Taxonomy

C) Phylogeny

D) Woesean classification

E) None of the choices are correct.

25) The orderly arrangement of organisms into a hierarchy of taxa is called ________.

A) classification

B) identification

C) nomenclature

D) experimentation

E) biotechnology

26) Which of the following is a taxon that contains all the other taxa listed?

A) Species

B) Phylum

C) Kingdom

D) Genus

E) Family

27) The smallest and most significant taxon is ________.

A) genus

B) species

C) kingdom

D) family

E) phylum

28) Select the correct descending taxonomic hierarchy:

A) family, order, class

B) family, genus, species

C) genus, species, family

D) class, phylum, order

E) kingdom, domain, phylum

29) Which of the following is a scientific name?

A) Gram-positive streptococcus

B) Staphylococcus

C) Streptococcus pyogenes

D) Anthrax

E) Streptobacilli

30) When assigning a scientific name to an organism,

A) the species name is capitalized.

B) the species name is placed first.

C) the species name can be abbreviated.

D) both genus and species names are capitalized.

E) both genus and species names are italicized or underlined.

31) The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called ________,

A) biotechnology

B) genetics

C) recombinant DNA

D) phylogeny

E) taxonomy

32) Which area of biology states that living things undergo gradual, structural, and functional changes over long periods of time?

A) Morphology

B) Phylogeny

C) Evolution

D) Genetics

E) None of the choices is correct.

33) A scientist studying the sequence of nucleotides in the rRNA of a bacterial species is working on ________.

A) determining evolutionary relatedness

B) bioremediation

C) recombinant DNA

D) nomenclature

E) determining if that species is the cause of a new disease

34) The scientist(s) who proposed organisms be assigned to one of three domains is(are) ________.

A) Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur

B) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

C) Carl Woese and George Fox

D) Robert Whittaker

E) Francesco Redi

35) Which scientific name is written correctly?

A) Staphylococcus aureus

B) staphylococcus aureus

C) Staphylococcus Aureus

D) Staphylococcus aureus


36) A scientist studying helminths is working with bacteria.

37) Current evidence indicates that bacteria and archaea existed on earth for approximately 2 billion years before eukaryotes appeared.

38) A scientific theory, like the theory of evolution, is just our best guess at explaining a scientific phenomenon, but a theory cannot be considered fact.

39) Many chronic conditions are found to be associated with microbial agents.

40) All microorganisms are considered pathogens.

41) The term sterile means free of all life forms.

42) Members of the same species share many more characteristics compared to those shared by members of the same kingdom.

43) Once an organism is assigned to a particular taxonomic hierarchy, it is permanent and cannot be revised.

44) Viruses are not classified in any of Whittaker's five kingdoms.

45) The names of the three domains are: Bacteria, Protista, and Eukarya (Eukaryota).

46) One distinguishing characteristic of the archaebacteria is that they live in extreme environments.

47) Microbes have been found existing in salty, acidic lakes.

48) Organic chemicals always have a basic framework of the element ________ bonded to other atoms.

A) carbon

B) nitrogen

C) oxygen

D) hydrogen

E) phosphorous

49) Most biochemical macromolecules are polymers, which are chains of ________.

A) hydrophobic molecules

B) electrolytic molecules

C) repeating monomers

D) repeating carbohydrates

E) hydrogen bonds

50) All of the following are monosaccharides except ________.

A) glucose

B) glycogen

C) fructose

D) ribose

E) deoxyribose

51) All of the following are polysaccharides except

A) glycogen in liver and muscle.

B) agar used to make solid culture media.

C) a cell's glycocalyx.

D) cellulose in certain cell walls.

E) prostaglandins in inflammation.

52) All of the following are lipids except ________.

A) cholesterol

B) starch

C) phospholipid

D) wax

E) triglyceride

53) What part of a phospholipid forms hydrophobic tails?

A) Fatty acids

B) Glycerol

C) Phosphate

D) Alcohol

E) All of the choices are correct.

54) A fat is called ________ if all carbons of the fatty acid chain are single bonded to two other carbons and two hydrogens.

A) unsaturated

B) polyunsaturated

C) monounsaturated

D) saturated

E) None of the choices are correct.

55) The lipid group that serves as energy storage molecules is ________.

A) prostaglandins

B) waxes

C) phospholipids

D) steroids

E) triglycerides

56) The lipid group that is the major component of cell membranes is the ________.

A) prostaglandins

B) waxes

C) phospholipids

D) steroids

E) triglycerides

57) The building blocks of an enzyme are ________.

A) nucleotides

B) glycerol and fatty acids

C) monosaccharides

D) phosphate, glycerol, and fatty acids

E) amino acids

58) Which is not true about enzymes?

A) They are found in all cells.

B) They are catalysts.

C) Their shape determines their function.

D) They can be denaturated by heat and other agents.

E) They have high-energy bonds between phosphates.

59) Which amino acid contains sulfur atoms that form covalent disulfide bonds in its tertiary structure?

A) Valine

B) Cysteine

C) Serine

D) Alanine

E) Tyrosine

60) What type of bonds are formed between adjacent amino acids?

A) Glycosilic

B) Ester

C) Peptide

D) Disulfide

E) Phosphate

61) The alpha helix is a type of ________ protein structure.

A) primary

B) secondary

C) tertiary

D) quaternary

E) None of the choices is correct.

62) One nucleotide contains ________.

A) one phosphate

B) one pentose sugar

C) one nitrogen base

D) All of the choices are correct

E) None of the choices are correct.

63) Which pertains to DNA but not to RNA?

A) Contains ribose

B) Contains adenine

C) Contains thymine

D) Contains uracil

E) Contains nucleotides

64) ATP is best described as ________.

A) an enzyme

B) a double helix

C) an electron carrier

D) the energy molecule of cells

E) All of the choices are correct.

65) You are trying to identify a chemical that consists of adenine, ribose, and three phosphates. What is this chemical?




D) Phospholipid

66) A student forgot to label a beaker containing a DNA solution and a beaker containing a glucose solution. If chemical analysis was performed to identify the contents of each beaker, which of the following would be found in the beaker of DNA but not in the beaker with glucose?

A) Amino acids

B) Hydrogen and oxygen atoms

C) Nitrogen and phosphorus

D) Fatty acids

E) Carbon atoms

67) Purines and pyrimidines are components in the building block units of all ________.

A) nucleic acids

B) carbohydrates

C) polysaccharides

D) amino acids

E) enzymes

68) Which of the following is not a pyrimidine?

A) Uracil

B) Adenine

C) Thymine

D) Cytosine

E) All of these are pyrimidines.

69) During protein synthesis, ________ RNA is made as a copy of a gene from DNA.

A) transfer

B) messenger

C) ribosomal

D) All of the choices are correct.

70) Characteristics shared by all cells include

A) a membrane serving as a cell boundary.

B) the possession of genetic information.

C) the presence of cellular fluid.

D) All of these choices are correct.

71) The purine_______ always binds with the pyrimidine_______ in DNA and RNA.

A) guanine, cytosine

B) cytosine, guanine

C) adenine, guanine

D) thymine, guanine

72) All proteins are enzymes.

73) The most important outcome of polypeptide intrachain bonding and folding is the unique shape of the protein.

74) Nucleic acids have primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary levels of organization.

75) Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding the relationship between humans and microbes?

A) The majority of microorganisms that colonize humans are pathogenic

B) Microorganisms are benefited from their colonization of humans, whereas humans are unaffected by the relationship

C) Humans are colonized by bacteria and fungi, but not viruses

D) Not only do the majority of colonizing bacteria cause no harm to humans, the relationship is beneficial for both microbe and human host

76) Which list correctly ranks the microorganisms from largest to smallest?

A) Zika virus, Bacillus anthracis, Aspergillis sp., Helminth

B) Aspergillis sp., Zika virus, Bacillus anthracis, Helminth

C) Bacillus anthracis, Helminth, Aspergillis sp., Zika virus

D) Helminth, Aspergillis sp., Bacillus anthracis, Zika virus

E) Helminth, Aspergillis sp., Zika virus, Bacillus anthracis,

77) The Nobel Prize was awarded to Kary Mullis in 1993 for inventing what technique to amplify and subsequently analyze DNA?

A) Polymerase chain reaction

B) The central dogma of biology

C) Restriction enzyme analysis

D) Human microbiome project

E) Small RNA analysis

78) Which of the following statements correctly determines the process when following the scientific method?

A) Formulate question, conduct research, propose hypothesis, test hypothesis

B) Propose hypothesis, test hypothesis, formulate question, conduct research

C) Formulate question, propose hypothesis, test hypothesis, conduct research

D) Conduct research, formulate question, propose hypothesis, test hypothesis

79) If a hypothesis is accepted, then the findings become a scientific law.

80) The acceptance or rejection of a hypothesis is based on a series of educated guesses and opinions. Once the opinion is widely accepted it becomes a theory.

81) Which of the features listed below is not found in all cells?

A) Cytoplasmic membrane

B) Ribosomes


D) Nucleus

82) Despite the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus, bacteria and archaea are cells with a complex organizational structure.

83) Organisms were classified into kingdoms as they were defined. Which list reflects the order of discovery of the kingdoms as we know them today?

A) Monera, protista, fungi, plants and animals

B) Plants and animals, protista, monera, fungi

C) Fungi, monera, plants and animals, protista

D) Protista, fungi, monera, plants and animals,

E) Monera, plants and animals, protista, fungi

84) Carl Woese and George Fox developed the three-domain system of taxonomy based on what molecular discovery?

A) Variations in the ribonucleic acid of the small ribosomal subunit of organisms

B) Mutations in enzyme proteins

C) Genetic analysis showing that bacteria and archaea are identical

D) Molecular analysis of genes showing that eukaryotes evolved from bacteria, and bacteria evolved from archaea

NCLEX Prep - Test Bank Question: Please read the clinical scenario, and then answer the questions that follow to become familiar with the traditional NCLEX question format.

Ms. Smith is a 29-year-old patient at the outpatient psychiatric clinic. While completing her assessment you notice her hands are red, raw, and show signs of recent bleeding. She explains that she washes all her clothes in bleach, and uses the chemical to clean her hands several times a day. She states "I need to sterilize myself and my environment of all germs so I do not get sick." While developing her nursing plan of care, you educate her about the importance of bacteria to the health and well being of not only humans, but also our planet.

85) Microorganisms have inhabited the Earth for billions of years, and can be found inhabiting a variety of environments. In fact, microbes performing anoxygenic photosynthesis led to the oxygenation of early Earth's atmosphere. These ancient organisms were ________.

A) bacteria

B) eukaryotes

C) viruses

D) prions

86) The RN applies therapeutic communication techniques to assess of Ms. Smith's understanding of the principle of sterility. Her statement of "I need to sterilize myself and my environment of all germs so I do not get sick" would be best followed by which of the following questions by the RN?

A) How does being in an unsterile environment make you feel?

B) Can you tell me more about what sterility means to you?

C) How does washing your hands with bleach make you sterile?

D) Can you tell me more about why you are afraid of germs?

87) As Ms. Smith progresses with her plan of care, the RN provides education regarding beneficial applications of microbes. Scientists use microbes to produce drugs, hormones, and enzymes. This type of biotechnology involves the transfer of foreign genetic material into a microbe, a process called ________.

A) recombinant DNA technology

B) gene therapy

C) bioremediation

D) polymerase chain reaction

NCLEX Prep - Test Bank Question: Please read the clinical scenario, and then answer the questions that follow to become familiar with the traditional NCLEX question format.

Wanda is a medical assistant and the newest employee of your healthcare team. You notice that she does not wash her hands in between patient visits. From your microbiology background, you understand that microbes are not visible with the naked eye. As the only nurse in your small medical office, you provide education for Wanda on the importance of hand washing.

88) Many microbes that inhabit the skin have the potential to cause disease. One such pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. The genus name of this organism is most properly represented as ________.

A) aureus

B) Staphylococcus

C) staphylococcus

D) Aureus

89) Wanda is receptive to the nurse's teaching. In reinforcing the prevalence of microbes in our environment, the nurse describes the experiments of Louis Pasteur. Pasteur hypothesized that microbes were in the air and dust. Through experiments using swan-necked flasks, he disproved the concept of ________.

A) spontaneous mutation

B) spontaneous generation

C) aseptic theory

D) biogenesis

90) Hand washing in the healthcare environment is aimed at reducing the number of microbes in the medical setting to prevent the spread of infection and disease. Which of these terms best represents this technique?

A) Sterilization

B) Asepsis

C) Disinfection

D) Antisepsis

91) Viruses may also be transmitted to patients, even though they differ from bacteria in that they are ________.

A) parasitic invertebrate animals

B) infectious proteins

C) metabolically active eukaryotes

D) noncellular particles

NCLEX Prep - Test Bank Question: Please read the clinical scenario, and then answer the questions that follow to become familiar with the traditional NCLEX question format.

Breonna Jones is 16 years old, 5'4", and weighs 93 lb. She was admitted to an inpatient medical unit 2 days ago after collapsing at the local high school. Her parents knew she was skinny and had lost weight in the past few months, but had no idea that her life was in danger. The medical team has instituted treatment for anorexia nervosa. As you develop Breonna's nursing plan of care, you take into consideration the four major biological molecules that are building blocks of all cells.

92) The nurse implements an extensive nutrition education plan for Breonna, beginning at the molecular level. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are the four main families of biological molecules referred to as ________.

A) macromolecules

B) monosaccharides

C) polysaccharides

D) micromolecules

93) The structure of proteins is complex and unique, and only specific molecules can interact with their surface features. The natural shape of each protein is termed the native state. When proteins are exposed to heat, acid, or alcohol, their shape is disrupted and they become nonfunctional or ________.

A) digested

B) denatured

C) distorted

D) depolymerized

94) You inform Breonna that it is important for her to maintain a diet rich in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, so that each of these macromolecules can be metabolized to form a high-energy compound called ________.





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