1. Which of the following is an example of quantitative data?
a.
the player’s number on a baseball uniform
b.
the serial number on a one-dollar bill
c.
the part number of an inventory item
d.
the number of people in a waiting line
ANSWER:
d
POINTS:
1
DIFFICULTY:
Easy
REFERENCES:
Data
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
MBST.ASWC.18.01.02 - 1.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:
United States - Business Program.1: - Reflective Thinking
KEYWORDS:
Bloom's: Knowledge
2. Which of the following is NOT an example of descriptive statistics?
a histogram depicting the age distribution for 30 randomly selected students
an estimate of the number of Alaska residents who have visited Canada
a table summarizing the data collected in a sample of new-car buyers
the proportion of mailed-out questionnaires that were returned
b
Descriptive Statistics
MBST.ASWC.18.01.04 - 1.4
3. Which of the following is an example of categorical data?
social security number
score on a multiple-choice exam
height, in meters, of a diving board
number of square feet of carpet
a
4. The number of observations in a complete data set having 10 elements and 5 variables is _____.
5
10
25
50
5. Facts and figures collected, analyzed, and summarized for presentation and interpretation are called _____.
data
variables
elements
variables and elements
6. The entities on which data are collected are _____.
populations
sets
samples
7. The set of measurements collected for an element is called a(n) _____.
census
variable
observation
sample
c
8. A characteristic of interest for the elements is called a(n) _____.
data set
9. All data collected in a study are referred to as the _____.
inference
10. In a data set, the number of observations will always be the same as the number of _____.
data sets
11. Which of the following is NOT a scale of measurement?
nominal
ordinal
interval
categorical
12. When the data are labels or names used to identify an attribute of the elements, the variable has which scale of measurement?
ratio
13. When the data are labels or names used to identify an attribute of the elements and the rank of the data is meaningful, the variable has which scale of measurement?
14. When the data have the properties of ordinal data and the interval between observations is expressed in terms of a fixed unit of measure, the variable has which scale of measurement?
15. When the data have the properties of interval data and the multiplication or division of two values is meaningful, the variable has which scale of measurement?
16. Which two scales of measurement can be either numeric or nonnumeric?
nominal and ratio
ordinal and interval
interval and ordinal
nominal and ordinal
17. Which of the following variables uses the interval scale of measurement?
name of stock exchange
time
SAT scores
18. Which of the following variables uses the ratio scale of measurement?
19. Quantitative data _____.
are always nonnumeric
may be either numeric or nonnumeric
are always numeric
are always labels
20. Categorical data _____.
indicate either how much or how many
21. _____ analytics is the set of analytical techniques that yield a course of action.
Descriptive
Predictive
Prescriptive
Analytics
MBST.ASWC.18.01.07 - 1.7
22. What organization developed the report, “Ethical Guidelines for Statistical Practice”?
Ethics Committee for Statistical Practices
American Statistical Association
International Statistical Organization
Federal Bureau for Ethical Practices in Statistics
Ethical Guidelines for Statistical Practice
MBST.ASWC.18.01.09 - 1.9
23. Arithmetic operations are inappropriate for _____.
categorical data
quantitative data
both categorical and quantitative data
large data sets
24. In a questionnaire, respondents are asked to mark their gender as Male, Female, Transgender MtoF, Transgender FtoM, Non-binary, or Intersex. Gender is an example of a(n) _____ variable.
quantitative
25. In a questionnaire, respondents are asked to record their age in years. Age is an example of a _____.
categorical variable
quantitative variable
categorical or quantitative variable, depending on how the respondents answered the question
ratio variable
26. In an application for a credit card, potential customers are asked for their social security numbers. A social security number is an example of a _____.
27. Temperature is an example of which scale of measurement?
28. For ease of data entry into a university database, 1 denotes the student is enrolled in an undergraduate degree program, 2 indicates the student is enrolled in a master’s degree program, and 3 indicates the student is enrolled in a doctoral degree program. In this case, the data are which scale of measurement?
29. Income is an example of _____.
either categorical or quantitative data
currency data
30. The birth weight of newborns, measured in grams, is an example of _____.
neither categorical nor quantitative data
31. The graph below best exemplifies a _____.
(Graph courtesy of Robert Allison.)
bar graph
time series graph
cross-sectional graph
line graph
32. The graph below best exemplifies a _____.
33. Data collected at the same, or approximately the same, point in time are _____ data.
time series
static
cross-sectional
one-dimensional
34. Data collected over several time periods are _____ data.
time-controlled
time dependent
35. Statistical studies in which researchers do not control variables of interest are _____.
experimental studies
uncontrolled experimental studies
not of any value
observational studies
Data Sources
MBST.ASWC.18.01.03 - 1.3
36. Statistical studies in which researchers control variables of interest are _____ studies.
experimental
control observational
non-experimental
observational
37. _____ analytics encompasses the set of analytical techniques that describe what has happened in the past.
38. Which of the following is NOT an example of an existing source of data?
the Internet
internal company records
U.S. Census Bureau
All of these are examples of existing sources of data.
39. Which of the following is NOT an example of a firm that sells or leases business database services to clients?
Dun & Bradstreet
Bloomberg
Dow Jones and Company
40. The most common type of observational study is a(n) _____.
experiment
survey
debate
statistical inference
41. The summaries of data, which may be tabular, graphical, or numerical, are referred to as _____.
inferential statistics
descriptive statistics
report generation
42. A Scanner Data User Survey of 50 companies found that the average amount spent on scanner data per category of consumer goods was $387,325 (Mercer Management Consulting, Inc., April 24, 1997). The $387,325 is an example of _____.
a descriptive statistic
Both quantitative data and a descriptive statistic are correct.
43. Statistical inference _____.
refers to the process of drawing inferences about the sample based on the characteristics of the population
is the same as descriptive statistics
is the process of drawing inferences about the population based on the information taken from the sample
is the same as a census
Statistical Inference
MBST.ASWC.18.01.05 - 1.5
44. The collection of all elements of interest in a study is _____.
the population
the sampling
45. A portion of the population selected to represent the population is called _____.
a census
a sample
46. Of 800 students in a university, 360, or 45%, live in the dormitories. The 800 is an example of _____.
a population
47. In a sample of 800 students in a university, 160, or 20%, are Business majors. Based on the above information, the school's paper reported, "20% of all students at the university are Business majors." This report is an example of _____.
48. Six hundred residents of a city are polled to obtain information on voting intentions in an upcoming city election. The 600 residents in this study is an example of a(n) _____.
population
49. A statistics professor asked students in a class their ages. Based on this information, the professor states that the average age of students in the university is 21 years. This is an example of _____.
an experiment
50. The owner of a factory regularly requests a graphical summary of all employees' salaries. The graphical summary of salaries is an example of _____.
51. The Department of Transportation of a city has noted that on the average there are 14 accidents per day. The average number of accidents is an example of _____.
Exhibit 1-1In a recent study based upon an inspection of 200 homes in Daisy City, 120 were found to violate one or more city codes.
52. Refer to Exhibit 1-1. The city manager released a statement that 60% of Daisy City's 3,000 homes are in violation of city codes. The manager's statement is an example of _____.
53. Refer to Exhibit 1-1. The Daisy City study is an example of the use of a _____.
probability
54. Refer to Exhibit 1-1. The manager's statement that 60% of Daisy City's 3,000 homes are in violation of city codes is _____.
an accurate statement
only an approximation, since it is based upon sample information
obviously wrong, since it is based upon a study of only 200 homes
None of the other answers is correct.
Exhibit 1-2
In a sample of 3,200 registered voters, 1,440, or 45%, approve of the way the president is doing his job.
55. Refer to Exhibit 1-2. The 45% approval is an example of _____.
56. Refer to Exhibit 1-2. A political pollster states, "Forty five percent of all voters approve of the president." This statement is an example of _____.
57. The process of analyzing sample data to draw conclusions about the characteristics of a population is called _____.
data analysis
data summarization
58. In a post office, the mailboxes are numbered from 1 to 5,000. These numbers represent _____.
time series data
cross-sectional data
59. The average age in a sample of 90 students at City College is 20. From this sample, it can be concluded that the average age of all the students at City College _____.
must be more than 20, since the population is always larger than the sample
must be less than 20, since the sample is only a part of the population
could not be 20
could be larger, smaller, or equal to 20
60. _____ analytics consists of analytical techniques that use models constructed from past data to predict the future or to assess the impact of one variable on another.
61. The term _____ is used to refer to the process of capturing, storing, and maintaining data.
data warehousing
data mining
data collection
Big Data and Data Mining
MBST.ASWC.18.01.08 - 1.8
62. A sample of five Fortune 500 companies showed the following revenues ($ millions): 7505.0, 2904.7, 7208.4, 6819.0, and 19500.0. Based on this information, which of the following statements is correct?
An estimate of the average revenue for all Fortune 500 companies is 8787.42 ($ millions).
The average revenue for all Fortune 500 companies is 8787.42 ($ millions).
Over half of all Fortune 500 companies earn at least 7208.4 ($ millions) in revenues.
If five other Fortune 500 companies were chosen, the average revenue would be 8787.42 ($ millions).
63. A sample of five Fortune 500 companies possessed the following industry codes: banking, banking, finance, retail, and banking. Based on this information, which of the following statements is correct?
Sixty percent of the sample of five companies are banking industries.
Sixty percent of all Fortune 500 companies are banking industries.
Banking is the most common type of industry among all Fortune 500 companies.
If five other Fortune 500 companies were chosen, 60% of them would be banking industries.
64. The Microsoft Office package used to perform statistical analysis is _____.
SPSS
Word
SAS
Excel
Statistical Analysis Using Microsoft Excel
MBST.ASWC.18.01.06 - 1.6
65. Dr. Kurt Thearling, a leading practitioner in the field, defines data mining as “the _____ extraction of _____ information from databases."
thorough, insightful
timely, accurate
automated, predictive
intentional, useful
66. The major applications of data mining have been made by companies with a strong _____ focus.
consumer
manufacturing
exporting
research and development
67. Quantitative data that measure "how many" are ________; quantitative data that measure "how much" are ________.
interval; ratio
ratio; interval
continuous; discrete
discrete; continuous
68. Flight time from Cincinnati to Atlanta is an example of a _____ variable and _____ measurement.
discrete; interval
discrete; ratio
continuous; interval
continuous; ratio
69. Which of the following is NOT a categorical variable?
your age on your last birthday
your cell phone area code
your accounting class start time
your high school graduation year
70. Categorical data use either the ______ or ______ scale of measurement.
nominal; ordinal
nominal; interval
ordinal; interval
71. The term data warehousing is used to refer to the process of doing all of the following, except _____ the data.
capturing
storing
maintaining
mining
72. _____ is the process of using procedures from statistics and computer science to extract useful information from extremely large databases.
Big data
Data warehousing
Data mining
73. After the graduation ceremonies at a university, six graduates were asked whether they were in favor of (identified by 1) or against (identified by 0) abortion. Some characteristics of these graduates are shown below.
Graduate
Sex
Age
Abortion Issue
Class Rank
F
22
3
2
M
21
33
0
4
38
20
6
19
8
How many elements are in the data set?
How many variables are in the data set?
How many observations are in the data set?
Identify the scale of measurement for each of the above (Sex, Age, Abortion Issue, Class Rank).
e.
Which of the above (Sex, Age, Abortion Issue, Class Rank) are categorical, and which are quantitative variables?
f.
Are arithmetic operations appropriate for the variable "abortion issue"?
Sex: nominal
Age: ratio
Abortion Issue: nominal
Class Rank: ordinal
Sex: categorical
Age: quantitative
Abortion Issue: categorical
Class Rank: categorical
No
74. An issue of Fortune Magazine reported the following companies had the lowest sales per employee among the Fortune 500 companies.
Company
Sales per Employee ($ thousands)
Sales Rank
Seagate Technology
42.20
285
SSMC
42.19
414
Russell
41.99
480
Maxxam
40.88
485
Dibrell Brothers
22.56
470
How many elements are in the above data set?
How many variables are in the above data set?
How many observations are in the above data set?
Name the scale of measurement for each of the variables.
Name the variables and indicate whether they are categorical or quantitative.
Sales per Employee: ratio; Sales Rank: ordinal
Sales per Employee: quantitative; Sales Rank: categorical
75. The following shows the temperatures (high, low) and weather conditions on a given Sunday for seven world cities. For the weather conditions, the following notations are used: c = clear; cl = cloudy; sh = showers; pc = partly cloudy.
City
Hi
Lo
Condition
Acapulco
99
77
pc
Bangkok
92
78
Mexico City
57
sh
Montreal
72
56
Paris
58
Rome
88
68
cl
Toronto
61
How many elements are in this data set?
How many variables are in this data set?
How many observations are in this data set?
For which variables are arithmetic operations appropriate, and for which are they not appropriate?
7
Hi: interval, Lo: interval, Condition: nominal
Hi: quantitative, Lo: quantitative, Condition: categorical
Hi: appropriate, Lo: appropriate, Condition: not appropriate
76. A magazine surveyed a sample of its subscribers. Some of the responses from the survey are shown below.
Annual Household
Subscriber ID
Income ($1000s)
0006
45
4798
53
2291
82
4988
30
Which of the above (Sex, Age, Annual Household Income) are categorical, and which are quantitative?
Are the data time series or cross-sectional?
Sex: nominal, Age: ratio, Annual Household Income: ratio
Sex: categorical, Age: quantitative, Annual Household Income: quantitative
77. A magazine surveys a sample of its subscribers every year. Some of the responses are shown below.
Percent
Average
Average Annual
Year
Female
Household Income ($1000s)
1996
5.8
35.2
40
1997
8.6
35.8
42
1998
7.3
33.9
41
1999
9.2
35.3
43
2000
9.8
36.6
46
Name the scale of measurement for each variable.
Which of the above (Year, Percent Female, Average Age, Average Annual Household Income) are categorical, and which are quantitative?
Year: interval, Percent Female: ratio, Average Age: ratio, Average Annual Household Income: ratio
all are quantitative
78. The following data show the yearly income distribution of a sample of 200 employees at MNM, Inc.
Yearly Income ($1000s)
Number of Employees
20 − 24
25 − 29
48
30 − 34
60
35 − 39
80
40 − 44
What percentage of employees have a yearly incomes of at least $35,000?
Is the figure (percentage) that you computed in Part a. an example of statistical inference? If not, what kind of statistics does it represent?
Based on this sample, the president of the company said that "45% of all our employees' yearly incomes are at least $35,000." The president's statement represents what kind of statistics?
With the statement made in Part c., can we be assured that more than 45% of all employees' yearly incomes are at least $35,000? Explain.
What percentage of employees of the sample have a yearly income of less than $30,000?
How many variables are presented in the above data set?
g.
The above data set represents the results of how many observations?
45%
No, it is descriptive statistics.
No, this is simply an inference and approximation based on the sample information.
25%
200
79. A recent issue of a national magazine reported that in a national public opinion survey conducted among 2,000 individuals, 56% were in favor of gun control, 40% opposed gun control, and 4% had no opinion on the subject.
What is the sample in this survey?
Based on the sample, what percentage of the population would you think is in favor of gun control?
Based on the sample, what percentage of the population would you think have no opinion on the subject?
the 2,000 individuals who were approached
56%
4%
80. A pharmaceutical company is performing clinical trials on a new drug that is intended to relieve symptoms for allergy sufferers. Twelve percent of the 300 clinical trial participants experienced dry mouth as a side effect.
What is the population being studied?
What is the sample being studied?
Based on the sample, what percentage of the population do you think would suffer from dry mouth?
all allergy sufferers
the 300 participants
12%
81. A polling organization conducts a telephone poll of 850 registered voters and asks which candidate they will vote for in the upcoming presidential election. Forty-three percent of the respondents prefer candidate A and 45% prefer candidate B.
Based on the sample, what percentage of the population do you think would vote for candidate B?
all registered voters
the 850 registered voters who were polled
82. The following table shows the starting salaries of a sample of recent business graduates.
Number of Graduates
15 − 19
18
What percentage of graduates in the sample had starting salaries of at least $30,000?
Of the graduates in the sample, what percentage had starting salaries of less than $25,000?
Based on this sample, what percentage of all business graduates do you estimate to have starting salaries of at least $20,000?
10%
50%
80%
83. Michael, Inc., a manufacturer of electric guitars, is a small firm with 50 employees. The table below shows the hourly wage distribution of the employees.
Hourly Wages (In Dollars)
10 − 13.99
14 − 17.99
12
18 − 21.99
22 − 25.99
How many employees receive hourly wages of at least $18?
What percentage of the employees has hourly wages of at least $18?
What percentage of the employees has hourly wages of less than $14?
60%
16%
84. Laura Naples, manager of Heritage Inn, periodically collects and tabulates information about a sample of the hotel’s overnight guests. This information aids her in planning and scheduling decisions she must make. The table below lists data on 10 randomly selected hotel registrants, collected as the registrants checked out. The data listed for each registrant are: number of people in the group; birth date of person registering; shuttle service used, yes or no; total telephone charges incurred; and reason for stay, business or personal.
ID ofRegistrant
Number ofPeoplein Group
BirthDate(mm/dd/yy)
ShuttleUsed
TelephoneCharges
Reasonfor Stay
01
05/07/59
yes
$ 0.00
personal
02
11/23/48
no
12.46
business
03
04/30/73
1.20
04
12/16/71
2.90
05
05/09/39
0.00
06
09/14/69
4.65
07
04/22/66
9.35
08
10/28/54
2.10
09
11/12/49
1.85
01/30/62
5.80
a. How many elements are there in the data set?b. How many variables are there in the data set?c. How many observations are there in the data set?d. What are the observations for the second element listed?e. What is the total number of measurements in the data set?
f. Which variables are quantitative?g. Which variables are qualitative?h. What is the scale of measurement for each of the variables?i. Does the data set represent cross-sectional or times series data?j. Does the data set represent an experimental or an observational study?
a. 10 elementsb. 5 variablesc. 10 observations
d. 4, 11/23/48, no, 12.46, business
e. 50f. people in group, telephone chargesg. birth date, shuttle used, reason for stay
h. people in group – ratio scale, birth date – ordinal scale, shuttle use – nominal, telephone charge – ratio scale, reason for stay – nominal scale
i. cross-sectionalj. observational
85. Molly Porter owns and operates two convenience stores, one on the East side of the city and the other on the South side. She has workforce-planning decisions to make and has collected some recent sales data that are relevant to her decisions. Listed below are the monthly sales ($1000s) at her two stores for the past six months.
Store
March
April
May
June
July
August
East
102
100
103
105
109
106
South
74
81
86
93
a. Is the data set cross-sectional or time series data? Explain.b. Comment on any apparent patterns you see in the data.
a. Time series data for two variables: monthly sales for East store and monthly sales for South store.
b. Both stores have been experiencing an overall rise in sales during the past six months. The South store’s increase in sales (as a percentage of sales) has been greater than the East store’s increase. The increases might be temporary, due to the seasonal nature of demand. It is also possible that the increases will continue.
86. The following table shows the starting salaries of a sample of recent VoTech graduates.
Income (Rounded to $1000s)
25 - 29
30 - 34
35 - 39
40 - 44
45 - 49
a. What percentage of graduates in the sample had starting salaries of at least $40,000?b. Of the graduates in the sample, what percentage had starting salaries of less than $35,000?
c. Based on this sample, what percentage of all VoTech graduates do you estimate to have starting salaries of at least $30,000?
a. 10%
b. 50%
c. 80%
87. Suppose the current weather report for your area contains the following information. Specify the measurement scale for each of the variables.
Temperature
84^{o}
Wind Speed
10 mph
Wind Direction
(from the) South
Sky Description
Sunny
Molds Level
High
a. Temperature – interval
b. Wind Speed – ratioc. Wind Direction – nominald. Sky Description – nominale. Molds Level – ordinal
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