Test Bank Organizational Behavior Science, The Real World, and You 8th Edition Debra L. Nelson A+

$35.00
Test Bank Organizational Behavior Science, The Real World, and You 8th Edition Debra L. Nelson A+

Test Bank Organizational Behavior Science, The Real World, and You 8th Edition Debra L. Nelson A+

$35.00
Test Bank Organizational Behavior Science, The Real World, and You 8th Edition Debra L. Nelson A+

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. The two determinants of one’s personality are heredity (genetics) and the environment. Larry Ellison, cofounder and CEO of Oracle attributes much of his success to his personality and states that his personality was mostly shaped by his:

a.love of hiking and sailing
b.penchant for having fun which led him to drop out of two universities
c.relationship with his father
d.service in the Air Force

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Thinking Ahead and Looking Back MSC: K&C

  1. According to the proponents of interactional psychology, all of the following are correct except:

a.behavior is a function of heredity and physical stature
b.people vary in terms of cognitive, affective, motivational, and ability factors
c.a situation can be viewed objectively
d.one’s subjective view of the situation can also be important

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: pp. 82-83

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Individual Differences and Organizational Behavior MSC: K&C

  1. The basis for understanding individual differences stems from:

a.Jung’s development of personality archetypes
b.Carl Roger’s contention that everyone is unique
c.Bandura’s approach to social-cognitive social learning theory
d.Lewin’s contention that behavior is a function of the person and the environment

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Individual Differences and Organizational Behavior MSC: K&C

  1. The way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values, and ethics differ from one individual to another is referred to as:

a.personality
b.individual differences
c.the basis for group differences
d.variation in traits

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 82

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Individual Differences and Organizational Behavior MSC: K&C

  1. All of the following are examples of individual differences except:

a.personality
b.general mental ability
c.emotional intelligence
d.norming

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 83

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Skills and Abilities MSC: K&C

  1. What is considered the single best predictor or work performance across many occupations studied both here in the United States and across different cultures?

a.GMA
b.Extraversion
c.Conscientiousness
d.Emotional Stability

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 83

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Skills and Abilities MSC: K&C

  1. According to the Science Feature of Chapter 3, where General mental ability (GMA) was investigated in association with victimization, all of the following were supported by this study Except:

a.Having a high GMA does not have a downside in terms of being a target at work.
b.An individual with high cognitive ability and also a caring, cooperative, and secure personality will not experience an increase in victimization.
c.An individual with high GMA and a personality that includes independence and dominance will be more likely to be victimized.
d.Highly intelligent individuals should cultivate their positive personality traits as well as their intellectual skills.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 84

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Skills and Abilities | Science Feature MSC: K&C

  1. The approach to the study of personality that focuses on both person (dispositions) and situational variables as combined predictors of behavior is known as:

a.trait theory
b.the integrative approach
c.psychodynamic theory
d.wholistic humanism

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 86

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Big Five Personality Model MSC: K&C

  1. A relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual’s behavior defines:

a.behavioral predispositions
b.personality
c.the integrative approach to behavior
d.the approach emphasizing the perceptual process

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 84

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality MSC: K&C

  1. Personality is shaped by:

a.consequences of behavior and the environment
b.the person and the situation
c.thinkings and feelings
d.heredity and environment

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 84

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality MSC: Analysis

  1. Which traits are associated with less absenteeism at work?

a.extraversion and emotional stability
b.introversion and emotional stability
c.extraversion and conscientiousness
d.introversion and conscientiousness

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 85

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Big Five Personality Model MSC: K&C

  1. The traits associated with high-performing employees are:

a.extraversion and agreeableness
b.agreeableness and conscientiousness
c.conscientiousness and emotional stability
d.emotional stability and agreeableness

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 85

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Big Five Personality Model MSC: K&C

  1. Which of the following is not considered one of the “Big Five” personality traits?

a.heredity
b.extraversion
c.emotional stability
d.conscientiousness

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 85

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Big Five Personality Model MSC: K&C

  1. Individuals possessing an internal locus of control:

a.display high anxiety
b.tend to be dissatisfied on the job
c.prefer participative management styles
d.avoid greater responsibility

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: pp. 86-87

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. As a supervisor of a group of employees, all of whom have an internal locus of control, you should:

a.closely supervise them
b.provide explicit and frequent job instructions
c.expect to frequently discipline group members for slowness and lack of initiative
d.allow them considerable leeway in determining how to perform their work

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 87

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: Application

  1. Which of the following statements regarding internals and externals is FALSE?

a.Internals and externals have similar positive reactions to being promoted.
b.Internals and externals have distinctly different reactions to being promoted with internals having higher organizational commitment than externals.
c.Internals tend to have positive feelings to a promotion longer than do externals.
d.Externals may be more reluctant than internals to participate in decision making.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. Research on locus of control has strong implications for organizations because internals have been found to be associated with stronger relationships with all of the following Except:

a.job satisfaction
b.more effective coping strategies
c.better interpersonal relationship
d.reluctance to participate in decision making

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 87

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. Generalized self-efficacy is the general:

a.feeling of one’s self-worth
b.extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations
c.belief about one’s own capabilities to deal with the events and challenges that make life demanding
d.belief about self or situational control over what happens to them

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 87

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. Which of the following is one of the most important determinants of high self-efficacy?

a.an internal locus of control
b.high self-esteem
c.previous success
d.the tendency to be a low self-monitor

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 87

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. Denise and Teresa are two students in a course on organizational behavior. Denise outperforms Teresa on the first exam in OB, and Teresa convinces herself that Denise is not really a good person to compare herself to because Denise is a psychology major and Teresa is majoring in accounting. Which of the following is the best explanation for Teresa’s reaction?

a.Teresa’s high self-esteem is protecting her from this unfavorable comparison.
b.Teresa is a low self-monitor.
c.Teresa has an external locus of control.
d.Teresa probably has an inflated generalized belief of her capabilities.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 88

NAT: AACSB: Analytic | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: Application

  1. Which of the following is NOT a component of CSE.

a.General mental ability
b.Locus of control
c.Generalized self-efficacy
d.Self-esteem

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 88

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. As a manager that understands the implications of self-esteem on work behavior, you should:

a.clearly measure the results of employee tasks
b.provide continual positive feedback
c.clearly tie rewards to performance
d.give them appropriate challenges and opportunities for success

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 88

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: Application

  1. Individuals with high levels of CSE tend to experience or exhibit all of the following Except:

a.perform better on their jobs
b.more satisfaction with their jobs and lives
c.report lower levels of stress
d.higher levels of organizational commitment

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: pp. 88-89

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. An individual’s generalized belief about internal control versus external control is called:

a.self-efficacy
b.self-esteem
c.locus of control
d.self-monitoring

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 86

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. Low self-monitors tend to:

a.be slow in responding to situational cues
b.be high on self-efficacy
c.be high in self-esteem
d.require little supervision

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 89

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: Application

  1. Positive affectivity is likely to be displayed by:

a.persons with low self-efficacy
b.low self-monitors
c.persons with high anxiety
d.internals, or those with an internal locus of control

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 90

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: Application

  1. Managers who want to promote positive affectivity should:

a.allow participative decision making and provide pleasant working conditions
b.hire those with an external orientation
c.reduce the anxiety in jobs
d.give positive feedback in order to increase self-esteem

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 90

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: Application

  1. A member of a work group who loafs and makes only a very minimal contribution:

a.exhibits negative affectivity
b.likes to experience control over others
c.has an internal locus of control
d.will be successful if left alone

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 90

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: Application

  1. The extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations refers to:

a.locus of control
b.self-esteem
c.self-efficacy
d.self-monitoring

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 89

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. Masculine women in the workplace have often experienced a backlash for violating the nurturing gender role stereotype. A recent study followed promotion rates of male and female MBAs over eight years and found that masculine women:

a.who were also high self-monitors did not experience this backlash and received more promotions
b.tend to have a more positive affect and higher job satisfaction
c.will have a stronger influence in weak situations
d.have been shown to have a higher general self-efficacy

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 89

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. When predicting behavior, an important idea to remember concerns the extent to which a situation overwhelms the effects of individual personalities by providing cues for appropriate behavior. This type of situation is called a:

a.weak situation
b.weak individual difference
c.strong individual difference
d.strong situation

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 91

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. You need to hire someone for a marketing position within a product team responsible for home cleaning detergents. Your organization has several products within this category and the team includes representatives from operations and R&D. Which of the following personality types for the marketing position would result in the most effective team member?

a.high self monitor
b.low self monitor
c.internal locus of control
d.external locus of control

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 89

NAT: AACSB: Analytic | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: Analysis

  1. Which of the following personality types would most likely display the most consistent behavior “across situations”?

a.External locus of control
b.High self efficacy
c.High self monitor
d.Low self monitor

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 89

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. A person who is unconstrained by his or her situation and who brings about environmental change would more likely have a(n):

a.ISTJ type personality
b.high level of self monitoring
c.proactive personality
d.negative affect

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 91

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Personality Characteristics in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. A problem frequently associated with self report methods for assessing ones personality includes:

a.the biases of the assessor in interpreting the information
b.the observer’s ability to stay focused
c.respondents answering questions in terms of how they want to be seen rather than as they are
d.the effect of observation on those being observed

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 91

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Measuring Personality MSC: K&C

  1. A count of the times a student asks a question or makes a comment in an organizational behavior course is a/an:

a.self-report measure of personality
b.projective measure of personality
c.example of the MMPI
d.behavioral measure of personality

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 92

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Measuring Personality MSC: Application

  1. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory:

a.is a projective test
b.provides direct indices of personality
c.is administered as an inkblot test
d.assesses a variety of traits

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 91

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Measuring Personality MSC: K&C

  1. The most common method of assessing personality is the:

a.projective test
b.behavioral measurement through observation
c.self-report questionnaire
d.Rorschach ink blot test

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 91

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Measuring Personality MSC: K&C

  1. A problem with the behavioral measure for personality would be:

a.low reliability
b.the fact self-report measures suffer from potential bias
c.their tendency to be too long
d.the observer’s ability to stay focused

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 92

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Measuring Personality MSC: K&C

  1. ELoyalty, founded by Kelly Conway has perfected software that:

a.decodes a caller’s personality using voice recognition
b.identifies customers most loyal to a product’s offering and matched loyalty with type personality
c.identifies repeat buyers of a product as a result of online surveys that are used to identify through specific response patterns their personality
d.identifies customers that are the most satisfied through voice recognition

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 92

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Measuring Personality | Real World 3.1 MSC: K&C

  1. Which of the following organizations has perfected software that decodes a caller’s personality using voice recognition in order to match them with an agent with a similar personality?

a.EVR
b.ELoyalty
c.EPersonalityRecognition
d.EPersonalityCallCenter (EPCC)

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 92

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Measuring Personality | Real World 3.1 MSC: K&C

  1. The MBTI is a:

a.projective test that captures psychological disorders
b.way to identify human differences and similarities by separating behavioral tendencies or dispositions
c.self-report questionnaire designed to assess personality
d.direct index of personality

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 93

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Application of Personality Theory in Organizations: The MBTI® Instrument

MSC: K&C

  1. According to the MBTI a successful top executive is likely to be a/an:

a.introvert, intuitor, feeler, and perceiver
b.introvert, sensor, thinker, and perceiver
c.extrovert, intuitor, feeler, and judger
d.extrovert, sensor, thinker, and judger

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 96

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: The Sixteen Types MSC: Application

  1. The basic preference in type theory that represents where you get your energy is the:

a.extraversion/introversion preference
b.sensing/intuiting preference
c.thinking/feeling preference
d.judging/perceiving preference

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 93

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: The Preferences MSC: K&C

  1. According to the Jungian approach to personality, the basic preference that reflects what we pay attention to or how we prefer to gather information is:

a.extraversion/introversion
b.sensing/intuiting
c.thinking/feeling
d.judging/perceiving

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 94

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: The Preferences MSC: K&C

  1. Jung contended that the most important distinction between individuals was the:

a.extravert/introvert preference
b.sensing/intuiting preference
c.thinking/feeling preference
d.judging/perceiving preference

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 93

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: The Preferences MSC: K&C

  1. All of the following are characteristics of the target of one’s perceptions, except:

a.physical appearances
b.oral communication
c.nonverbal cues
d.purpose and context of encounter or interaction

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 98

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Social Perception MSC: K&C

  1. The process of interpreting information about another person is:

a.high external control
b.social perception
c.encoding
d.evaluation

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 97

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Social Perception MSC: K&C

  1. The three major categories of factors that influence our perception of another person include:

a.characteristics of ourselves, the target person, and the situation
b.availability of information, the target person, and the situation
c.recentcy of information, availability of information, and consistency of information
d.characteristics of ourselves, the target person, and consistency of information

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 98

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Social Perception MSC: K&C

  1. The perceiver’s pattern of thinking or manner in which they assemble and interpret information about another person is:

a.the strength of situational cues
b.cognitive structure
c.self-concept
d.attitude structuring

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 99

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Characteristics of the Perceiver MSC: K&C

  1. The ability of an individual to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attend to just a few traits is a function of their:

a.attention span
b.ability to focus
c.cognitive weighting
d.cognitive complexity

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 99

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Characteristics of the Perceiver MSC: K&C

  1. Which of the following is NOT an important characteristic of the perceiver that can affect social perception?

a.attitude
b.mood
c.self-concept
d.emotional stability

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 99

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Characteristics of the Perceiver MSC: S&E

  1. In an interview situation, the interviewer’s first impression of the interviewee (or target) is likely to be based upon:

a.nonverbal cues of the target
b.verbal communication by the target
c.the intentions of the target
d.the target’s physical appearance

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 99

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Characteristics of the Target MSC: Application

  1. All of the following are characteristics of the target that influence social perception except:

a.inferred intentions
b.nonverbal communication
c.verbal communication
d.cognitive complexity

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: pp. 99-100

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Characteristics of the Target MSC: K&C

  1. In which of the following situations are situational cues and social context most formalized?

a.job interview
b.employee coaching session
c.on-the-job instruction for new employees
d.employee briefing at start of work shift

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 100

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Characteristics of the Situation MSC: Application

  1. The discounting principle is a characteristic of the:

a.situation
b.perceiver
c.target
d.cognitive miser

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 100

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Characteristics of the Situation MSC: S&E

  1. When you encounter a warm and personable car salesperson and don’t assume that this behavior reflects the salesperson’s personality, you are using which principle in social perception?

a.perceiver principle
b.discounting principle
c.cognitive bias principle
d.social context principle

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 100

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Characteristics of the Situation MSC: Application

  1. The social context and discounting principle are characteristics of the:

a.perceiver
b.target
c.situation
d.interaction

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 100

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Characteristics of the Situation MSC: S&E

  1. An employee who does not get along well with other employees but generates the most sales is evaluated only on sales performance. This is an example of:

a.stereotyping
b.the cognitive miser
c.the self-fulfilling prophecy
d.selective perception

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 100

NAT: AACSB: Analytic | AACSB: Individual Dynamics TOP: Barriers to Social Perception

MSC: Application

  1. A supervisor’s high expectations of a new employee and the subsequent high performance of that employee is known as:

a.impression management
b.stereotyping
c.perceptual bias
d.self-fulfilling prophecy

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 102

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Barriers to Social Perception MSC: K&C

  1. The primacy effect is also known as:

a.selective perception
b.self-fulfilling prophecy
c.first-impression error
d.a stereotype

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 102

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Barriers to Social Perception MSC: K&C

  1. Assume you are an employment interviewer. An applicant’s physical appearance could cause you to commit an incorrect hiring decision because of all of the following except:

a.stereotype
b.selective perception
c.first impression error
d.self-fulfilling prophecy

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 102

NAT: AACSB: Analytic | AACSB: Individual Dynamics TOP: Barriers to Social Perception

MSC: Application

  1. Increasing workforce diversity is likely to reduce __________ as a barrier to social perception.

a.the primacy effect
b.first-impression error
c.selective perception
d.stereotyping

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 101

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Barriers to Social Perception MSC: S&E

  1. The largest civil rights class action lawsuit in U.S. history centered around gender discrimination at Walmart. The U.S. Supreme Court ruling in this case is best supported by which of the following statements?

a.The Supreme Court found that the gender stereotype of women workers as fundamentally inferior to male workers was ingrained in Walmart’s culture and led to discrimination.
b.The Supreme Court found that Walmart did have policies against discrimination and that the unfair treatment of women happened at the local level.
c.The Supreme Court found that a group of over one million women could not be certified as a class, and because of individual circumstance variability, did not have enough in common to band together.
d.The Supreme Court found that leaders at Walmart failed to monitor pay and promotion practices at its 3400 stores.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 101

NAT: AACSB: Diversity | AACSB: Legal Responsibilities

TOP: Social Perception | Real World 3.2 MSC: K&C

  1. Suppose, for example, that a sales manager is evaluating the performance of his employees. One employee does not get along well with colleagues and rarely completes sales reports on time. This employee, however, generates the most new sales contracts in the office. The sales manager chooses to ignore the negative information and evaluates the salesperson only on contracts generated. The manager is exercising:

a.projection
b.selective perception
c.self-fulfilling prophecy
d.fundamental attribution error

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 100

NAT: AACSB: Analytic | AACSB: Individual Dynamics TOP: Barriers to Social Perception

MSC: Application

  1. When a female softball player is given more applause for a home run hit than a male teammate, the reason would most likely be due to:

a.first impression error
b.projection
c.selective perception
d.contrast against a stereotype

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 102

NAT: AACSB: Analytic | AACSB: Individual Dynamics TOP: Barriers to Social Perception

MSC: Application

  1. Projection occurs most often when you:

a.surround yourself with others similar to you
b.attempt to control the impressions others have of you
c.let your expectations affect your interaction with others in a way that we get what we wish for
d.surround yourself with others dis-similar to you

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 102

NAT: AACSB: Analytic | AACSB: Individual Dynamics TOP: Barriers to Social Perception

MSC: Analysis

  1. In which of the following organizational situations is impression management more likely to occur?

a.a supervisor disciplining an employee
b.a job interview
c.a meeting of the top management team
d.an exit interview when an employee retires

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 103

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Impression Management MSC: Application

  1. Which of the following results regarding impression management and employment interviews has not been supported by research?

a.Impression management is associated with higher interview performance.
b.Impression management is associated with increasing the probability of a site visit.
c.Impression management is associated with higher probabilities of getting hired.
d.Impression management is associated with higher starting salaries.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: pp. 103-104

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Impression Management MSC: K&C

  1. Attribution theory helps to __________ behavior in organizations.

a.measure
b.explain causes of
c.specify correct or appropriate
d.observe

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 104

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Attributions in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. An achievement-oriented sales representative might attribute his failure to meet a monthly sales quota to:

a.changing economic conditions
b.a short list of prospects provided by the company
c.a lack of effort
d.a cutback in product advertising

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 104

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Attributions in Organizations MSC: Application

  1. Individuals who make external attributions will be more likely to:

a.achieve higher levels of performance
b.rarely quit because they do not feel responsible
c.develop feelings of incompetence which may lead to depression
d.provide a supporting environment for followers

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 104

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Attributions in Organizations MSC: Application

  1. When you attribute the performance in this class to the type of exams and their relative difficulty, you are making what type of attribution?

a.internal
b.external
c.ability
d.luck

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 104

NAT: AACSB: Analytic | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Attributions in Organizations MSC: Application

  1. Achievement-oriented individuals attribute their success to:

a.a combination of hard work and ability
b.ability
c.hard work
d.hard work and task difficulty

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 104

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Attributions in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. Achievement-oriented individuals attribute their failures to:

a.bad luck
b.a combination of bad luck and a difficult task
c.lack of effort
d.lack of effort and a difficult task

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 104

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Attributions in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. Research shows that successful candidates make:

a.less attributions than unsuccessful candidates
b.more external attributions than unsuccessful candidates
c.more internal attributions for negative events
d.less internal attributions for negative events

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 105

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Attributions in Organizations MSC: K&C

  1. When a student attributes a high test grade to his or her diligent study habits and a low grade to the instructor’s poorly worded questions, the student is displaying:

a.the fundamental attribution error
b.the consensus error
c.the acceptance error
d.self-serving bias

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 105

NAT: AACSB: Analytic | AACSB: Individual Dynamics TOP: Attributional Biases

MSC: Application

  1. Attributional biases implies that managers must:

a.always be correct in their perceptions
b.be very wary of the cognitive process in decision making
c.know as much as possible about individual differences and determine the cause of behavior and perceived source of responsibility
d.take into account the fundamental tendency for people to make external attributions for their behavior

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: p. 105

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Attributional Biases MSC: K&C

  1. The tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behavior is:

a.remedied by the discounting principle
b.known as the fundamental attribution error
c.has been shown to not be related to cultural pre-dispositions
d.known as the fundamental cognitive error

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 105

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Attributional Biases MSC: K&C

  1. When a manager makes the attribution that an employee’s lack of effort or ability is the basis for poor performance, they are probably making an error called:

a.fundamental attribution
b.self-serving bias
c.discounting attribution
d.consistency attributions

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: p. 105

NAT: AACSB: Analytic | AACSB: Individual Dynamics TOP: Attributional Biases

MSC: Application

  1. A person from India would be more likely than someone from China to:

a.make an internal attribution
b.make a self serving bias error
c.make a fundamental attribution error
d.make an external attribution

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Hard REF: p. 105

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

TOP: Attributional Biases MSC: Application

TRUE/FALSE

  1. Personality is defined as a relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual’s behavior.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 84

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. Heredity has been found to NOT be a determinant of personality.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 84

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. GMA is considered a personality characteristic.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 83

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. The integrative approach to personality emphasizes individual growth and improvement.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 86

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. Persons with high self-esteem and internal locus of control tend to be higher performers and are more satisfied with their jobs.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 86

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. High self-monitors can adjust their behavior to fit the situation.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 89

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. The affectivity of individuals can impact group affect either positively or negatively.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 89

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. The most common method of assessing personality is through projective testing.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 91

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. A problem with self-report measure for assessing personality is people often answer the questionnaires in terms of how they want to be seen, rather than as they really are.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 91

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. According to MBTI research, artists and executives are extraverts.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 93

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. An example of a first impression error would be where speakers with higher vocal pitch are believed to be more competent than those with lower voices.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 102

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. High achievers are more likely to attribute their success to others and good luck.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 105

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. The Pygmalion effect usually is associated with reduced output.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 103

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. Mood is a state that has been found to be relatively stable and therefore contributes to the objective accuracy of perception.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 99

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. CEO’s have been found to manage impressions by publicizing changes that seem to address financial analysts concerns without changing organizational policy.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 104

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

MATCHING

Match the following:

a.The way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, values, and ethics vary from one person to another.
b.A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences one’s behavior.
c.Behavior is a function of the person and his or her environment.
d.Tendencies of persons to respond to situations in consistent ways.
e.A person’s general feeling of self-worth.

  1. Self-Esteem

  1. Dispositions

  1. Personality

  1. Individual Differences

  1. Interactional Psychology

  1. ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

Match the following:

a.A broad set of personality traits that refers to self-concept and is comprised of locus of control, self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, and emotional stability.
b.One’s generalized belief about situational and self-control.
c.When focusing on one’s behavior the tendency to internal attributions for successes and external attributions for failures.
d.The extent to which people base their behavior on cues from others and the situation.
e.Positive and negative mood dispositions at work.

  1. Affectivity

  1. Self-Monitoring

  1. Core Self-Evaluation

  1. Locus of Control

  1. Self-Serving Bias

  1. ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

Match the following:

a.A widely used self-report questionnaire that assesses a variety of psychological disorders.
b.A projective test or measure of personality.
c.A popular instrument based on Jungian personality theory.
d.He suggested that human similarities and differences could be understood by combining preferences.
e.Direct indices of personality.
f.Behavior is a function of the person and environment.

  1. MBTI

  1. Behavioral Measures

  1. Carl Jung

  1. Rorschach

  1. Kurt Lewin

  1. MMPI

  1. ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: F PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

Match the following:

a.Likes closure.
b.Logical decision maker.
c.Energized by interaction with others.
d.Pays attention to data gathered through physical senses.
e.Prefers a flexible, more spontaneous life.

  1. Extravert

  1. Perceiver

  1. Sensor

  1. Judger

  1. Thinker

  1. ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

Match the following:

a.Facial expressions, body posture, and eye movement.
b.A generalization about a particular group of people.
c.The false consensus effect.
d.A view of another person based on first encounter.
e.Expectations of others affects our interactions with them.

  1. Projection

  1. Self-fulfilling Prophecy

  1. First Impression

  1. Nonverbal Communication

  1. Stereotype

  1. ANS: C PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: E PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: D PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: A PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. ANS: B PTS: 1

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

ESSAY

  1. Using the five personality characteristics identified in the chapter as important for understanding organizational behavior, describe an individual who would most likely be a strong performer.

ANS:

An internal locus of control, high self-esteem, high self-efficacy, moderate to high self-monitoring, and positive affectivity are likely to be displayed by a high performer.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 85

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. Identify and explain barriers to social perception.

ANS:

Stereotyping stems from generalizing about a group of people. Selective perception involves using only information that supports one’s preconceived view of someone. One’s initial interaction with another may lead to an incorrect conclusion or first impression error. Pet theories one has of behavior may produce inaccurate perception. A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs in a situation where one’s expectations about people affect interaction with them in such a way that expectations are fulfilled.

PTS: 1 REF: pp. 100-103

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. How could a manager use self-fulfilling prophecies to improve a work group?

ANS:

If a supervisor is told that a work group contains individuals with high achievement potential, this information may get translated into high expectations of the supervisor and he/she may set high goals and objectives for the group (that is, higher goals and objectives than would otherwise be set). With high expectations and goals, group members may respond with unusually strong effort and meet the high goals and objectives.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 102 NAT: AACSB: Analytic | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. The basis for understanding individual differences stems from Lewin’s early contention that behavior is a function of the person and the environment. This idea has been developed by the interactional psychology approach to personality. Briefly explain the basic propositions of this approach.

ANS:

The four propositions include (1) behavior is a function of a continuous, multidirectional interaction between the person and the situation, (2) the person is active in this process and both is changed by situations and changes situations, (3) people vary in many characteristics, including cognitive, affective, motivational, and ability factors, and (4) two interpretations of situations are important: the objective situation and the person’s subjective view of the situation.

PTS: 1 REF: pp. 82-83

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

  1. Identify the most common errors that affect the attribution process and briefly discuss the implications for managers.

ANS:

The two key errors include the (1) fundamental attribution error which is the tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behavior and, (2) the self-serving bias which means individuals make internal attributions for their own successes and external attributions for their own failures.

Managers use attributions in all aspects of their job which include evaluating performance and rewarding employees. The extent to which these attributions are more internal or external would have major implications for performance reviews and for rewards.

PTS: 1 REF: pp. 105-106

NAT: AACSB: Reflective Thinking | AACSB: Individual Dynamics

+
-
Only 0 units of this product remain

You might also be interested in