Test Bank Psychology, 13th Edition Carole Wade

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology, 13th Edition Carole Wade

Test Bank Psychology, 13th Edition Carole Wade

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology, 13th Edition Carole Wade

Test Bank Psychology, 13th Edition Carole Wade

Chapter 1 – Pop Quiz 1

  1. Psychology is defined as a scientific discipline concerned with __________.
  2. observation, experimentation, and measurement
  3. behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.
  4. self-help books and talk shows
  5. quick fixes to life’s problems, such as resolving your unhappiness as an adult by “reliving” the supposed trauma of your birth or becoming more creative on the job by “reprogramming” your brain.

  1. The ability to make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons rather than emotion or anecdote is called __________.
  2. applied psychology
  3. critical thinking
  4. functionalism
  5. introspection

  1. The forerunners of psychology developed the theory of phrenology, which in Greek means __________.
  2. a map of thoughts
  3. a map of behavior
  4. study of the mind
  5. study of mental diseases

  1. Who established the first psychological laboratory in 1879?
  2. Sigmund Freud
  3. John Locke
  4. William James
  5. Wilhelm Wundt

  1. __________ emphasized the purpose of behavior as opposed to its analysis and description.
  2. Structuralism
  3. Functionalism
  4. Humanism
  5. Behaviorism

  1. __________ founded the field of psychoanalysis.
  2. Sigmund Freud
  3. William James
  4. Wilhelm Wundt
  5. B. Titchener

  1. Which modern psychological perspective focuses on how people reason, remember, understand language, and solve problems?
  2. the learning perspective
  3. the cognitive perspective
  4. the sociocultural perspective
  5. The psychodynamic perspective

  1. The __________ perspective is a psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
  2. biological
  3. learning
  4. cognitive
  5. sociocultural

  1. Jacob studies how people change and grow over time physically, mentally, and socially. He is a(n) __________ psychologist.
  2. industrial/organizational
  3. developmental
  4. educational
  5. psychometric

  1. In almost all states, a __________ is required to obtain a license to practice clinical psychology.
  2. doctorate
  3. master’s degree
  4. medical degree
  5. certificate from a psychoanalytic institute

Chapter 1 – Pop Quiz 1

Answer Key

  1. b Rationale: Psychology is a science that uses empirical methods to investigate behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment. (Remember the Facts, Moderate, LO 1.1.A, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology)

  1. b Rationale: Critical thinking is the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote. Critical thinkers are able to look for flaws in arguments and to resist claims that have no support. (Understand the Concepts, Moderate, LO 1.2.A, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology)

  1. c Rationale: Phrenology is a Greek word meaning “the study of the mind.” Phrenologists argued that different brain areas accounted for specific character and personality traits, such as stinginess and religiosity. (Remember the Facts, Moderate, LO 1.3.A, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. d Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, in 1879. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.3.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains)

  1. b Rationale: Functionalism emphasized the purpose of behavior, whereas structuralism examined the basic elements of the mind. (Understand the Concepts, Easy, LO 1.3.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains)

  1. a Rationale: Sigmund Freud was the founder of the field of psychoanalysis. Wilhelm Wundt is referred to as the father of modern, scientific psychology. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.3.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains)

  1. b Rationale: The cognitive perspective focuses on mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.4.A, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology)

  1. a Rationale: The biological perspective focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts. Biological psychologists study how these physical events interact with events in the external environment to produce perceptions, memories, emotions, and vulnerability to mental disorder. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.4.A, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology)

  1. b Rationale: Developmental psychologists study how people change and grow over time. (Remember the Facts, Moderate, LO 1.5.A, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. a Rationale: In almost all states, a license to practice clinical psychology requires a doctorate. Most clinical psychologists have a Ph.D., some have an Ed.D., and some have a Psy.D. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.5.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology)

Name __________________________________________________________

Chapter 1 – Pop Quiz 2

  1. Which of the following helps explain why so many people go to psychics?
  2. There is empirical evidence that some psychic predictions are accurate.
  3. Seeing a psychic is cheaper than seeing a therapist.
  4. Belief in psychic abilities gives people a sense of control and predictability.
  5. Psychics use subliminal messaging to manipulate people’s beliefs.

  1. In the steps of critical thinking, which one is first according to the authors of your text?
    1. Define your terms.
    2. Ask questions and be willing to wonder.
    3. Analyze assumptions and biases.
    4. Examine the evidence.

  1. Which of the following was a classic pseudoscientific theory that related bumps on the head to personality traits, and did not disappear until well into the twentieth century?
  1. introspection
  2. functionalism
  3. phrenology
  4. behaviorism

  1. The first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science was __________.
  2. William James
  3. Joseph Gall
  4. John Locke
  5. Wilhelm Wundt

  1. __________ involved the analysis of the basic elements or building blocks of the mind.
  2. Functionalism
  3. Structuralism
  4. Humanism
  5. Behaviorism

  1. One of the founders of functionalism was __________.
  2. Sigmund Freud
  3. William James
  4. Wilhelm Wund
  5. B. Titchener

  1. __________ argued that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.
  2. Functionalists
  3. Structuralists
  4. Psychoanalysts
  5. Fundamentalists

  1. Some psychologists work in basic psychology, doing research, while others work in applied psychology. The two approaches are __________.
  2. diametrically opposed
  3. complementary
  4. based in very different perspectives
  5. identified by the amount of education the psychologist has

  1. The term __________ is unregulated, and so, a practitioner may have an advanced professional degree or no degree at all.
  2. clinical psychologist
  3. psychiatrist
  4. psychoanalyst
  5. psychotherapist

  1. A __________ is a medical doctor who diagnoses and treats mental disorders and takes a more biological approach than other psychotherapists.
  2. psychiatrist
  3. psychoanalyst
  4. LCSW
  5. MFCC

Chapter 1 – Pop Quiz 2

Answer Key

  1. c Rationale: Although there is no evidence that psychic abilities exist, belief in psychic powers persists. One reason may be that “psychics” give people a sense of control and predictability in a confusing world. (Analyze It, Moderate, LO 1.1.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology)

  1. b Rationale: Being willing to ask questions and not take things for granted is the first step to critical thinking. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.2.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology)

  1. c Rationale: Phrenology is a discredited theory that relates bumps on the head to personality traits. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.3.A, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains)

  1. d Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt, in 1873, was the first person to publicly state his intention to make psychology a science. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.3.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains)

  1. b Rationale: Structuralism focused on describing the basic elements that composed the mind and functionalism emphasized the purpose of behavior. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.3.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains)

  1. b Rationale: One of functionalism’s leaders was William James (1842–1910), an American philosopher, physician, and psychologist who argued that searching for building blocks of experience, as Wundt and Titchener tried to do, was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.3.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains)

  1. a Rationale: One of functionalism’s leaders was William James (1842–1910), an American philosopher, physician, and psychologist who argued that searching for building blocks of experience, as Wundt and Titchener tried to do, was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing. (Remember the Facts, Moderate, LO 1.3.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains)

  1. b Rationale: The two approaches are complementary: Applied psychology has direct relevance to human problems, but without basic psychology, there would be little knowledge to apply. (Understand the Concepts, Moderate, LO 1.5.A, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology)

  1. d Rationale: A psychotherapist is simply anyone who does any kind of psychotherapy. The term is not legally regulated; in fact, in most states, anyone can say that he or she is a therapist without having any training at all. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.5.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology)

  1. a Rationale: A psychiatrist is a medical doctor trained to diagnose and treat mental disorders. (Remember the Facts, Easy, LO 1.5.B, APA 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology)

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Psychology is a __________ that explores behavior and mental processes.
  2. philosophical discipline
  3. scientific discipline
  4. medical field
  5. pseudoscience

Answer: b

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Psychology can be defined generally as the scientific discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.

  1. Psychology is defined as a scientific discipline concerned with __________.
  2. observation, experimentation, and measurement
  3. behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.
  4. self-help books and talk shows
  5. quick fixes to life’s problems, such as resolving your unhappiness as an adult by “reliving” the supposed trauma of your birth or becoming more creative on the job by “reprogramming” your brain.

Answer: b

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: LO 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Psychology is a science that uses empirical methods to investigate behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.

  1. Dr. Beckmeier is interested in studying how people think, feel, and act on a daily basis. Dr. Beckmeier is most likely a(n) __________.
    1. sociologist
    2. biologist
    3. psychologist
    4. economist

Answer: c

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: LO 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Psychology is a science that uses empirical methods to investigate behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.

  1. What type of evidence is considered valid in psychological research?
  2. theoretical
  3. psychic
  4. hypothetical
  5. empirical

Answer: d

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Empirical means relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.

  1. Empirical findings are those that __________.
  2. rely on observation, experimentation, or measurement
  3. characterize an entire set of research data
  4. are conducted in a field setting outside of a laboratory
  5. compare subjects of different ages at a given time

Answer: a

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Empirical means relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.

  1. Which of the following is true of scientific psychological findings?
  2. They are always in opposition to popular psychology.
  3. They are always in opposition to conventional thinking and “common sense.”
  4. Experiments must be conducted in a laboratory.
  5. They can confirm or expand existing beliefs and knowledge.

Answer: d

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Psychological findings need not be surprising or counterintuitive, however, to be important. Sometimes they validate common beliefs and then explain or extend them.

  1. Real psychology differs from popular psychology and its pseudoscientific relatives in that it is based on __________.
  2. popular opinion
  3. the ideas of prominent psychoanalysts
  4. empirical evidence
  5. the latest theories

Answer: c

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Empirical means relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.

  1. Dr. Eikman believes that knowledge about behavior is gained through observation and experimentation. Dr. Eikman is most likely a __________.
  2. pseudopsychologist
  3. popular psychologist
  4. clairvoyant
  5. psychologist

Answer: d

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Psychological science is inquiry based on research and empirical evidence, which is gathered by precise observation, experimentation, and measurement.

  1. Which of the following would give the most accurate view of psychology?
  2. hearing a radio call-in show facilitated by a therapist
  3. searching the Internet to see what the popular opinion is on when to begin toilet training an infant
  4. reading a self-help book about how to get over a breakup
  5. reading a newspaper article on the causes of bullying, which describes some of the current empirical research evidence

Answer: d

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Real psychology bears little relation to popular psychology and its pseudoscientific relatives found on the Internet, on television, and in thousands of self-help books. It is based on scientific research and empirical evidence.

  1. Which of the following helps explain why so many people go to psychics?
  2. There is empirical evidence that some psychic predictions are accurate.
  3. Seeing a psychic is cheaper than seeing a therapist.
  4. Belief in psychic abilities gives people a sense of control and predictability.
  5. Psychics use subliminal messaging to manipulate people’s beliefs.

Answer: c

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Although there is no evidence that psychic abilities exist, belief in psychic powers persists. One reason may be that “psychics” give people a sense of control and predictability in a confusing world.

  1. Jesse is newly divorced and has gone to a psychic to find out what her future love life looks like. What is the best explanation for why Jesse has gone to a psychic?
  2. Psychics are alarmingly correct about relationships, jobs prospects, and future earnings.
  3. Jesse wants to feel some sense of control and predictability about her love life.
  4. Jesse knows that if she truly believes what they psychic says, it will guide her to the right man.
  5. Psychics, clairvoyants, and astrologers are part of psychology and considered scientific.

Answer: b

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Although there is no evidence that psychic abilities exist, belief in psychic powers persists. One reason may be that “psychics” give people a sense of control and predictability in a confusing world.

  1. The ability to make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons rather than emotion or anecdote is called __________.
  2. applied psychology
  3. critical thinking
  4. functionalism
  5. introspection

Answer: b

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Critical thinking is the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote. Critical thinkers are able to look for flaws in arguments and to resist claims that have no support.

  1. Critical thinking involves __________.
  2. looking for other people’s flaws or weaknesses
  3. using one’s intuition to assess claims made by researchers
  4. using evidence to make objective judgments
  5. detecting emotional cues to find hidden agendas in research

Answer: c

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Critical thinking is the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote. Critical thinkers are able to look for flaws in arguments and to resist claims that have no support.

  1. Critical thinking shows us that on matters of __________, all ideas are not created equal.
  2. fact
  3. opinion
  4. personal preference
  5. feeling

Answer: b

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Many scientists have observed that it’s good to be open-minded, but open-mindedness does not mean that all opinions are created equal and that everybody’s beliefs are as good as anyone else’s. An opinion that ignores reality is not equal to any other.

  1. Francine is doing a Google search on a topic before writing a paper. Her critical thinking skills are not as good as some of her classmates, so she is likely to __________.
  2. question the sources of all material she finds
  3. need to conduct her own experiments
  4. rely on the material that appears at the top of the search results
  5. find the best answers at the top of the search results

Answer: c

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: A team of researchers found that most college students are easily tricked by Internet results.

They tend to rely on the material that comes up at the top of the results list, without assessing its credibility.

  1. The first step in critical thinking is to be curious and ask questions. Once you’ve raised a general question, the next step is to __________.
  2. examine the evidence
  3. define your terms
  4. avoid emotional reasoning
  5. consider other interpretations

Answer: b

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Defining terms is the second step of the five important critical thinking guidelines. Vague or poorly defined terms in a question can lead to misleading or incomplete answers.

  1. To avoid bias, critical thinkers try to identify the __________ on which claims and arguments rest.
  2. creative questions
  3. questions
  4. unspoken assumptions
  5. uncertainty

Answer: c

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: One of the five critical thinking steps is to analyze assumptions and biases. Critical thinkers try to identify and evaluate the unspoken assumptions on which claims and arguments may rest.

  1. Beliefs that are taken for granted are called __________.
  2. assumptions
  3. traits
  4. reinforcers
  5. archetypes

Answer: a

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: An assumption is a belief that is taken for granted.

  1. In the steps of critical thinking, which one is first according to the authors of your text?
    1. Define your terms.
    2. Ask questions and be willing to wonder.
    3. Analyze assumptions and biases.
    4. Examine the evidence.

Answer: b

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Being willing to ask questions and not take things for granted is the first step to critical thinking.

  1. Critical thinkers analyze their assumptions and those of others. Which of the following statements best demonstrates this skill?
  1. “My boss won’t let me work from home, but her decision is based on the belief that employees are more productive at the office.”
  2. “I think my girlfriend is cheating on me, but I’m too angry right now to think logically.”
  3. “It’s OK to admit that I don’t know the answer when my son asks me a question.”
  4. “There’s probably no single reason why people commit crimes.”

Answer: a

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: All of the statements reflect good critical thinking skills, but only the statement about working from home involves analyzing an assumption. Specifically, the employee has concluded that the boss’s decision is based on a specific assumption that may or may not be correct.

  1. “I really want to believe my vague recollection of an incident that occurred at Disneyland as a preschooler is true, but that doesn’t mean that it is true.” Which of the following critical thinking guidelines does this example illustrate?
  2. Examine the evidence.
  3. Define your terms.
  4. Don’t oversimplify.
  5. Avoid emotional reasoning.

Answer: d

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: This is part of the analyze assumptions and biases step in critical thinking.

  1. Examining the evidence is an important part of critical thinking, but we can’t always conduct the necessary research on our own to prove or disprove a claim. That’s when we need to rely on __________.
  2. accepting generalizations
  3. common sense
  4. reliable sources
  5. gut instinct

Answer: c

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Reliable sources exercise critical thinking themselves. They have education or experience in the field in which they claim expertise. They do not pressure people to agree with them. They are trusted by other experts in the field and share their evidence openly.

  1. Which of the following would be an example of using an anecdote to support a claim?
  2. “My gut feeling is that it isn’t the right time to get married.”
  3. “I know that marriage doesn’t work out, because both of my uncles ended up divorced and alone.”
  4. “That is my opinion and nothing is going to change my mind.”
  5. “What evidence is there to support your claim?”

Answer: b

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Generalizing from a personal experience (an anecdote) or from a few examples to everyone is a type of oversimplification.

  1. Critical thinkers should approach psychology textbooks as __________.
  2. being almost entirely correct
  3. an opportunity to generate alternative explanations
  4. being almost entirely incorrect
  5. a way to reduce uncertainties

Answer: b

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Critical thinkers do not assume that theories or facts are either correct or incorrect. Instead, they consider other interpretations before deciding on the most likely one. Critical thinking also requires tolerating uncertainty.

  1. “My memory of getting knocked down by a wave at Newport Beach could be based on what my parents told me later, not on my own recollection.” Which of the following critical thinking guidelines does this example illustrate?
  2. Define your terms.
  3. Avoid emotional reasoning.
  4. Weigh conclusions.
  5. Analyze assumptions and biases.

Answer: c

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Critical thinkers consider other possible interpretations by creatively generating as many reasonable explanations of the topic at hand as possible before settling on the most likely one.

  1. 26. Randy meets a Californian who grows his own vegetables and refuses to eat nonorganic food. Randy concludes that Californians are overzealous about nutrition. Which critical thinking guideline did Randy overlook?
  2. Don’t oversimplify.
  3. Define your terms.
  4. Weigh conclusions.
  5. Examine the evidence.

Answer: d

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: This is an example of generalizing from a personal experience, a common form of oversimplification.

  1. “I may never know for sure whether some of my childhood memories are real or accurate.” Which of the following critical thinking guidelines does this example illustrate?
  2. Define your terms.
  3. Examine the evidence.
  4. Weigh conclusions.
  5. Ask questions and be willing to wonder.

Answer: c

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Critical thinkers are willing to accept a state of uncertainty when there is little or no evidence, the evidence permits only tentative conclusions, or the evidence seems strong only until new evidence throws beliefs into disarray.

  1. In their research studies, contemporary psychologists rely heavily upon __________.
  2. empirical evidence
  3. anecdotes from personal experience
  4. individual case descriptions
  5. phrenology

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Modern psychologists rely heavily on empirical evidence, which means evidence that is derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.

  1. In contrast to modern psychologists, ancient scholars explored human nature primarily through __________.
  2. empirical evidence
  3. experimentation
  4. trained introspection
  5. insights inferred from anecdotes

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Unlike modern psychologists, scholars of the past did not rely heavily on empirical evidence. Often their observations were based simply on anecdotes or descriptions of individual cases.

  1. 30. A manuscript on human nature is discovered and scientists confirm that it is the work of an ancient scholar. In this manuscript, human nature is most likely explored through __________.
  2. empirical evidence
  3. experimentation
  4. trained introspection
  5. insights inferred from anecdotes

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Unlike modern psychologists, scholars of the past did not rely heavily on empirical evidence. Often their observations were based simply on anecdotes or descriptions of individual cases.

  1. Many great thinkers from history were interested in questions that today would be called “psychological.” What did these thinkers have in common with modern psychologists?
  2. to offer classes or self-study programs for people who want to overcome their deficiencies
  3. to compare anecdotal evidence to first-hand observation of individual cases
  4. to use empirical evidence to determine fundamental truths about the human condition
  5. the desire to describe, predict, understand, and modify human behavior to increase human knowledge and happiness

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Many of the great thinkers of history, from Aristotle to Zoroaster, raised questions that today would be called psychological. Like today’s psychologists, they wanted to describe, predict, understand, and modify behavior in order to add to human knowledge and increase human happiness.

  1. __________ had inferred that the brain is the ultimate source of all pleasures and sorrows long before it was verified, and he is now known as the father of modern medicine.
  2. Hippocrates
  3. Wilhelm Wundt
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. John Locke

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Hippocrates, known as the founder of modern medicine, observed patients with head injuries and inferred that the brain must be the ultimate source of our pleasures as well as sorrows.

  1. Which 17th-century philosopher argued that the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience, an idea that continues to influence many psychologists today?
  2. Hippocrates
  3. Wilhelm Wundt
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. John Locke

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: The forerunners of modern psychology often had insights and made observations that were verified by later work. In the 17th century, English philosopher John Locke (1643–1704) argued that the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience, and this notion continues to influence many psychologists today.

  1. The forerunners of psychology developed the theory of phrenology, which in Greek means __________.
  2. a map of thoughts
  3. a map of behavior
  4. study of the mind
  5. study of mental diseases

Answer: c

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Phrenology is a Greek word meaning “the study of the mind.” Phrenologists argued that different brain areas accounted for specific character and personality traits, such as stinginess and religiosity.

  1. Phrenology __________.
  2. is a modern perspective in psychology
  3. is the study of the thought processes and behaviors of criminals
  4. is a theory arguing that the mind works by associating ideas arising from experiences
  5. is a pseudoscience relating the bumps on one’s head to personality traits

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Phrenology is a discredited theory that relates bumps on the head to personality traits.

  1. Andie claims that phrenology is a pseudoscience and not a true science. Which of the following statements supports her claim?
  2. When phrenologists found large “stealing bumps” on the head of a person who was not a thief, they concluded that other positive bumps held this characteristic in check.
  3. Most of the phrenologists received inadequate training in the analysis of head bumps, so there were variations in their predictions.
  4. Phrenologists relied heavily on the theories of Charles Darwin, yet they could not link the bumps to evolutionary adaptation.
  5. When “bumps” did not accurately explain a person’s characteristics, the phrenologists explained the contradiction by hypothesizing traumatic childhood experiences.

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Phrenologists explained inconsistencies by claiming the existence of other traits that counteracted the inconsistency. This suggests that the phrenologists did not challenge their beliefs when the empirical evidence conflicted with them.

  1. Which of the following was a classic pseudoscientific theory that related bumps on the head to personality traits and did not disappear until well into the twentieth century?
  2. introspection
  3. functionalism
  4. phrenology
  5. behaviorism

Answer: c

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Phrenology is a discredited theory that relates bumps on the head to personality traits.

  1. Sam, a business owner, sought the help of a friend to find out which employees were likely to be loyal and honest if hired. The friend examined the bumps on the heads of all applicants and gave Sam a list of the employees he should hire. Sam’s friend is a(n) __________.
  2. sociologist
  3. alchemist
  4. psychiatrist
  5. phrenologist

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Phrenology is a discredited theory that relates bumps on the head to personality traits.

  1. Who established the first psychological laboratory in 1879?
  2. Sigmund Freud
  3. John Locke
  4. William James
  5. Wilhelm Wundt

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, in 1879.

  1. The first psychological laboratory was officially established by Wilhelm Wundt in __________.
  2. America
  3. Holland
  4. Germany
  5. Russia

Answer: c

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: In 1879, the first psychological laboratory was officially established in Leipzig, Germany, by Wilhelm Wundt.

  1. The first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science was __________,
  2. William James
  3. Joseph Gall
  4. John Locke
  5. Wilhelm Wundt

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt, in 1873, was the first person to publicly state his intention to make psychology a science.

  1. __________ is revered by psychologists because he was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science.
  2. Wilhelm Wundt
  3. William James
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. Joseph Gall

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Psychologists especially revere Wilhelm Wundt because he was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science and because his laboratory was the first to have its results published in a scholarly journal.

  1. Wilhelm Wundt is known for __________.
  2. initiating the movement to make psychology a science
  3. developing guidelines for critical thinking
  4. establishing phrenology as a science
  5. training doctors to treat mental illness

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science. His laboratory was the first to have its results published in a scholarly journal.

  1. __________ is revered by psychologists because his laboratory was the first to have its results published in a scholarly journal.
  2. René Descartes
  3. Aristotle
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. Wilhelm Wundt

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Wilhelm Wundt was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science. His laboratory was the first to have its results published in a scholarly journal.

  1. Researchers in Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory studied __________.
  2. phrenology
  3. psychology
  4. sociology
  5. chemistry

Answer: b

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: The Leipzig laboratory set up by Wilhelm Wundt became the go-to place for anyone who wanted to become a psychologist.

  1. Your textbook discusses a famous laboratory set up in Leipzig, Germany, in 1879. The goal of this laboratory was the study of __________.
  2. psychology
  3. phrenology
  4. sociology
  5. chemistry

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: The Leipzig laboratory set up by Wilhelm Wundt became the go-to place for anyone who wanted to become a psychologist.

  1. The research method used by Wilhelm Wundt in which volunteers were taught to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations and emotional reactions is called __________.
  2. trained introspection
  3. experimentation
  4. conceptual proliferation
  5. armchair psychology

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Trained introspection was the research method popularly used by Wilhelm Wundt in which volunteers were taught to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations and emotional reactions. The goal of trained introspection was to break down behavior into its most basic elements, much as a chemist might break down water into hydrogen plus oxygen.

  1. The goal of trained introspection, a research method in psychology popularized by Wilhelm Wundt, was to __________.
  2. break down behaviors into their most basic elements
  3. determine the strongest character trait in an individual
  4. learn by listening intently to individuals with psychological disorders
  5. feel bumps on a person’s head and accurately determine character traits

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Trained introspection was the research method popularly used by Wilhelm Wundt in which volunteers were taught to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations and emotional reactions. The goal of trained introspection was to break down behavior into its most basic elements, much as a chemist might break down water into hydrogen plus oxygen.

  1. __________ is a research method popularized by Wilhelm Wundt in which trained volunteers take as long as 20 minutes to report their inner experiences during a 1.5-second experiment.
  2. Conceptual proliferation
  3. Critical thinking
  4. Experimentation
  5. Trained introspection

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Once trained, volunteers might take as long as 20 minutes to report their inner experiences during a 1.5-second experiment in the case of trained introspection.

  1. Most psychologists eventually rejected the method of trained introspection in psychological research as being too __________.
  2. objective
  3. subjective
  4. expensive
  5. time-consuming

Answer: b

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Most psychologists eventually rejected trained introspection as being too subjective, but Wundt is still usually credited with formally initiating the movement to make psychology a science.

  1. In America, Wilhelm Wundt’s ideas were popularized by one of his students, E. B. Titchener, who gave
    Wundt’s approach the name __________.
  2. structuralism
  3. psychoanalysis
  4. functionalism
  5. behaviorism

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: In the United States, Wundt’s ideas were popularized in somewhat modified form by one of his students, E. B. Titchener (1867–1927), who gave Wundt’s approach the name structuralism.

  1. In America, Wilhelm Wundt’s ideas were popularized by one of his students, __________, who gave Wundt’s approach the name “structuralism.”
  2. Sigmund Freud
  3. John Watson
  4. William James
  5. B. Titchener

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: In the United States, Wundt’s ideas were popularized in somewhat modified form by one of his students, E. B. Titchener (1867–1927), who gave Wundt’s approach the name structuralism.

  1. Like Wundt, structuralists hoped to analyze __________ into basic elements.
  2. sensations, images, and feelings
  3. cognitive processes such as language and computation
  4. the purpose of different behaviors
  5. sociocultural beliefs

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Like Wundt, structuralists hoped to analyze sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements.

  1. Which school of thought in psychology used the method of trained introspection in research studies?
  2. phrenology
  3. structuralism
  4. functionalism
  5. psychoanalysis

Answer: b

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: One of Wundt’s favorite research methods was called trained introspection—training volunteers to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions. In the United States, Wundt’s ideas were popularized in somewhat modified form by one of his students, E. B. Titchener (1867–1927), who gave Wundt’s approach the name structuralism.

  1. Which school of thought in psychology hoped to analyze sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements?
  2. phrenology
  3. structuralism
  4. functionalism
  5. psychoanalysis

Answer: b

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: E. B. Titchener popularized Wundt’s methods in America and gave Wundt’s approach the name structuralism. The goal of structuralism was to identify the basic elements of the mind.

  1. A person is asked to break down all the different components of taste when biting into an orange. Which of the following schools of psychology is this research most likely a part of?
  2. psychoanalysis
  3. functionalism
  4. behaviorism
  5. structuralism

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Structuralists hoped to analyze sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements.

  1. A person is asked to look at an apple and then describe the various elements that make up his or her perception (e.g., color, shape, size, etc.). Which of the following schools of psychology is this research most likely a part of?
  2. psychoanalysis
  3. functionalism
  4. behaviorism
  5. structuralism

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Breaking down the different components of a perception such as taste was the goal of structuralism. In this example, the subject is asked to break down his or her visual perception of an apple into its elemental components.

  1. __________ involved the analysis of the basic elements or building blocks of the mind.
  2. Functionalism
  3. Structuralism
  4. Humanism
  5. Behaviorism

Answer: b

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Structuralism focused on describing the basic elements that composed the mind and functionalism emphasized the purpose of behavior.

  1. Reliance on introspection got structuralists into trouble because __________.
  2. despite their training, introspectors often produced conflicting reports
  3. they failed to generate an intensive program of research
  4. they emphasized the purpose of behavior, as opposed to its analysis and description
  5. trained introspection was rejected as being too objective

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: One reason for the demise of structuralism is that introspection often produced conflicting reports.

  1. __________ emphasized the purpose of behavior as opposed to its analysis and description.
  2. Structuralism
  3. Functionalism
  4. Psychoanalysis
  5. Behaviorism

Answer: b

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Functionalism emphasized the purpose of behavior, whereas structuralism examined the basic elements of the mind.

  1. Which of the following was the famous functionalist who said that attempting to grasp the nature of the mind through introspection was “like seizing a spinning top to catch its motion”?
  2. William James
  3. Wilhelm Wundt
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. B. Titchener

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Attempting to grasp the nature of the mind through introspection, wrote William James, is “like seizing a spinning top to catch its motion, or trying to turn up the gas quickly enough to see how the darkness looks.”

  1. One of the founders of functionalism was __________.
  2. Sigmund Freud
  3. William James
  4. Wilhelm Wundt
  5. B. Titchener

Answer: b

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: One of functionalism’s leaders was William James (1842–1910), an American philosopher, physician, and psychologist who argued that searching for building blocks of experience, as Wundt and Titchener tried to do, was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.

  1. Several middle-school girls watch their classmates, Jon and Jason, engage in a rough-and-tumble wrestling match. The attention of the girls seems to intensify the boys’ play. What question might a functionalist psychologist ask about this behavior?
  2. What are the most basic elements of the boys’ behavior?
  3. Do these boys have smaller head bumps devoted to “cautiousness” than most boys?
  4. What is the purpose of rough-and-tumble play in the adaptive changes of early adolescence?
  5. Did these boys experience childhood traumas that unconsciously cause aggression?

Answer: c

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Functionalism emphasized the function or purpose of a specific behavior, in this case, rough-and-tumble play.

  1. __________ had the opinion that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.
  2. William James
  3. Wilhelm Wundt
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. B. Titchener

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: One of functionalism’s leaders was William James (1842–1910), an American philosopher, physician, and psychologist who argued that searching for building blocks of experience, as Wundt and Titchener tried to do, was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.

  1. __________ argued that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.
  2. Functionalists
  • Structuralists
  1. Psychoanalysts
  2. Fundamentalists

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: One of functionalism’s leaders was William James (1842–1910), an American philosopher, physician, and psychologist who argued that searching for building blocks of experience, as Wundt and Titchener tried to do, was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.

  1. Which of the following questions is a structuralist most likely to ask?
  2. What happens when an organism sleeps?
  3. How does an organism sleep?
  4. Why does an organism sleep?
  5. When does an organism sleep?

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Where the structuralists asked what happens when an organism does something, the functionalists asked how and why.

  1. __________ wanted to know how specific behaviors and mental processes help a person or animal adapt to the environment, so they looked for the underlying causes and practical consequences of these behaviors and processes.
  2. Rationalists
  3. Structuralists
  4. Fundamentalists
  5. Functionalists

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Functionalism emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and was inspired by Darwin’s theory of how species adapt to their environment.

  1. Which of the following schools of psychological thought was influenced by the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin?
  2. phrenology
  3. structuralism
  4. functionalism
  5. psychoanalysis

Answer: c

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Functionalism emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and was inspired by Darwin’s theory of how species adapt to their environment.

  1. Which school of thought in psychology tried to explain how specific behaviors and mental processes help a person adapt to the environment?
  2. phrenology
  3. structuralism
  4. functionalism
  5. psychiatry

Answer: c

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Functionalism focused on explaining the purpose of behavior and the way various behaviors allow an organism to adapt to the environment.

  1. __________ first broadened the field of psychology to include the study of children, animals, religious experiences, and the “stream of consciousness.”
  2. Rationalists
  3. Functionalists
  4. Fundamentalists
  5. Structuralists

Answer: b

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Functionalists felt free to pick and choose among many methods, and they broadened the field of psychology to include the study of children, animals, religious experiences, and what William James called the “stream of consciousness.”

  1. __________ set the course of psychological science by emphasizing the causes and consequences of behavior.
  2. Functionalists
  3. Rationalists
  4. Fundamentalists
  5. Structuralists

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Functionalists wanted to know how specific behaviors and mental processes help a person or animal adapt to the environment, so they looked for the underlying causes and practical consequences of these behaviors and processes. This approach outlived functionalism, and continues to be important.

  1. __________ founded the field of psychoanalysis.
  2. Sigmund Freud
  3. William James
  4. Wilhelm Wundt
  5. B. Titchener

Answer: a

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Sigmund Freud was the founder of the field of psychoanalysis. Wilhelm Wundt is referred to as the father of modern, scientific psychology.

  1. Which school of thought in psychology emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind?
  2. phrenology
  3. structuralism
  4. functionalism
  5. psychoanalysis

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Psychoanalysis is a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.

  1. __________ concluded that his patients’ distress was due to conflicts and emotional traumas that had occurred in their early childhood and that were too threatening to be remembered consciously.
  2. Wilhelm Wundt
  3. William James
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. B. Titchener

Answer: c

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Sigmund Freud became convinced that many of his patients’ symptoms had mental, not physical, causes. He attributed the symptoms to unconscious memories, motives, and conflicts.

  1. Which of the following statements about Sigmund Freud is true?
  2. The Mind Cure Movement is Sigmund Freud’s first book.
  3. Sigmund Freud argued that many of his patients had symptoms due to physical, rather than mental, causes.
  4. Sigmund Freud’s concepts had a profound influence on the philosophy, literature, and art of the twentieth century.
  5. Sigmund Freud’s concepts were widely accepted by the scientific community, especially by empirically oriented psychologists.

Answer: c

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Freud had a profound influence on philosophy, literature, and art, even though his concepts were not readily accepted by the scientific community. According to Sigmund Freud, his patients’ distress was due to conflicts and emotional traumas that had occurred in their early childhood and that were too threatening to be remembered consciously.

  1. The ideas of __________ formed the basis for psychoanalysis, an important school of psychological thought.
  2. Wilhelm Wundt
  3. William James
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. Joseph Gall

Answer: c

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: The ideas of Sigmund Freud evolved into a broad theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, both of which became known as psychoanalysis.

  1. Which of the following is a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy emphasizing unconscious motives and conflicts?
  2. functionalism
  3. phrenology
  4. structuralism
  5. psychoanalysis

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Psychoanalysis is both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy emphasizing the role of the unconscious mind in influencing behavior.

  1. Psychoanalysis is __________.
  2. a theory of personality that emphasizes the awareness of one’s own cognitive processes
  3. a theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
  4. a method of psychotherapy in which an observer carefully records and interprets behavior without interfering with the behavior
  5. a method of psychotherapy that emphasizes how maladaptive behaviors are learned through imitations of others and through cognitive expectations

Answer: b

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Psychoanalysis is both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy emphasizing the role of the unconscious mind in influencing behavior.

  1. Which school of thought in psychology evolved into an elaborate theory of personality that emphasized unconscious motives and conflicts?
  2. phrenology
  3. structuralism
  4. functionalism
  5. psychoanalysis

Answer: d

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Rationale: Psychoanalysis is both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy emphasizing the role of the unconscious mind in influencing behavior.

  1. The __________ perspective is a psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
  2. biological
  • learning
  1. cognitive
  2. sociocultural

Answer: a

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: The biological perspective focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts. Biological psychologists study how these physical events interact with events in the external environment to produce perceptions, memories, emotions, and vulnerability to mental disorder.

  1. Melinda is a teenager who is grumpy all of the time and fights with her mother often. Her mother believes it is because of her raging hormones. Melinda’s mother is taking a __________ approach to explaining Melinda’s behavior.
    1. sociocultural
    2. biological
    3. learning
    4. cognitive

Answer: b

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: The biological perspective focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts.

  1. Which modern psychological perspective focuses on bodily events and their effects on behavior, feelings, and thoughts?
  1. the biological perspective
  2. the cognitive perspective
  3. the evolutionary perspective
  4. the psychodynamic perspective

Answer: a

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: The biological perspective focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts.

  1. Which modern psychological specialty most resembles functionalism?
  2. social psychology
  3. social-cognitive learning theory
  4. evolutionary psychology
  5. behavioral learning theory

Answer: c

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: One popular specialty within the biological perspective is evolutionary psychology, which follows in the footsteps of functionalism by focusing on how genetically influenced behavior that was functional or adaptive during our evolutionary past may be reflected in many of our present behaviors, mental processes, and traits.

  1. A(n) __________ psychologist studies how genetically influenced behavior that was functional or adaptive during our species’ past may be reflected in the present behaviors, mental processes, and traits of modern humans.
  2. cognitive
  3. behavioral
  4. sociocultural
  5. evolutionary

Answer: d

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Evolutionary psychology is a field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior.

  1. Which of the following statements is most likely a quote from an evolutionary psychologist?
  2. “That behavior is going to occur again, because it was followed by a reward.”
  3. “That behavior is due to the fluctuation of hormones that occurs after she consumes drugs.”
  4. “That behavior helps keep the animal out of the way when it is most likely to be preyed upon.”
  5. “That behavior occurred because she believed she had to do it to be accepted by her friends.”

Answer: c

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Evolutionary psychology is focuses on how genetically influenced behavior that was functional or adaptive during our evolutionary past may be reflected in many of our present behaviors, mental processes, and traits.

  1. Tom is a psychologist investigating the contributions of genes in the development of abilities and personality traits in human beings. Tom is most likely a __________.
  2. biological psychologist
  3. learning theorist
  4. cognitive researcher
  5. cultural psychologist

Answer: a

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Psychologists who take a biological perspective study how physical events interact with events in the external environment to produce perceptions, memories, emotions, and vulnerability to mental disorder. They also study how the mind and body interact in illness and health and investigate the contributions of genes in the development of abilities and personality traits.

  1. Older adults with low levels of the chemical acetylcholine in their brains may develop memory loss. Which of the following psychological perspectives does this best relate to?
  2. biological
  3. cognitive
  4. sociocultural
  5. learning

Answer: a

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Biological psychologists study the influences of the nervous system, hormones, brain chemistry, heredity, and evolutionary influences on humans. Because the statement emphasizes the role of a brain chemical in memory loss, this is the best answer.

  1. The __________ perspective of psychology focuses on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors.
  2. cognitive
  3. learning
  4. sociocultural
  5. psychodynamic

Answer: b

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: The learning perspective is concerned with how the environment and experience affect the behavior of human beings (and other animals). Within this perspective, behaviorists focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors.

  1. Which modern psychological perspective is behaviorism a part of?
  2. biological
  3. cognitive
  4. sociocultural
  5. learning

Answer: d

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Within the learning perspective, behaviorists focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors.

  1. Dr. Mannisto is a behaviorist who is studying the causes of excessive violence among some hockey players. She is likely to consider whether __________.
  2. the more aggressive players have experienced brain injuries
  3. players who engage in excessive violence are rewarded in some way
  4. the more aggressive players experienced emotional abuse in childhood
  5. cultural change has shaped hockey players to become more violent than in the past

Answer: b

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Within the learning perspective, behaviorists focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors.

  1. With which of the following psychological perspectives is the term “behaviorist” most closely associated?
  2. biological
  3. cognitive
  4. sociocultural
  5. learning

Answer: d

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Within the learning perspective, behaviorists focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors.

  1. Professor King approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes the rewards and punishments that maintain certain specific behaviors. He does not invoke the mind to explain behavior but sticks to what he can observe and measure directly. It is most likely that he accepts which of the following psychological approaches?
  2. sociocultural
  3. learning
  4. cognitive
  5. psychodynamic

Answer: b

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Within the learning perspective, behaviorists focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors.

  1. __________ combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions and believe that people learn not only by adapting their behavior to the environment, but also by observing and imitating others.
  2. Cognitive researchers
  3. Sociocultural psychologists
  4. Biological psychologists
  5. Social-cognitive learning theorists

Answer: d

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Social-cognitive learning theorists (part of the learning perspective) combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts and intentions. They believe that people learn by adapting their behavior to the environment and observing and imitating others.

  1. Which of the following modern psychological perspectives has strongly encouraged precision and objectivity in psychology by focusing on observable and measurable events?
  2. the learning perspective
  3. the cognitive perspective
  4. the sociocultural perspective
  5. the biological perspective

Answer: a

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Behaviorism, a key part of the learning perspective, emphasizes the study of things that can be observed and measured directly. Historically, the behaviorists’ insistence on precision and objectivity has done much to advance psychology as a science, and learning research in general has given psychology some of its most reliable findings.

  1. The __________ is a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior.
  2. biological perspective
  3. learning perspective
  4. cognitive perspective
  5. sociocultural perspective

Answer: c

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: The cognitive perspective focuses on mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior.

  1. Which modern psychological perspective focuses on how people reason, remember, understand language, and solve problems?
  2. the learning perspective
  3. the cognitive perspective
  4. the sociocultural perspective
  5. the psychodynamic perspective

Answer: b

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: The cognitive perspective focuses on mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior.

  1. One of the most important contributions of the __________ perspective of psychology has been to show how people’s thoughts and explanations affect their actions, feelings, and choices.
  2. sociocultural
  3. learning
  4. biological
  5. cognitive

Answer: d

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Using clever methods to infer mental processes from observable behavior, cognitive researchers have been able to study phenomena that were once only the stuff of speculation, such as emotions, motivations, insight, and the kind of “thinking” that goes on without awareness.

  1. A __________ might study what goes on in the mind of an infant or study different types of intelligence.
  2. cultural psychologist
  3. learning theorist
  4. cognitive researcher
  5. biological psychologist

Answer: c

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: The cognitive perspective is a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior. Infant cognition and types of intelligence are two areas that a cognitive psychologist is likely to be interested in.

  1. A psychologist who embraces the cognitive perspective would be most interested in __________.
  2. how punishments and rewards affect behavior
  3. different cultural environments
  4. unconscious conflicts
  5. how people think

Answer: d

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: The cognitive perspective emphasizes what goes on in people’s heads (i.e., how people think).

  1. One finding of the __________ perspective is that people who tend to be violent also tend to perceive provocation and insult more quickly than others.
  2. behaviorist
  3. learning
  4. cognitive
  5. biological

Answer: c

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: The cognitive perspective emphasizes what goes on in people’s heads (i.e., how people think).

  1. __________ focus on how groups affect attitudes and behavior, why people obey authority, and how each of us is affected by other people—lovers, friends, bosses, parents, and strangers.
  2. Social psychologists
  3. Learning theorists
  4. Cognitive researchers
  5. Biological psychologists

Answer: a

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: Social psychologists focus on social rules and roles, how groups affect attitudes and behavior, why people obey authority, and how each of us is affected by other people—lovers, friends, bosses, parents, and strangers.

  1. Which modern psychological perspective focuses on how our behavior is influenced by the other people in our environment and the communities we belong to?
  2. sociocultural
  3. learning
  4. cognitive
  5. biological

Answer: a

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: The sociocultural perspective focuses on social and cultural forces outside the individual, forces that shape every aspect of behavior.

  1. Dr. Lyons studies the impact of societal norms and values on human decision-making behavior. It is most likely that she endorses which of the following psychological approaches?
  2. sociocultural
  3. learning
  4. cognitive
  5. biological

Answer: a

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Rationale: The sociocultural perspective focuses on social and cultural forces outside the individual, forces that shape every aspect of behavior.

  1. Early psychology was dominated by __________.
  2. African American men
  3. White men
  4. White women
  5. Hispanic men

Answer: b

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Early psychologists were limited to White men.

  1. What were the consequences of having the field of psychology dominated by White men in its early history?
  2. Some early psychology research was actually used to perpetuate bias.
  3. Research was limited to only White men.
  4. Limited comparisons between races were made in early research.
  5. Limited comparisons between genders were made in early research.

Answer: a

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Much of the early research in psychology were purported to demonstrate reliable race and sex differences in intelligence, memory, personality, psychological disorders, physical coordination, and moral development.

  1. Which of the following statements best represents the acceptance of women and minorities into the field of psychology?
  2. Women and minorities were welcomed into psychology from the very beginning.
  3. Women and minorities have still not successfully engaged in the field of psychology.
  4. It took decades of challenging many biases for women and minorities to find a place in psychology.
  5. Once schools accepted women into their Ph.D. programs, they were readily accepted into the profession.

Answer: c

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Women and minorities had to work very hard to overcome the existing biases inherent in the early history of psychology.

  1. __________ psychology spurred the growth of research on topics that had long been ignored in psychology, including motherhood, rape, domestic violence, gender roles, and sexist attitudes.
    1. Applied
    2. Basic
    3. Feminist
    4. Behavioral

Answer: c

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Feminist psychology is a psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes.

  1. __________ is a psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes.
  1. Applied psychology
  2. Basic psychology
  3. Behavioral psychology
  4. Feminist psychology

Answer: d

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Feminist psychology is a psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes.

  1. The feminist movement in psychology was important because it __________.
  • . refocused psychology on the study of the mind and mental processes
  • . allowed women to become therapists
  • . forced graduate schools in psychology to open their doors to women
  • . critically examined the male bias in psychotherapy

Answer: d

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: As women began to enter psychology in greater numbers in the 1970s, they documented evidence of a pervasive bias in the research methods used and in the very questions that researchers had been asking. Feminist psychologists worked to correct this imbalance.

  1. Some psychologists work in basic psychology, doing research, while others work in applied psychology. The two approaches are __________.
  2. diametrically opposed
  3. complementary
    1. based in very different perspectives
    2. identified by the amount of education the psychologist has

Answer: b

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: The two approaches are complementary: Applied psychology has direct relevance to human problems, but without basic psychology, there would be little knowledge to apply.

  1. Cliff is a researcher who is asking what does it take to motivate someone to lose weight? Which of the following best represents Cliff’s role as a psychologist?
  1. basic psychology researcher
  2. applied psychology researcher
  3. educational psychologist
  4. psychometric psychologist

Answer: a

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Basic psychology research asks questions about behavior for its own sake.

  1. One reason why people in the general public are often confused about what psychologists do is that __________.
  2. psychologists themselves are often confused about what it means to be a psychologist
  3. psychology has never been established as a real academic field
  4. there is widespread disagreement among psychologists about the proper role for psychologists
  5. there is a wide variety of psychology specialties and roles psychologists can play in the community

Answer: d

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Ludy Benjamin said that the public “has minimal understanding of psychology as a science and even less appreciation for what psychological scientists do” or how psychological research contributes to human welfare.

  1. __________ is the study of psychological issues for the sake of knowledge rather than for its practical application.
  2. Basic psychology
  3. Clinical psychology
  4. Applied psychology
  5. Educational psychology

Answer: a

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Basic psychology is the study of psychological issues for the sake of knowledge rather than for its practical application.

  1. __________ is the study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance.
  2. Basic psychology
  3. Clinical psychology
  4. Applied psychology
  5. Educational psychology

Answer: c

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Applied psychology is the study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance and the application of psychological findings.

  1. A major point of difference between basic research and applied research is that __________.
  2. basic research involves experimentation and applied research involves psychiatry
  3. basic research studies physical processes and applied research studies mental processes
  4. basic research studies only humans, whereas applied research studies both animals and human beings
  5. basic research is done to acquire knowledge and applied research is done to solve practical problems

Answer: d

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Basic research focuses on the acquisition of knowledge, whereas applied research attempts to use that basic knowledge to solve human problems.

  1. According to your textbook, __________ is the aspect of psychology that is least recognized and understood by the public.
  2. research psychology
  3. clinical psychology
  4. applied psychology
  5. educational psychology

Answer: a

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Research psychology is the aspect of psychology that is least recognized and understood by the public.

  1. __________ psychologists conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition.
  2. Industrial/organizational
  3. Psychometric
  4. Educational
  5. Experimental

Answer: d

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Experimental psychologists conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition.

  1. 118. Jacob studies how people change and grow over time physically, mentally, and socially. He is a(n) __________ psychologist.
  2. industrial/organizational
  3. developmental
  4. educational
  5. psychometric

Answer: b

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Developmental psychologists study how people change and grow over time.

  1. __________ psychologists are concerned with group decision-making, employee morale, work motivation, productivity, job stress, and many such organizational issues.
  2. Educational
  3. Developmental
  4. Industrial/organizational
  5. Experimental

Answer: c

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Industrial/organizational psychologists study behavior in the workplace. They are concerned with group decision-making, employee morale, work motivation, productivity, job stress, personnel selection, marketing strategies, equipment and software design, and many other issues.

  1. __________ psychologists design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personality.
  2. Educational
  3. Developmental
  4. Experimental
  5. Psychometric

Answer: d

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Psychometric psychologists design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personality.

  1. Linda is a clinical psychologist. The clinical program she attended to start her professional practice required her to complete a literature review instead of a dissertation. Linda’s advanced degree is most likely a(n) __________.
  2. D.
  3. D.
  4. D.
  5. D.

Answer: b

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: The PsyD degree focuses on professional practice and typically requires the student to complete an extensive study, theoretical paper, or literature review instead of a dissertation. Clinical programs leading to a PhD or EdD require completion of a dissertation.

  1. In the United States, which of the following professionals must generally have a doctoral degree in psychology?
  2. clinical psychologists
  3. psychoanalysts
  4. psychiatrists
  5. psychotherapists

Answer: a

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: In almost all states, a license to practice clinical psychology requires a doctorate.

  1. A(n) __________ is a medical doctor who diagnoses and treats mental disorders and takes a more biological approach than other psychotherapists.
  2. psychiatrist
  3. psychoanalyst
  4. LCSW
  5. MFCC

Answer: a

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: A psychiatrist is a medical doctor trained to diagnose and treat mental disorders.

  1. The term __________ is unregulated, and so, a practitioner may have an advanced professional degree or no degree at all.
  2. clinical psychologist
  • psychiatrist
  1. psychoanalyst
  2. psychotherapist

Answer: d

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: A psychotherapist is simply anyone who does any kind of psychotherapy. The term is not legally regulated; in fact, in most states, anyone can say that he or she is a therapist without having any training at all.

  1. Dr. Braun has been treating a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. She decides to write a prescription for Ritalin. Given this information, it is most likely that Dr. Braun is a __________.
  2. psychiatrist
  3. psychoanalyst
  4. clinical psychologist
  5. school psychologist

Answer: a

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Unlike psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and other therapists cannot write prescriptions in most states.

  1. A psychiatrist is a therapist __________.
  2. with a Psy.D.
  3. trained in psychoanalysis
  4. who is required to have an M.D.
  5. who is not legally required to have any degree at all

Answer: c

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Because psychiatrists are M.D.s, they typically take a biological approach to treatment.

  1. In almost all states, a __________ is required to obtain a license to practice clinical psychology.
  2. doctoral degree
  3. master’s degree
  4. medical degree
  5. certificate from a psychoanalytic institute

Answer: a

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: In almost all states, a license to practice clinical psychology requires a doctorate. Most clinical psychologists have a Ph.D., some have an Ed.D., and some have a Psy.D.

  1. Which of the following was the major reason for the formation of the Association for Psychological Science (APS)?
  2. Psychotherapists were losing their “human touch” by relying too much on psychology’s empirical findings.
  3. Academic-research psychologists were unschooled in current therapeutic methods of psychology.
  4. There were many differences in training and attitudes between scientists and many therapists.
  5. Clinical psychologists wanted to be able to prescribe drugs.

Answer: c

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: There are differences in training and attitudes between scientists and many therapists in regard to the need for psychotherapists to be trained in research methods. These differences contributed to the formation of the Association for Psychological Science (APS).

  1. Which of the following statements about psychologists’ roles in the general community is true?
  2. Psychologists are prohibited by law from working for, or with, government agencies.
  3. Clinical psychologists frequently contribute to their communities, but there are few opportunities for research psychologists to do the same.
  4. Research psychologists frequently contribute to their communities, but there are few opportunities for clinical psychologists to do the same.
  5. All types of psychologists can contribute to their communities by helping to solve problems and answer important questions.

Answer: d

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

Rationale: Today, psychologists contribute to their communities in a variety of ways.

True-False Questions

  1. Empirical evidence is the evidence gathered by careful observation and experimentation.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Empirical evidence is the evidence gathered by a careful reflection on one’s personal experiences.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. The key to whether or not a psychological finding is important is whether or not the finding is surprising.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Scientific psychology differs from popular psychology in that it is based on the opinions of learned scientists.

Answer: False

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Psychobabble refers to how infants as young as seven months can derive simple linguistic rules from a string of sounds.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Pseudoscience promises easy fixes to life’s problems and challenges.

Answer: True

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Belief in the paranormal is uncommon in scientifically advanced countries.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Critical thinking is defined as the ability to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well- supported reasons and evidence.

Answer: True

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Critical thinkers are able to look for flaws in arguments.

Answer: True

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Critical thinking is also referred to as negative thinking.

Answer: False

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Critical thinkers realize that all opinions should be respected as equally valid.

Answer: False

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Critical thinkers realize that everybody’s beliefs are as good as everybody else’s.

Answer: False

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Open-mindedness implies that all opinions are created equal.

Answer: False

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Critical thinkers are willing to accept “received wisdom.”

Answer: False

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Assumptions are beliefs that are taken for granted.

Answer: True

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Critical thinkers do not make assumptions about how the world works.

Answer: False

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Biases are assumptions that keep us from considering evidence fairly.

Answer: True

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Basing our behaviors on “gut feelings” is an important aspect of critical thinking.

Answer: False

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. A critical thinker rejects either/or thinking.

Answer: True

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Critical thinkers are able to come up with alternative implications of research findings.

Answer: True

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Critical thinkers generate as many reasonable explanations of the topic at hand as possible before settling on the most likely one.

Answer: True

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Critical thinkers prefer explanations that account for the most evidence while making the fewest assumptions.

Answer: True

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Once a person learns to think critically, he or she will never fall for emotional reasoning and wishful thinking again.

Answer: False

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Psychology has been a science for more than 300 years.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Psychology became a formal discipline in the 16th century.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. The forerunners of modern psychology depended heavily on observation.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. The forerunners of modern psychology depended heavily on empirical research.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Scholars of the past relied too heavily on empirical evidence to understand human behavior.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Scholars of the past who wanted to understand human behavior relied on anecdotes and descriptions of individual cases.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Because they relied on anecdotes rather than experiments, the forerunners of modern psychology were always wrong in their description of human behavior.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Hippocrates argued that the brain is the ultimate source of human pleasures and pains.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Hippocrates argued that the heart is the ultimate source of human pleasures and pains.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Phrenologists suggested that specific character and personality traits could be read from bumps on a person’s head.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Wilhelm Wundt suggested that specific character and personality traits could be read from bumps on the head.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. The theory of phrenology was verified by later psychological research.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. The theory of phrenology is a classic pseudoscience.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. The first psychological laboratory was officially established in Leipzig, Germany.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains;

  1. The first psychological laboratory was officially established in 1879.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. The first psychological laboratory was established by the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. The first psychological laboratory was established by Wilhelm Wundt.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Credit for the founding of modern psychology is generally given to William James.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Credit for the founding of modern psychology is generally given to Wilhelm Wundt.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. 43. Wilhelm Wundt’s trained introspectors had to make between 10 and 50 practice observations before they were allowed to participate in an actual study.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Wilhelm Wundt’s trained introspectors had to make 10,000 practice observations before they were allowed to participate in an actual study.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. In Wilhelm Wundt’s trained introspection, volunteers were trained to break down behavior into its most basic elements.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. 46. B. Titchener gave Wilhelm Wundt’s approach the name “structuralism.”

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. 47. Structuralism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the purpose of behavior and

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Structuralism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of an immediate experience into basic elements.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Early psychologists who emphasized how behavior helps an organism adapt to its environment were known as structuralists.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. One of the common research methods used by structuralists was phrenology.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Functionalism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the purpose of behavior and consciousness.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Functionalism was an early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of an immediate experience into basic elements.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. William James, a functionalist, argued that searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Wilhelm Wundt, an American psychologist, was a popular functionalist.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. “How” and “why” an organism does something were the concerns of functionalists.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Early psychologists who emphasized how behavior helps an organism adapt to its environment were known as functionalists.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. The phrase “stream of consciousness” is closely associated with Sigmund Freud.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. The phrase “stream of consciousness” is closely associated with William James.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Sigmund Freud argued that many of his patients’ symptoms had mental, not physical, causes.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Sigmund Freud argued that many of his patients’ symptoms had undiagnosed physical causes rather than mental causes.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Sigmund Freud’s first book, The Interpretation of Dreams, was an overnight sensation.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Sigmund Freud’s ideas evolved into a method of psychotherapy that came to be known as psychoanalysis.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Freudian concepts were, and still are, rejected by most empirically oriented psychologists.

Answer: True

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Freudian concepts are still popular among empirically oriented psychologists.

Answer: False

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. The biological perspective of psychology emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. The cognitive perspective of psychology focuses on the social and cultural forces outside an individual.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Theorizing that anxiety is due to forbidden, unconscious desires is consistent with the biological perspective.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Theorizing that anxiety can be caused by a chemical imbalance in the body is consistent with the biological perspective.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. The learning perspective of psychology is an approach that emphasizes how the environment and experiences affect a person’s actions.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. The learning perspective of psychology emphasizes the dynamics of unconscious motives and conflicts.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Learning theorists would view violence as the result of unconscious conflicts involving aggression and sexuality.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. The theory that violence can be the result of having violent role models is consistent with the learning perspective.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Behaviorists would agree that anxiety is due to forbidden, unconscious desires.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Learning theorists would agree that anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. The cognitive perspective of psychology emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. The cognitive perspective of psychology emphasizes how the environment and experiences affect a person’s actions.

Answer: False

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. The cognitive perspective of psychology emphasizes mental processes in certain areas of behavior including language and problem solving.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Cognitive researchers have been able to study the kind of “thinking” that goes on without awareness.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Theorizing that anxious people often think about the future in distorted ways is consistent with the cognitive perspective.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. The sociocultural perspective emphasizes the dynamics of the social and cultural forces that shape every aspect of human behavior.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Social psychologists focus on how groups affect attitudes and behavior.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Cultural psychologists examine how customs and traditions affect people’s development.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Theorizing that competition between group members promotes anxiety about failure is consistent with the sociocultural perspective.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Feminist psychology is an approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on the behavior of the two sexes.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Feminist psychology critically examines the male bias in psychotherapy.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Feminist psychology has influenced the study of men.

Answer: True

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Basic psychology is the study of psychological issues for the sake of knowledge rather than for practical application.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Applied psychology is the study of psychological issues for the sake of knowledge rather than for practical application.

Answer: False

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Applied psychology is the study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Basic psychology is the study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance.

Answer: False

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Not all psychologists do clinical work.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Academic psychologists specialize in areas of research such as psychometrics or sensation and perception.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Educational psychologists primarily study how people change and grow over time.

Answer: False

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Educational psychologists primarily design and evaluate tests of mental abilities and aptitude.

Answer: False

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Developmental psychologists study how people change and grow over time.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Industrial/organizational psychologists are concerned with behavior in the workplace and work motivation.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Psychometric psychologists design and evaluate tests of mental abilities and aptitude.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Counseling psychologists are trained to do psychotherapy with severely disturbed people.

Answer: False

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. In almost all states in the United States, a license to practice clinical psychology requires a doctorate.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Clinical programs leading to a Ph.D. require a student to complete an extensive literature review instead of a research dissertation.

Answer: False

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Programs leading to a Psy.D. usually require a student to complete an extensive theoretical paper or literature review instead of a research dissertation.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Clinical programs leading to a Ph.D. are usually designed to prepare a person both as a scientist and as a clinical practitioner.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Clinical programs leading to a Psy.D. focus on professional practice and do not usually require a research dissertation.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. A person who has received specialized training from a psychoanalytic institute is called a psychiatrist.

Answer: False

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Clinical social workers typically treat general problems in adjustment and family conflicts.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Psychiatrists are more likely to focus on the possible biological causes of mental disorders.

Answer: True

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Only psychiatrists and clinical psychologists can write medical prescriptions in all 50 states at present.

Answer: False

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Short Answer Questions

  1. When people think of psychology, they usually think of mental disorders, emotional disorders, abnormal acts, personal problems, and psychotherapy. Describe two other topics that are of great interest to psychologists.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Psychologists study the entire spectrum of human and animal behavior.
  • Psychologists study how people learn, remember, solve problems, perceive, feel, and get along with others.
  • They study commonplace as well as uncommon behaviors, normal as well as abnormal.
  • Some specific examples of non-clinical topics should be provided.

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Juanita is studying in her dorm room when her roommate says, “Why did you sign up for a psychology class? Everyone knows that psychology is the same as plain old common sense.” How should Juanita explain the differences between psychology and common sense?

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Psychology is based on empirical evidence.
  • Common sense and popular beliefs have often been refuted by empirical evidence.
  • Many common sense beliefs are contradictory because they are not based on empirical evidence.

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Shelley wants her grandma to keep in touch through e-mail but her grandma says, “Oh, Shelley, you know that you can’t teach an old dog new tricks!” If Shelley has been studying the problems with popular beliefs about psychological phenomena, how should she respond?

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Popular beliefs and sayings have often been refuted by scientific research.
  • Before accepting a popular proverb as true, it would be important to look at empirical evidence.
  • Many popular proverbs contradict each other because they are not based on empirical evidence.

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Describe the differences between pseudoscience and scientific psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Pseudoscience confirms our existing beliefs and prejudices, whereas scientific psychology often challenges them.
  • Unlike pop psychology, scientific psychology is based on research and empirical evidence, which is gathered by careful observation, experimentation, and measurement. It is therefore more complex, more informative, and far more helpful in its explanations than is popular psychology.

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Describe what it means to be a critical thinker.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Critical thinking is the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote.
  • Critical thinkers are able to look for flaws in arguments and to resist claims that have no support.
  • They realize that criticizing an argument is not the same as criticizing the person making it.
  • Critical thinking includes the ability to be creative and constructive—the ability to come up with alternative explanations for events, think of implications of research findings, and apply new knowledge to social and personal problems.

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. A fortune teller reads Haifa’s palm and tells Haifa that she will fall in love during spring break when she travels to Cancun. As a critical thinker enrolled in a General Psychology class, how would Haifa react to this news? What critical thinking guidelines would be important for her to consider?

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Fortune telling is pseudoscience, not based on empirical evidence.
  • Important critical thinking guidelines to consider are “Analyze assumptions and biases” and “Examine the evidence.”

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. List the five essential critical thinking steps.

Answer: The five steps for critical thinking are:

  • Ask questions and be willing to wonder.
  • Define your terms.
  • Examine the evidence.
  • Analyze assumptions and biases.
  • Examine the evidence.
  • Weigh conclusions.

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Hank demands that his psychology professor give him a yes-or-no answer to the question, “Do violent movies cause adolescents to become more aggressive?” When the professor explains the complicated evidence, Hank says, “You are evading the issue!” What critical thinking guideline does Hank need to take into consideration? Support your choice with information from the textbook.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key point.

  • The important critical thinking guideline here is “Weigh conclusions.”
  • In weighting conclusions, it is important for critical thinkers to tolerate uncertainty.
  • Sometimes there is little or no evidence available to examine.
  • Sometimes the evidence permits only tentative conclusions.
  • Sometimes the evidence seems strong enough to permit conclusions until, exasperatingly, new evidence throws our beliefs into disarray.
  • Critical thinkers are willing to accept this state of uncertainty.

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Explain why the textbook authors call the theory of phrenology a classic pseudoscience. Provide examples that support this assessment.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Phrenology was not based on empirical evidence.
  • When a prediction based on bumps on the head predicted a behavior (such as stealing) that did not fit an individual, it was explained away by arguing that other positive traits held the behavior in check.
  • Phrenology became extremely popular because it offered quick analyses of behavior and even programs for overcoming deficiencies.

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Why is Wilhelm Wundt especially revered by psychologists?

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Wilhelm Wundt founded the first formal psychology laboratory.
  • He was the first person to announce that he intended to make psychology a science.
  • His laboratory was the first to publish psychology research results in a scholarly journal.

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. During the early decades of psychology’s existence as a formal discipline, three schools of psychological thought became popular. What were these three schools of thought and what became of each of them over time?

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Structuralism was the analysis of sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements based on Wundt’s method of introspection. Structuralism died out in the early years of psychology.
  • Functionalism, founded by William James, emphasized the purpose of behavior, as opposed to its analysis and description. Functionalism also died out as a separate school of psychology, but its emphasis on the causes and consequences of behavior continued to influence the development of psychology as a science.
  • Psychoanalysis was both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy that stressed the role of the unconscious mind and its hidden conflicts and wishes in influencing our behavior. Psychoanalysis is not accepted by most empirically oriented psychologists, but remains an active, though highly controversial, school of psychology today.

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. The structuralists had an intensive program of research in Germany and the United States. What became of this school of psychology? What challenges did the structuralists encounter?

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Structuralism died out in the early years of psychology.
  • A major challenge faced by structuralism was the fact that individual introspectors often produced conflicting reports.
  • Another problem was that after something has been described, there does not appear to be much left to do.
  • Critics pointed out that Wundt's technique of trained introspection was too subjective for a reliable methodology.

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Why did William James argue that the structuralist approach was a waste of time? What school of psychology did he promote?

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • James argued that searching for the building blocks of the mind was a waste of time because the brain and the mind are constantly changing.
  • James was a leader in the functionalist school of psychology.
  • Functionalism emphasized the purpose of behavior, as opposed to its analysis and description.

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. How was Darwin’s theory of evolution inspirational to the functionalists?

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Darwin had argued that a biologist’s job is not merely to describe, say, the puffed-out chest of a pigeon or the drab markings of a lizard, but also to figure out how these attributes enhance survival.
  • Similarly, the functionalists wanted to know how specific behaviors and mental processes help a person or animal adapt to the environment, so they looked for underlying causes and practical consequences of these behaviors and processes.

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. List and define the four major perspectives in modern psychology.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • The biological perspective focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts.
  • The learning perspective is concerned with how the environment and experience affect a person’s (or a nonhuman animal’s) actions.
  • The cognitive perspective emphasizes what goes on in people’s heads—how people reason, remember, understand language, solve problems, explain experiences, acquire moral standards, and form beliefs.
  • The sociocultural perspective focuses on social and cultural forces outside the individual, forces that shape every aspect of behavior.

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. The learning perspective is adhered to by two different types of psychologists: behaviorists and social-cognitive learning theorists. Compare these two types of learning theory advocates.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Behaviorists focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors.
  • Behaviorists do not invoke mind or mental states to explain behavior. They study only observable behavior.
  • Social-cognitive learning theorists combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions.
  • Social-cognitive learning theorists believe that people learn not only by adapting their behavior to the environment, but also by imitating others and by thinking about the events happening around them.

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Sociocultural psychologists use an interesting metaphor in regard to humans and culture. They describe people as similar to fish! Fish are unaware that they live in water, so obvious is water in their lives. Explain why sociocultural psychologists use this metaphor.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Our social and cultural environment is the “water” in which we “swim” every day.
  • We are largely unaware of the tremendous influence of our social and cultural environment on our behavior, just as a fish is unaware of the water in which it swims.

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. As women began to enter psychology in greater numbers in the early 1970s, they began to document evidence of a pervasive bias in the research methods that were being used. Describe the biases that these feminist psychologists documented.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Many studies used only men as subjects.
  • Topics such as menstruation, motherhood, rape and domestic violence, the dynamics of power and sexuality in relationships, definitions of masculinity and femininity, gender roles, and sexist attitudes had largely been ignored.

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. The professional activities of psychologists fall into three broad categories. Describe and give examples of each of these three types of professional activities.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Psychologists teach and do research in a variety of pure and applied areas in colleges and universities.
  • Psychologists provide mental health services (e.g., clinical and counseling psychologists) in settings such as private practice, mental-health clinics, and hospitals.
  • Psychologists conduct research and apply the findings of psychology in nonacademic settings such as business, sports, government, law, and the military.

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. What is the difference between basic research and applied research?

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Basic research involves seeking knowledge for its own sake.
  • Applied research involves finding practical uses of basic psychological knowledge.

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Alexandra and Holly both plan to become clinical psychologists, although Alexandra is applying to graduate schools to pursue a Ph.D. and Holly plans to earn a Psy.D. What different experiences and requirements are each likely to encounter in earning their graduate degrees?

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Alexandra will undergo training both as a scientist and as a clinical practitioner. She will have to complete a dissertation.
  • Holly’s training will emphasize professional practice. She will probably not be required to complete a dissertation, though she may have to complete an extensive theoretical paper or literature review.

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. Clinical psychologists and psychiatrists do similar work, but their training differs and they tend to focus on different causes of mental disorders. Contrast the training and approach to therapy between clinical psychologists and psychiatrists.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Clinical psychologists usually complete 4–5 years of graduate work in psychology and an internship, earning a Ph.D., Psy.D., or Ed.D. degree.
  • Clinical psychologists focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and study of mental and emotional problems. They primarily use some form of psychotherapy in treating people with psychological disorders.
  • Psychiatrists are trained as M.D.s. They focus on the treatment of emotional disorders, especially the most severe disorders.
  • Psychiatrists are more likely to focus on possible biological causes of mental disorders and treat these problems with medication.

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. The authors point out that people may be a little “fuzzy” about psychological careers because psychologists contribute to their communities in so many different ways. Describe three ways that psychologists make these contributions.

Answer: A good answer will include at least three of the following key points.

  • Psychologists advise utility companies on ways to get customers to conserve energy.
  • They consult with companies to improve worker satisfaction and productivity.
  • They do basic and applied research on ways of reducing conflict and prejudice, locally and internationally.
  • They strive to understand and prevent acts of terrorism.
  • They advise commissions on how pollution and noise affect mental health.
  • They do rehabilitation training for people with physical or mental disabilities.
  • They educate judges and juries about eyewitness testimony and false confessions.
  • They assist the police in emergencies involving hostages or disturbed persons.
  • They conduct public opinion surveys.
  • They run suicide-prevention hotlines.
  • They advise zoos on the care and training of animals.
  • They help coaches improve the athletic performance of their teams.

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Essay Questions

  1. In recent decades, the public’s appetite for pseudoscience has grown. Describe two examples of this “pop psychology” and then analyze the differences between psychology and pseudoscience.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points. Specific examples may vary.

  • Possible Example 1: Many self-help books are available in bookstores that purport to help you find personal growth and success in life.
  • Possible Example 2: Technological advances are now marketed with the ability to strengthen your brain, improve your memory, or keep your brain young.
  • Pseudoscience is based on popular opinion and promises easy fixes to life's problems.
  • Scientific psychology is based on empirical evidence.

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes

  1. Shane is eager to buy an Electro-Neural Stimulator so that he can get both halves of his brain working at peak efficiency by exam time. Based on your knowledge of critical thinking, how would you recommend he think about his plan?

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points:

  • Develop a number of questions to ask about the product and what it does.
  • Define any terms that might be misunderstood in your questions.
  • Analyze assumptions and biases (are there any assumptions or biases that might get in the way of his evaluating the quality and need for this product?).
  • Examine the evidence—Seek peer-reviewed research regarding the outcomes after use of the product. Look at critical, reliable, reviews of the product.
  • Weigh conclusions—Encourage him to use the data in front of him to make a decision about if this is a good idea and if it will accomplish what he wants to do.

Topic: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. One of the issues in critical thinking is to examine the evidence. What does this mean? Provide an example of how someone might use an anecdote to defend an argument.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points:

  • Critical thinkers look beyond the obvious, resist easy generalizations, and reject either/or thinking.
  • Critical thinkers demand evidence that something is true. They seek research that shows a product does what it says it does. Critical thinkers are not lazy and seek all of the information they can to confirm or deny arguments presented.
  • Using anecdotes to support an argument involves generalizing from a personal experience or a few examples.
  • An example should be given that shows how a person might generalize from a personal experience to all people.

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Many people don’t realize that just as the body needs exercise to stay in shape, clear thinking requires effort and practice. Name and give an example of each of the five guidelines to critical thinking.

Answer: A good answer will provide an example for each of the five guidelines for critical thinking.

  • Ask questions and be willing to wonder.
  • Define your terms.
  • Analyze assumptions and biases.
  • Examine the evidence.
  • Weight conclusions.

Topic: Thinking Critically about Psychology

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

  1. Compare and contrast the three schools of psychological thought that became popular when psychology emerged as a discipline, including the major theorists associated with each school as well as the goal of each of these perspectives.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Structuralism was the analysis of sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements based on Wundt’s method of introspection.
  • Wilhelm Wundt and E. B. Titchener were leaders in the structuralist school of psychology.
  • Structuralism died out in the early years of psychology.
  • Functionalism, founded by William James, emphasized the purpose of behavior, as opposed to its analysis and description.
  • Functionalism also died out as a separate school of psychology, but its emphasis on the causes and consequences of behavior continued to influence the development of psychology as a science.
  • Psychoanalysis was both a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy that stressed the role of the unconscious mind and its hidden conflicts and wishes in influencing our behavior.
  • Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud.
  • Psychoanalysis is not accepted by most empirically oriented psychologists, but remains an active, though highly controversial, school of psychology today.

Topic: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology.

APA Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

  1. Describe social-cognitive learning theory and the sociocultural perspective of psychology. Distinguish between the two approaches by outlining their differences.

Answer: A good answer will include:

  • Social-cognitive learning theory is part of the learning perspective.
  • Social-cognitive learning theorists combine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions.
  • Social-cognitive learning theorists believe that people learn not only by adapting their behavior to the environment, but also by observing and imitating others and by thinking about the events happening around them.
  • The sociocultural perspective is one of the four major perspectives in psychology.
  • The sociocultural perspective is a psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior.
  • The sociocultural perspective includes social psychologists and cultural psychologists.

Topic: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe the four major perspectives in psychology.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

  1. To most people, the word psychologist conjures up an image of a therapist listening intently to a client. But not all psychologists do clinical work. Describe the different professional activities of psychologists with doctorates. Include examples of work in each of the three general categories.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points:

  • Clinical psychologist: Diagnoses, treats, and/or studies mental and emotional problems, both mild and severe; has a Ph.D., an Ed.D., or a Psy.D.
  • Psychoanalyst: Practices psychoanalysis; has specific training in this approach after an advanced degree; may treat any kind of emotional disorder or pathology.
  • Psychiatrist: Does work similar to that of a clinical psychologist, but is likely to take a more biological approach; can prescribe medicine; has a medical degree (M.D.) with a specialty in psychiatry.

Topic: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

APA Objective: 1.3 Describe applications of psychology

Integrative Essay Questions: Linking the Chapters

  1. Tara cannot believe what she reads about anger: “… depending on the circumstances, sometimes it is helpful to express your feelings, but sometimes venting your anger makes everything worse.” Tara finds this difficult to accept because she has been told over and over that it is healthy to “ventilate” her anger. Based on your reading of Chapter 1 and Chapter 2, design a research study that Tara could conduct in order to examine this issue.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • All subjects in the study would be exposed to a situation that makes them angry and would rate their anger.
  • Subjects would be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group.
  • Subjects in the control group would not be allowed to vent their anger.
  • Subjects in the experimental group would be allowed to express their anger to another person.
  • Afterwards, all subjects would rate their feelings of anger and well-being.
  • Results for the control group and experimental group would be compared.

Topic: 1.2 Thinking Critically and Creatively About Psychology, 2.4 Experiments: Hunting for Causes

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.2.B: Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology. 2.4.A: Contrast an independent variable from a dependent variable, and give an example of each.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology; 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research

  1. In the description of biological psychology, researchers note that evolutionary psychology follows in the tradition of functionalism. Integrate your knowledge of Chapters 1 and 3, providing supportive evidence for this statement.

Answer: A good answer will include the following key points.

  • Evolutionary psychology is based on Darwin’s ideas of survival of the fittest.
  • New characteristics that are adaptive (that is, characteristics that allow an organism to live and reproduce successfully in a particular environment) will be passed on to future generations.
  • The emphasis is on determining the function of various physical and behavioral characteristics.
  • Functionalism is also interested in determining how the mind functions and, in particular, how it helps us to adapt to a particular environment.

Topic: 1.3 A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory, 3.2 The Genetics of Similarity

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals of the early years of modern psychology. 3.2.A Explain how natural selection contributes to changes in gene frequencies in a population.

APA Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology, 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

Revel Quizzes

The following questions appear at the end of each module and at the end of the chapter in Revel for Psychology, 13e.

End of Module Quiz: 1.1 Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

EOM Q1.1.1

Psychology is defined as an area of study concerned with __________.

  1. a) behavior and mental processes, and how these are affected by physical, mental, and environmental states
  2. b) context the factors that lead to flawed decision-making in a social
  3. c) the development, structure, and functioning of human society
  4. d) the biological bases of mental disorders and the interpersonal problems of adjustment faced by people who have poor coping skills

Consider This: As a scientific discipline, psychology embraces a wide range of topics. 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

Module: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOM Q1.1.2

Empirical evidence refers to __________.

  1. a) information that was gathered or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement
  2. b) the majority opinion adopted by most people when considering an issue
  3. c) the opinions of experts that are believed by nonexperts for a given issue
  4. d) the most straightforward explanation that can be offered for a particular phenomenon

Consider This: Empiricism is a central feature of conducting scientific research. 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

Module: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOM Q1.1.3

"Getting poor grades in college is a result of students being lazy" is an example of __________. "Students who participated in a six-week study skills course improved their grades by 15 percent by the end of the term" is an example of __________.

  1. a) an opinion; empirical evidence
  2. b) an opinion; research bias
  3. c) research evidence; an opinion
  4. d) empirical evidence; empirical bias

Consider This: One of the factors that distinguishes scientific psychology from pseudoscience or popular opinion is its basis in facts, evidence, and direct observation. 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

Module: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

EOM Q1.1.4

In one study you read about, a group of introductory psychology students completed a true/false questionnaire about psychological issues on the first day of class. What was the general result of that initial survey?

  1. a) Students believed that many false statements regarding psychology were actually true.
  2. b) Students were quite accurate in distinguishing factual statements about psychology from incorrect ones.
  3. c) Students performed better than chance at identifying correct findings from the psychological research literature.
  4. d) Students showed a bias to believe that all statements on the survey were false.

Consider This: People believe lots of common sense notions that are not always supported by rigorous scientific research. 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1.A Define psychology, and describe how it addresses daily life from a scientific perspective.

Module: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOM Q1.1.5

What is one reason beliefs in pseudoscience and psychic abilities persist?

  1. a) They give people a sense of predictability in a confusing world.
  2. b) Pseudoscience is still a type of science, and science is based on facts.
  3. c) Psychic predictions have been shown to be accurate the majority of the time.
  4. d) They challenge our existing beliefs, and humans like uncertainty.

Consider This: Belief in unscientific approaches to explaining the world is widespread, even among scientifically advanced cultures. What could account for this persistence? 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

Module: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

End of Module Quiz: 1.2 Thinking Critically About Psychology

EOM Q1.2.1

Reggie tells his parents, "I read online that fast-food cooks make more money than college graduates. I'm dropping out and getting an apron!" Which of the following would be the best question for Reggie's parents to ask to get him to use his critical thinking skills to reassess his plan?

  1. a) "What was the source of the information?"
  2. b) "Will you be making dinner tonight?"
  3. c) "How many nuggets does an average chicken yield?"
  4. d) "What's the salary breakdown per fiscal quarter?"

Consider This: Reggie has accepted a kernel of information at face value, without asking some critically important questions about the information. 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Module: Thinking Critically About Psychology

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

EOM Q1.2.2

Luisa listened in amazement as she overheard her psychology professors design a new experiment. "We should be sure to measure this factor, to rule out a competing explanation for the results," said Professor LeBaron. "Yes, and also allow for idiosyncratic responses in case anyone doesn't speak English as a first language," added Professor DeLorean. "Let's not forget to have the results double-checked and interpreted by a qualified colleague," Professor DeDemonico chimed in. Although Luisa was amazed, to the professors this was second nature. Why?

  1. a) The professors were well versed in critical thinking and were simply applying those principles to the scientific task at hand.
  2. b) The professors knew Luisa was listening, so they were showing off a little in order to impress her.
  3. c) The professors had already collected the data and were covering their tracks in case any of the results did not precisely confirm their preconceptions.
  4. d) The professors knew that science often results from luck and guessing, so they simply repeated phrases people expect scientists to say.

Consider This: Luisa's professors are no doubt competent psychological scientists; as such, they have adopted a certain way of thinking and a certain mental approach to solving problems. 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

Module: Thinking Critically About Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

EOM Q1.2.3

Sujin asked her psychology professor, "Why is the brain located in the head?" Her professor replied, "That's a really good question. Although there are lots of reasons, I'm not sure of the one best answer. Let's find out together this semester." Which principle of critical thinking was Sujin practicing?

  1. a) being willing to wonder
  2. b) defining her terms
  3. c) examining the evidence
  4. d) avoiding bias

Consider This: In this scenario, Sujin seems open to asking questions but is not yet finding data to answer them on her own. 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Module: Thinking Critically About Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

EOM Q1.2.4

Conducting the same study that another researcher has previously conducted is __________.

  1. a) referred to as replication
  2. b) a poor use of one's critical thinking skills
  3. c) usually a waste of time
  4. d) something that used to happen a lot in psychology but rarely does anymore

Consider This: One of the first things a rigorous researcher does when she arrives at or learns about an interesting finding is to see whether repeating the study produces the same result. 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Module: Thinking Critically About Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOM Q1.2.5

Lori told her friend Gina about an amazing video she saw on YouTube. "It was incredible. This guy levitated a miniature poodle for 25 seconds using psychic energy. He channels a star-force through a time continuum and that allows him to unleash the hidden powers of his mind. It's totally legit; he's got a website and everything." Gina replied, "Maybe he's just making it up." Which principle of critical thinking is Gina practicing?

  1. a) Gina is weighing conclusions by considering other interpretations.
  2. b) Gina is defining her terms.
  3. c) Gina is refining her biases.
  4. d) Gina is weighing conclusions by tolerating uncertainty.

Consider This: In this scenario, Gina seems to be demonstrating a healthy skepticism and willingness to consider alternative explanations. 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Module: Thinking Critically About Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

End of Module Quiz: 1.3 A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

EOM Q1.3.1

"The study of bumps on the head," a discredited approach to psychology, is also known as __________.

  1. a) phrenology
  2. b) bumpology
  3. c) the theory of humors
  4. d) psychoanalysis

Consider This: There were many attempts to explain psychological phenomena before the founding of psychology as a science. 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

Module: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOM Q1.3.2

Trained introspection is a methodology that asks research participants to __________.

  1. a) carefully observe and describe their own sensations, mental images, and emotional states
  2. b) demonstrate the utility of their thoughts and feelings in observable behaviors
  3. c) revisit earlier stages of their conscious development using hypnosis
  4. d) respond quickly and accurately to changing external stimuli

Consider This: Introspection was the method of choice used in the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany. 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Module: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOM Q1.3.3

With which school of thought is William James most closely associated?

  1. a) functionalism
  2. b) structuralism
  3. c) psychoanalysis
  4. d) behaviorism

Consider This: William James was an early American psychologist whose views of the field often differed from those of European psychologists. 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Module: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOM Q1.3.4

Two psychologists, Eddie and Bill, walk into a bar, and each orders a beer. Eddie says, "Look at that golden nectar...the bubbles, the foam, the slight fruit notes on my tongue, the amber color; man, that's a beer!" Bill says, "This'll get me drunk." Eddie most likely endorses __________, whereas Bill most likely favors __________.

  1. a) structuralism; functionalism
  2. b) structuralism; psychoanalysis
  3. c) functionalism; structuralism
  4. d) structuralism; behaviorism

Consider This: Although both are responsibly enjoying a beer, each psychologist is emphasizing a different aspect of his drinking experience. 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Module: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOM Q1.3.5

From where did the idea that emotional problems spring from unconscious conflicts originate?

  1. a) psychoanalysis
  2. b) the Mind Cure
  3. c) structuralism
  4. d) functionalism

Consider This: An early perspective in psychology emphasized that not all thinking and feeling occurred at the level of conscious awareness. 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Module: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

End of Module Quiz: 1.4 Psychological Science Perspectives

EOM Q1.4.1

Which of the following is not a major current perspective on psychological science?

  1. a) symbolic-interactionist perspective
  2. b) learning perspective
  3. c) biological perspective
  4. d) sociocultural perspective

Consider This: Psychological science adopts several perspectives to explain behavior; review what each of those is and what each one emphasizes. 1.4.A List and describe four major perspectives in psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe four major perspectives in psychology.

Module: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOM Q1.4.2

What is the dominant school of scientific psychology most closely associated with the learning perspective?

  1. a) behaviorism
  2. b) evolutionary psychology
  3. c) feminist psychology
  4. d) socialism

Consider This: The learning perspective in psychology has been closely intertwined with a school of thought that dominated scientific psychology through the 1960s. 1.4.A List and describe four major perspectives in psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe four major perspectives in psychology.

Module: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOM Q1.4.3

Tavishi wants help dealing with her lack of motivation in school, so she enlists her roommate Misha, who's taking an introductory psychology course, to offer advice. "The problem is all in your brain," Misha suggests. "You've got an imbalance of chemicals and hormones, which is causing you to feel lackluster and unfocused." Which perspective on psychological science is Misha adopting?

  1. a) the biological perspective
  2. b) the psychoanalytic perspective
  3. c) the cognitive perspective
  4. d) the learning perspective

Consider This: Clearly Misha paid attention to her introductory class, but she seems to be advocating a very specific view of what's causing Tavishi's behavior. What is that viewpoint based on? 1.4.A List and describe four major perspectives in psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe four major perspectives in psychology.

Module: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOM Q1.4.4

Which of the following conclusions about diversity in early psychology is most accurate?

  1. a) Some research in early psychology was actually used to advance sexist and racist conclusions about human nature.
  2. b) Unlike most scientific fields, early psychology was quite diverse along gender, racial, and ethnic lines.
  3. c) While psychology was not a particularly diverse field in its early years, today the field is perfectly representative of society and no longer has to worry about addressing issues related to representation.
  4. d) The success stories of individual women and people of color who became influential researchers in the field demonstrates that there were not any barriers to advancement in psychology based on gender, race, and other demographics.

Consider This: Psychology is similar to many scientific fields in that its track record regarding diversity has improved over the years, but additional challenges and barriers remain. 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

Module: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOM Q1.4.5

Which statement is true about feminist psychology?

  1. a) It has promoted a diversity of viewpoints, research topics, and explanations for behavior.
  2. b) It is only concerned with the experiences and tendencies of women.
  3. c) It emerged as an influential perspective in the late 19th century.
  4. d) It is a political viewpoint that is not concerned with the scientific method.

Consider This: Feminist psychology has sought to make psychology the study of all human beings and multiple perspectives 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

Module: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

End of Module Quiz: 1.5 What Psychologists Do

EOM Q1.5.1

Dr. Lifeson has taken a job consulting with Omega Inc. The managers at Omega want to know why employee morale is so low in their manufacturing division, and they want Dr. Lifeson to design the appropriate studies and collect the necessary data to answer that question. In which field is Dr. Lifeson most likely a specialist?

  1. a) industrial/organizational psychology
  2. b) experimental psychology
  3. c) human development
  4. d) educational psychology

Consider This: Psychologists work in a variety of settings and explore a variety of topics. Dr. Lifeson makes a living by studying people as they perform their jobs. 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

Module: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

EOM Q1.5.2

Which of the following academic psychologists would most likely be involved in constructing a personality test to measure introversion?

  1. a) psychometric psychologist
  2. b) educational psychologist
  3. c) experimental psychologist
  4. d) health psychologist

Consider This: Psychologists work in a variety of settings and explore a variety of topics. Some psychologists design and evaluate different kinds of tests and questionnaires. 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

Module: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOM Q1.5.3

Which of the following specialists was specifically trained in a therapeutic approach started by Sigmund Freud?

  1. a) psychoanalyst
  2. b) psychiatrist
  3. c) clinical psychologist
  4. d) psychiatric social worker

Consider This: Freud's view of personality and his explanations for the origins of disordered behavior led to a very specific type of psychological practice. 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Module: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOM Q1.5.4

Which of the following specialists has an M.D. and tends to take a medical approach to mental health problems?

  1. a) psychiatrist
  2. b) clinical psychologist
  3. c) psychoanalyst
  4. d) counseling psychologist

Consider This: There are many professionals who treat mental health issues, although their training and emphasis can vary widely. 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Module: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOM Q1.5.5

Which of the following conclusions is most accurate regarding the relationship between researchers and practitioners of psychology?

  1. a) Some psychologists have argued that increased collaboration between researchers and clinicians will have the effect of improving patient care.
  2. b) Unlike psychologists who conduct research, psychologists who see and treat patients are completely unfamiliar with research methods basics.
  3. c) When seeing patients, all psychotherapists use only techniques that have been tested by research and proven to be effective.
  4. d) All clinicians are also researchers and all researchers are also clinicians.

Consider This: Many psychologists believe that narrowing the gap between scientists and practitioners is an important objective for the future of the field. 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Module: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

End of Chapter 1 Quiz: What Is Psychology?

EOC Q1.1

What distinguishes scientific psychology from pseudoscience and popular opinion?

  1. a) Scientific psychology relies on empirical evidence for its conclusions.
  2. b) Popular ideas always take time to filter into the scientific literature, whereas scientific findings are immediately embraced by the scientific community.
  3. c) Scientific psychology only studies topics that cannot be explained through common sense.
  4. d) Evidence from a carefully controlled experiment is not as compelling as people's long-held beliefs.

Consider This: There is a reason why pseudoscience is called that. Remember that the prefix "pseudo" means "false." 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

Module: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

EOC Q1.2

Which of the following statements is true regarding how scientific psychology differs from the popular psychology found on television shows, the Internet, or in self-help books?

  1. a) Scientific psychology addresses a much broader range of issues and topics than popular psychology typically does and is more firmly grounded in rigorous research and empirical evidence.
  2. b) Scientific psychology is only conducted in laboratories, whereas popular psychology is studied in a variety of settings.
  3. c) Popular psychology offers experience-based explanations for behavior, whereas scientific psychology detaches itself from personal experience and relies instead on testable predictions.
  4. d) Popular psychology produces testable predictions, whereas scientific psychology deals only with theories.

Consider This: Popular psychology is indeed popular with a lot of people, although the questions and methods it uses are quite unlike those used in scientific psychology. 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

Module: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

EOC Q1.3

Daniela and her friend visit a psychic who tells her "you will experience great change in the coming year" and "you'll need to act fast to seize a new opportunity that awaits you." As they leave the session, Daniela chuckles quietly while her friend seems shocked and amazed. "That was awesome; that psychic really predicted some heavy stuff for you!" "Oh, it's just for laughs," replies Daniela. "I don't believe a word of it." Why is Daniela correct to be skeptical?

  1. a) Psychic predictions are typically so vague that they are essentially meaningless.
  2. b) Daniela thought the psychic was actually making predictions about her friend.
  3. c) Psychics practice a type of science that most people cannot understand.
  4. d) Daniela experienced great change and seized a new opportunity during the previousyear, so she knew those predictions could not come true again.

Consider This: Don't most people experience some sort of change or new opportunity over the course of a year? 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1.B Explain what separates psychological science from pseudoscience, pop psychology, and other sources of dubious claims regarding psychological issues.

Module: Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOC Q1.4

Which of the following statements is the most appropriate way to characterize critical thinking?

  1. a) Critical thinking is a process rather than a once-and-for-all accomplishment.
  2. b) Critical thinking should be practiced by scientists but not necessarily ordinary people.
  3. c) Critical thinking always starts with rejecting some commonsense explanation.
  4. d) Critical thinking skills are something you're born with, rather than something you learn.

Consider This: Critical thinkers apply their skills over time, as a habit, and in a variety of situations. 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2.A Explain why critical thinking applies to all scientific pursuits and why it should also guide everyday judgments and decision-making.

Module: Thinking Critically About Psychology

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

EOC Q1.5

Which of the following is not one of the critical thinking guidelines discussed in this chapter?

  1. a) Avoid evidentiary confirmation.
  2. b) Analyze assumptions and biases.
  3. c) Define your terms.
  4. d) Examine the evidence.

Consider This: Review the eight critical thinking guidelines, and practice them as you progress through your introductory psychology course. 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Module: Thinking Critically About Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOC Q1.6

Beliefs that are taken for granted are called __________.

  1. a) assumptions
  2. b) attitudes
  3. c) hypotheses
  4. d) opinions

Consider This: Critical thinkers try to identify and evaluate beliefs that are taken for granted, both within themselves and those expressed by others. 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2.B Identify important steps to critical thinking, and give an example of how each applies to the science of psychology.

Module: Thinking Critically About Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOC Q1.7

What characterized the thinking of early approaches to psychology from ancient times through the early 1800s?

  1. a) Without an empirical methodology, conclusions were based on opinion and casual observations; sometimes these conclusions were right, but many times they were wrong.
  2. b) Conclusions were based on the opinions of medical doctors because they were the closest practitioners to "psychologists"; these conclusions were all biologically based.
  3. c) Early approaches all focused on explaining human actions as the result of spiritual forces; "religion" and "psychology" were seen as interchangeable terms.
  4. d) Before it became a science, psychology was viewed as a type of witchcraft; therefore, any conclusions reached were contaminated by bias and prejudice.

Consider This: There were many streams of thought that lead into the eventual development of psychology as an independent science. What distinguishes psychological science from these earlier approaches? 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3.A Discuss some of the early approaches to explaining psychological topics, from ancient times through the early 1800s.

Module: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

EOC Q1.8

Where was the first psychological laboratory officially established?

  1. a) Leipzig, Germany
  2. b) Boston, Massachusetts
  3. c) Paris, France
  4. d) London, England

Consider This: Think about the first person to approach psychology as a science and where that person was located. 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Module: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOC Q1.9

Who originated psychoanalysis, a type of early psychology?

  1. a) Sigmund Freud
  2. b) Wilhelm Wundt
  3. c) William James
  4. d) John Watson

Consider This: Psychoanalysis, along with structuralism and functionalism, was an early approach to understanding the mind and behavior. 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3.B Discuss some of the influential perspectives and individuals in the early years of modern psychology.

Module: A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

EOC Q1.10

Humans can accurately recognize the facial expression of anger from a distance. One explanation for this is that being able to predict, accurately and quickly, that an approaching stranger has bad intentions helps individuals detect and avoid threat. Upon which perspective on psychological science is this explanation based?

  1. a) evolutionary psychology
  2. b) social-cognitive learning
  3. c) behaviorism
  4. d) structuralism

Consider This: The explanation offers a reason why it might be adaptive to recognize certain expressions from a greater distance than others. This adaptiveness would be likely to serve an important function for the people who possessed it. 1.4.A List and describe four major perspectives in psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe four major perspectives in psychology.

Module: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOC Q1.11

Little Arnold screams and throws a fit whenever he doesn't get what he wants. When this happens, his parents rush to his side and soothe him, often fulfilling whatever wants or demands he has at the moment. Which perspective on psychological science would argue that Arnold has been rewarded for his behavior?

  1. a) the learning perspective
  2. b) the cognitive perspective
  3. c) the biological perspective
  4. d) the sociocultural perspective

Consider This: Although Arnold's behavior is obnoxious, it continues to be repeated for some reason. Think about what's causing the behavior to reoccur so often. 1.4.A List and describe four major perspectives in psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4.A List and describe four major perspectives in psychology.

Module: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOC Q1.12

Which cross-cutting influence helped to focus psychology on the study of all humans, rather than just culturally dominant or readily available humans?

  1. a) feminism
  2. b) humanism
  3. c) inclusionism
  4. d) the "new spirituality" movement

Consider This: You learned about four perspectives in psychological science, and one global perspective that also influenced the field. 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4.B Review the lack of diversity in early psychology and its consequences, and explain how feminist psychology illustrates the benefits of including a range of perspectives in scientific inquiry.

Module: Psychological Science Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOC Q1.13

Drs. Gupta and McBride study mood awareness, which is the individual differences in how people monitor and label their mood states. Dr. Gupta's interest is in knowing how the process works, what its limits are, and the mechanisms that cause it to happen. Dr. McBride wants to know whether people who are higher in mood awareness are better able to control and regulate their mood states, and therefore might experience better outcomes during therapy. Dr. Gupta's interests are in __________, whereas Dr. McBride's interests are in __________.

  1. a) basic psychology; applied psychology
  2. b) learning theory; sociocultural psychology
  3. c) biological psychology; psychometrics
  4. d) counseling psychology; clinical psychology

Consider This: Dr. Gupta wants to understand a fundamental psychological process; Dr. McBride wants to see that process in a practical setting. 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.5.A Distinguish basic psychology and applied psychology, and summarize the kinds of research that various psychologists might conduct.

Module: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

EOC Q1.14

Guillermo decides he wants to "help people," so he rents an office, advertises his services, and has business cards printed. Which mental health term would Guillermo be allowed to use, despite not having a scrap of psychological training?

  1. a) psychotherapist
  2. b) psychoanalyst
  3. c) marriage, family, and child counselor
  4. d) psychiatrist

Consider This: Mental health professionals may have a range of training, qualifications, licensure, or certification. 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.5.B Compare the training and work settings of different psychological practitioners, such as counselors, clinical psychologists, psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, and psychiatrists.

Module: What Psychologists Do

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

EOC Q1.15

Which of the following is not a research-based strategy for more effective study habits?

  1. a) Try to write down every word your instructor says during lecture.
  2. b) Avoid cramming.
  3. c) Relate new information to old information.
  4. d) Read, recite, review, repeat.

Consider This: Research suggests that even though students do a better job transcribing a lecture when taking notes by typing, they learn more effectively when taking notes by hand. See: Taking Psychology with You: Using Psychology to Study Psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: None

Module: Taking Psychology with You: Using Psychology to Study Psychology.

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

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