Test Bank Psychology 1st Edition by Danae L. Hudson

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology 1st Edition by Danae L. Hudson

Test Bank Psychology 1st Edition by Danae L. Hudson

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology 1st Edition by Danae L. Hudson

Test Bank Psychology 1st Edition by Danae L. Hudson

Chapter 1: Psychology as a Science

Topic

Factual

Conceptual

Applied

Analyze

Learning Objective 1.1

Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Multiple Choice

2[intro,NA], 7-10,13,15,16,17,

19,20,22,26,29,

32,33,34,35

4,5,6[intro,NA],

11,25

1,3[intro,NA],

12,14,28

18,21,23,24,

27,30,31

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

164

163

Essay

173

Learning Objective 1.2

Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Multiple Choice

37,42,45,47,50,

52

38,40,43,44,46,

59,64

41,49,51,53-58,61

36,39,48,60,

62,63,65

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

Essay

Learning Objective 1.3

Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Multiple Choice

71

69,77,78

66-68,70,73-76

72

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

165

Essay

174

Learning Objective 1.4

List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Multiple Choice

80,81,85,86

82,83,87-92

79

84,

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

166

Essay

Learning Objective 1.5

Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Multiple Choice

93

95

94

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

167

Essay

Learning Objective 1.6

Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages

of using naturalistic observation.

Multiple Choice

96[NA,intro],

102

100

97,98,99

101

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

168

Essay

175

Learning Objective 1.7

Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

Multiple Choice

105

103,104

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

Essay

Learning Objective 1.8

Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Multiple Choice

106,107,108

109,110

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

169

Essay

Learning Objective 1.9

Describe how correlations measure relationships

between variables.

Multiple Choice

111,112[na,

intro],113,115

114,117

116

118,119

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

170

Essay

Learning Objective 1.10

Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Multiple Choice

120

121,122,123,

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

Essay

Learning Objective 1.11

Recall the components of experimental research.

Multiple Choice

124,125[na,

intro], 126-129,131,132

133,137

130,134,135,

136,138

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

171

Essay

176

Learning Objective 1.12

Explain how researchers try to control for potential

bias, and consider ethical standards when conducting

research.

Multiple Choice

141,144,147,

148

140,142,143,

146

139,149,150

145,151,152,

153

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

172

Essay

177

Learning Objective 1.13

Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Multiple Choice

156,159,162

155,157,158

154,160,161

Fill-in-the-Blank

Short answer

Essay

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Galin studies why people tend to become more stressed during the holidays. Dr. Galin works in the field of __________.
  2. biology
  3. philosophy
  4. psychology
  5. botany

Answer: C

Learning Objective: NA

Topic: What Is Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Psychology is the scientific study of __________.
  2. the human condition
  3. behavior and mental processes
  4. skepticism
  5. the mind

Answer: B

Learning Objective: NA

Topic: What Is Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. __________ includes any action that can be directly observed, while __________ include internal activities in the mind that are not directly accessible.
  2. mental processes; behavior
  3. behavior; mental processes
  4. dualism; empiricism
  5. empiricism; dualism

Answer: B

Learning Objective: NA

Topic: What Is Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Behavior can __________, and mental processes __________.
  2. change; do not change
  3. be directly observed; cannot be directly observed
  4. not be directly observed; can be directly observed
  5. never change; can change

Answer: B

Learning Objective: NA

Topic: What Is Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Sometimes we are skeptical about research results from psychological studies. What leads to this skepticism?
  2. Psychology is not a real science.
  3. The findings of the research do not support our commonly held assumptions.
  4. The findings of the research are presented by philosophers who have observed behavior.
  5. Casual observations are often more accurate than actual research.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: NA

Topic: What Is Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A research study announces that female teenagers are at greatest risk for engaging in animal abuse. You think of all the female teenagers you know and picture each of them with their beloved pets. You become skeptical of the research study because _________.
  2. the results do not match your own experiences
  3. the results do not explain why females are at greatest risk
  4. the results are part of psychology, which isn’t a real science
  5. the results were obtained through a carefully controlled study with a good random sampling

Answer: A

Learning Objective: NA

Topic: What Is Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The earliest roots of psychology come from __________, founded on the beliefs of Socrates, Plato, and Descartes.
  2. anthropology
  3. theology
  4. philosophy
  5. biology

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Socrates and Plato believed that the mind did not cease to exist when the body died, and that thoughts and ideas could exist separately from the body. This concept is known as _________.
  2. monism
  3. dualism
  4. theism
  5. empiricism

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Dualism is the belief that thoughts and ideas __________.
  2. arise from the body
  3. can exist separately from the body
  4. occur together in the mind
  5. do not occur separately from the body

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Descartes concluded that the __________ was the seat of the soul, where all thoughts were formed.
  2. heart
  3. brain
  4. pineal gland
  5. mind

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Descartes believed that muscle movements were controlled by the soul traveling through hollow tubes in the body. We now know those hollow tubes to be __________.
  2. tendons
  3. the spinal cord
  4. nerves
  5. muscles

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. You believe that people are born with no innate knowledge and that all knowledge is gained through experience. Your belief system reflects that of __________.
  2. Socrates
  3. Plato
  4. John Locke
  5. Max Wertheimer

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. John Locke believed that at birth the human mind was a ________.
  2. tabula rasa
  3. full notebook
  4. template
  5. picture board

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Jessica believes that knowledge is gained through experience. Jessica’s belief is similar to that of __________.
  2. Edward Titchener
  3. Max Wertheimer
  4. Wilhelm Wundt
  5. John Locke

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Empiricism is the __________.
  2. view that knowledge originates through experience
  3. idea that the brain and the mind are separate entities
  4. idea that consciousness is composed of individual elements
  5. examination of one’s own conscious thoughts and feelings

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. __________ is known as the “father of psychology.”
  2. Edward Titchener
  3. Rene Descartes
  4. Wilhelm Wundt
  5. John Locke

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Psychology was founded by Wilhelm Wundt in __________ in __________.
  2. Sweden; 1940
  3. France; 1920
  4. Germany; 1879
  5. the United States; 1863

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. __________ is to purpose as __________ is to components.
  2. Empiricism; Functionalism
  3. Operationalism; Structuralism
  4. Functionalism; Structuralism
  5. Introspection; Functionalism

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Edward Titchener is considered to be the founder of the school of psychology concerned with studying the individual elements of consciousness which is called ____________.
  2. structuralism
  3. functionalism
  4. introspection
  5. dualism

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Edward Titchener believed that experiences could be __________.
  2. broken down into individual emotions and sensations
  3. explained by how they help promote survival
  4. evaluated based on function
  5. ever-changing and never separated into individual elements

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Matthew received a LEGO robot for Christmas. He began to take the robot apart, recording each piece of the robot. In studying his robot, Matthew is much like the early ___________ in the field of psychology.
  2. empiricists
  3. functionalists
  4. structuralists
  5. behaviorists

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. __________ is to structuralism as __________ is to functionalism.
  2. Watson; Freud
  3. Wertheimer; Watson
  4. Titchener; James
  5. James; Locke

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. While engaging in serving others, Max is asked to reflect on how he feels while doing the work, how he feels when giving to others, and what thoughts go through his mind as he completes the service. Max is being asked to engage in __________.
  2. functionalism
  3. empiricism
  4. introspection
  5. complex problem solving

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. What contributed to the decline of structuralism in the early history of psychology?
  2. It depended on natural selection, which was not well accepted until after Darwin made it famous.
  3. It was limited as a means of scientific discovery due to its reliance on introspection.
  4. Confirming its conclusions relied on technology that had not been discovered yet.
  5. It could not be applied to internal thoughts and processes.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. What area of contemporary psychology was highly influenced by structuralism?
  2. Cognitive psychology
  3. Biological psychology
  4. Sensation and perception
  5. Learning and memory

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. A school of psychology focused on how organisms use their learning and perceptual abilities to function in their environment is known as __________.
  2. dualism
  3. structuralism
  4. functionalism
  5. empiricism

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. When Christopher observed the animal rocking back and forth just prior to launching into the air to catch his prey, he wondered how rocking back and forth benefited the animal in catching his prey. In doing this, he is taking a __________ perspective.
  2. gestalt
  3. dualist
  4. functionalist
  5. structuralist

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. It is believed that the white color of the snowy owl protects it from being detected in its habitat in the Arctic. This trait has likely been passed down through generations as part of ___________.
  2. survivor benefits
  3. natural selection
  4. introspection
  5. structuralism

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. William James believed that consciousness _________.
  2. could be broken down into individual elements
  3. could not be broken down into individual elements
  4. arises from the pineal gland
  5. should be the focus of study in psychology

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Jakel studies what components of a picture help us to see depth in the artwork. He looks at the contribution of the visual system and the techniques in the artwork that contribute to this perception of depth. Jakel’s interests most closely reflect the approach of __________.
  2. functionalism
  3. behaviorism
  4. a psychoanalytic perspective
  5. structuralism

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Krokim studies how animals marking their territory contributes to their ability to attract a mate. Krokim’s research interests most closely reflect the approach of __________.
  2. dualism
  3. structuralism
  4. functionalism
  5. gestalt psychology

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. When Garth was looking at the neon sign, he assumed the sign read “no vacancy” even though the “a” and “c” were missing from the sign. According to __________, Garth is organizing the information according to a perceived pattern.
  2. psychodynamic psychology
  3. behaviorist psychology
  4. humanistic psychology
  5. gestalt psychology

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. __________ is the psychologist whose ideas developed into Gestalt psychology.
  2. John Watson
  3. Max Wertheimer
  4. Mary Whiton Calkins
  5. John Locke

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. __________ psychology was founded by Max Wertheimer.
  2. Humanistic
  3. Gestalt
  4. Psychodynamic
  5. Cognitive

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. __________ was the first female in America to obtain her PhD in psychology and become the first female president of the American Psychological Association.
  2. Mary Whiton Calkins
  3. Margaret Floy Washburn
  4. Rosalie Raynor
  5. Anna Freud

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Which of the following perspectives best represents the psychodynamic approach in psychology?
  2. Jorge, who believes that human behavior is driven by the type and frequency of rewards received for that behavior.
  3. Katrina, who believes that most of her clients are struggling because of unconscious drives that want to be fulfilled.
  4. Jabon, who believes that most of his clients are trying to reach self-actualization.
  5. Hihn, who believes that behavior is driven by hormones and chemicals in the body.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. __________ is the founder of the psychodynamic approach in psychology.
  2. John Watson
  3. Abraham Maslow
  4. Sigmund Freud
  5. Margaret Floy Washburn

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. According to Freud, __________ intrude on the conscious mind through dreams, slips of the tongue, or symptoms of psychological disorders.
  2. repressed urges
  3. basic needs
  4. conscious processes
  5. social experiences

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Kira was attracted to Ben and was looking forward to attending his party on Saturday. When she arrived, she realized Ben’s ex-girlfriend, Cami, had shown up to the party as well. When Kira approached Cami standing with Ben, she said, “I’m mad to see you here” instead of “I’m glad to see you here.” Which of the following provides a psychodynamic explanation of this behavior?
  2. Kira’s unconscious anger with Cami slipped out.
  3. Kira expressed her conscious anger intentionally to hurt Cami and be disrespectful in front of Ben.
  4. Kira has been rewarded for saying mean things in the past.
  5. Kira is trying to achieve her best self by saying what she means.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Contemporary psychodynamic theories focuses more on the influence of __________ in behavior.
  2. rewards and punishments related to repressed unconscious urges
  3. the unconscious processes related to social experiences and relationships
  4. the needs hierarchy and its importance in family relationships
  5. unconscious sexual and aggressive urges

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Urisa visits a therapist, complaining that she is unable to form a long-term meaningful relationship with a boyfriend. The therapist believes that she is allowing an unconscious resentment for her stepfather to enter her relationships. Urisa is most likely seeing a __________ psychologist.
  2. behavioral
  3. cognitive
  4. humanistic
  5. psychodynamic

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. The behavioral approach to psychology concentrates on __________ behavior.
  2. abnormal
  3. optimal
  4. observable
  5. easily explained

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. In the famous experiment involving “Little Albert,” Watson demonstrated that __________ could be conditioned.
  2. happiness
  3. sadness
  4. surprise
  5. fear

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. To condition fear, Watson and Rayner paired a rat (something the child did not fear) with __________, something the child feared naturally.
  2. loud noise
  3. a bright light
  4. a pin prick
  5. music

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. __________ is credited with developing the behavioral approach to psychology.
  2. Sigmund Freud
  3. John Watson
  4. Max Wertheimer
  5. Carl Rogers

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. F. Skinner worked on studies demonstrating that behavior could be altered through __________.
  2. self-esteem
  3. bringing repressed urges into consciousness
  4. positive thoughts
  5. reinforcement

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The __________ approach proposes that people are innately good and that mental and social problems result from deviations from this natural tendency.
  2. behavioral
  3. humanistic
  4. cognitive
  5. evolutionary

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Kenny seeks the assistance of a counselor who focuses on the importance of recognizing his own free will. They work on issues related to self-esteem and self-expression in their therapy sessions. Kenny’s counselor is most likely a __________ psychologist.
  2. behavioral
  3. cognitive
  4. humanistic
  5. psychodynamic

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Girard set a goal with his therapist to “achieve his full potential.” He is using various activities to learn and to grow. According to Maslow, Girard is trying to achieve __________.
  2. nirvana
  3. stability
  4. self-actualization
  5. positive thinking

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. __________ and __________ were two of the founding theorists of the humanistic approach to psychology.
  2. Skinner; Maslow
  3. Maslow; Rogers
  4. Freud; Watson
  5. Wertheimer; Rogers

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Grant studies how brain games focusing on memory and attention can delay dementia in humans. Dr. Grant is most likely a __________ psychologist.
  2. behavioral
  3. gestalt
  4. psychodynamic
  5. cognitive

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. __________ is a field of psychology concerned with mental processes such as perception, thinking, learning, and memory.
  2. Biological psychology
  3. Humanistic psychology
  4. Cognitive psychology
  5. Evolutionary psychology

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Reicher studies how highly emotional situations affect the memory of a given event. Dr. Reicher is using the __________ approach to study human mental processes.
  2. biological
  3. psychodynamic
  4. cognitive
  5. behavioral

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Jessa is focused on studying the structure and function of the nervous system to understand certain behaviors. Jessa is interested in the __________ approach in psychology.
  2. evolutionary
  3. cognitive
  4. biological
  5. behavioral

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Fernando is studying the structure and function of the brain focused on reading abilities. Fernando is using the __________ approach to psychology.
  2. psychodynamic
  3. biological
  4. humanistic
  5. sociocultural

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Detecto researches the neurotransmitters involved in mental disorders like anxiety and depression. Dr. Detecto is most likely a __________ psychologist.
  2. cognitive
  3. psychodynamic
  4. biological
  5. evolutionary

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Fleck studies how hormonal disorders impact normal behavior. Dr. Fleck is using the ___________ approach in her studies.
  2. cognitive
  3. biological
  4. behavioral
  5. psychodynamic

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Elijah is interested in understanding the genetic contributions to mental disorders. Elijah is using the ___________ approach to complete his studies.
  2. evolutionary
  3. psychodynamic
  4. cognitive
  5. biological

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Understanding how behavior has changed over time to help humans adapt to their environment is known as the __________ approach to psychology.
  2. biological
  3. evolutionary
  4. sociocultural
  5. behavioral

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Hill believes that chronic pain experience may actually contribute to the survival of the individual in a society. Dr. Hill is most likely a(n) __________ psychologist.
  2. cognitive
  3. biological
  4. evolutionary
  5. psychodynamic

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Richmond studies how sexual attraction might be related to survival in humans. Dr. Richmond is a(n) __________ psychologist.
  2. biological
  3. psychodynamic
  4. humanistic
  5. evolutionary

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Schneider is studying increased rates of empathy in women versus men. He believes this difference plays an important role in the gender roles of a society. Dr. Schneider is using the ___________ approach in psychology.
  2. sociocultural
  3. biological
  4. behavioral
  5. psychodynamic

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Rhodes is interested in understanding if race and socioeconomic class might impact self-esteem and success. Dr. Rhodes is using the __________ approach to conduct his research.
  2. humanistic
  3. behavioral
  4. psychodynamic
  5. sociocultural

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Psychologists who adopt multiple perspectives to study an issue are using a(n) __________ approach to understanding human behavior and mental processes.
  2. eclectic
  3. sociocultural
  4. behavioral
  5. psychodynamic

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Kanas is treating a young man who complains that he suffers from anxiety when at work and feels pressured to work harder. Dr. Kanas uses a variety of therapeutic strategies, including examining the man’s negative thinking patterns, his medications, reinforcers in his environment, and any repressed negative experiences from his childhood. Dr. Kanas is using a(n) __________ approach in his treatment of this client.
  2. A) psychodynamic
  3. B) biological
  4. C) behavioral
  5. D) eclectic

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2 Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Pleating sees clients every day who are struggling with relationships or with the loss of a loved one. He provides treatment to help them cope and adjust. Dr. Pleating is a(n) __________ psychologist.
  2. applied
  3. clinical
  4. academic
  5. eclectic

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Randell sees clients who want to stop smoking. She suggests behavioral modification programs to help her clients stop smoking. Dr. Randell is most likely a __________ psychologist.
  2. humanistic
  3. clinical
  4. applied
  5. academic

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Neiman is a physician who sees clients with severe mental disorders. She prescribes medication to help them manage their disorders. Dr. Neiman is most likely a(n) __________.
  2. psychiatrist
  3. nurse
  4. clinical psychologist
  5. clinical social worker

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. A __________ is a specialist in psychology who studies the relationship between the brain and behavior. These professionals may help assess for conditions such as dementia or evaluate the consequences of a stroke.
  2. counseling psychologist
  3. clinical social worker
  4. neuropsychologist
  5. psychiatric nurse

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Taki is a psychologist who works in an academic setting to help students with learning and behavioral problems. Dr. Taki is likely to be a __________.
  2. counseling psychologist
  3. school psychologist
  4. neuropsychologist
  5. clinical social worker

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. A(n) __________ uses psychological theory and practice to tackle real-world problems.
  2. neuropsychologist
  3. humanistic psychologist
  4. applied psychologist
  5. clinical psychologist

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Which of the following describes an applied psychologist?
  2. Heath, who sees patients who need help to deal with day-to-day problems.
  3. Belsey, who helps develop screening tools for job applicants in a large company based on psychological findings.
  4. Kraku, who helps his clients visualize winning their next race to overcome their anxiety.
  5. Murphy, who teaches students the knowledge they need to become psychologists in the future.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Brekin is currently working on a program to assist a company in retaining high-quality employees by providing ongoing training and compensation for skills improvement. Dr. Brekin is likely a(n) __________ psychologist.
  2. academic
  3. sports
  4. counseling
  5. industrial/organizational

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Beckwith spends most of her time teaching and advising students about careers, but she also conducts research in her specialty area. Dr. Beckwith is mostly likely a(n) __________ psychologist.
  2. applied
  3. clinical
  4. counseling
  5. academic

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Treadway studies peoples’ temperaments and how that makes them respond to stress differently. In addition to her research, she also teaches classes in the psychology department. Dr. Treadway is most likely an academic psychologist with a specialty in __________ psychology.
  2. developmental
  3. personality
  4. social
  5. abnormal

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. McDaniels is interested in understanding at what age humans develop some sense of morality. Dr. McDaniels has academic expertise in __________.
  2. abnormal psychology
  3. sports psychology
  4. developmental psychology
  5. social psychology

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. An academic psychologist who studies people with mental disorders specializes in _________ psychology.
  2. developmental
  3. abnormal
  4. personality
  5. social

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. An academic psychologist who specializes in studying how people in groups make different decisions than people by themselves is a _________ psychologist.
  2. developmental
  3. cognitive
  4. learning
  5. social

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Clarissa has two friends who got married two years ago but they are now getting divorced. Clarissa says she knew the marriage wouldn’t last. Clarissa’s belief is an example of __________.
  2. false consensus effect
  3. overestimation
  4. hindsight bias
  5. telling the truth

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A person’s tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share his or her beliefs and behaviors is known as the __________.
  2. hindsight bias
  3. false consensus effect
  4. underestimation effect
  5. observer bias

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The scientific method is better than common sense because it provides a process for conducting a(n) __________ through data collection and data analysis.
  2. subjective conclusion
  3. objective inquiry
  4. estimation
  5. anecdotal conclusion

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Which of the following represents the correct order of the steps of the scientific method?
  2. Identify the problem, formulate a hypothesis, test the hypothesis, analyze your results, conduct background research, report your results.
  3. Formulate a hypothesis, identify the problem, conduct background research, report your results, test the hypothesis, analyze your results.
  4. Identify the problem, conduct background research, formulate a hypothesis, test the hypothesis, analyze your results, report your results.
  5. Background research, formulate a hypothesis, identify the problem, test the hypothesis, report your results, analyze your results.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The first step in the scientific method is to ___________.
  2. formulate a hypothesis
  3. test the hypothesis
  4. identify the problem
  5. conduct background research

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Which of the following represents a testable hypothesis?
  2. Is there such a thing as a ghost?
  3. Thin people are more sensitive to bitter tastes than obese people.
  4. What is the meaning of life?
  5. Is there an afterlife?

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A hypothesis is __________.
  2. a process of repeating a study using the same methods and same participants
  3. a general explanation about behavior and events
  4. a testable prediction about new facts, based on existing theories
  5. nonscientific and cannot be used to draw conclusions about behavior

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A general explanation about behavior and events is known as __________.
  2. hindsight bias
  3. replication
  4. a hypothesis
  5. a theory

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. You have just finished testing your hypothesis. What is the next step in the scientific method?
  2. Conduct background research.
  3. Communicate your results.
  4. Analyze your results.
  5. Develop a new hypothesis.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. You have just identified a problem for a research study. According to the scientific method, what is your next step in the process of conducting your research?
  2. Formulate a hypothesis.
  3. Identify a theory.
  4. Conduct background research.
  5. Test the hypothesis.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. What is the function of conducting background research when using the scientific method?
  2. To copy a hypothesis from someone else.
  3. To determine what studies have been done already in the area of your interest.
  4. To determine what research design is appropriate for your study.
  5. To identify other theories that need to be tested along with your study.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Replication of research allows us to establish the __________.
  2. validity and generalizability of the original results
  3. true hypothesis of the original experiment
  4. manipulation of variables in the experiment
  5. phenomenon that cause a behavior

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. You should report the results of your research study _________.
  2. if you agree with the results of your study
  3. if your study confirms your hypothesis
  4. whether your results support your hypothesis or not
  5. if you can identify a specific mistake you made while conducting your research

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. In the scientific method, __________ occurs after you have tested your hypothesis.
  2. conducting background research
  3. analyzing your results
  4. reporting your results
  5. reformulating your hypothesis

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. __________ is a way of processing information in which we examine assumptions, evaluate evidence, look for hidden agendas, and assess conclusions.
  2. Cognitive analysis
  3. Critical thinking
  4. The scientific method
  5. Testing hypotheses

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.5 Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Topic: The Importance of Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. You attend a conference on the challenges of caring for a loved one with Alzheimer’s disease. The presentations leave you feeling hopeless that you can keep your loved one safe at home. During a break, you find out that the conference is being funded by a company that provides assisted living apartments for memory care. Which of the following problems may affect the information you are receiving?
  2. The quality of the evidence is in question.
  3. You are concerned that your emotions are taking over in the decision-making process.
  4. They are presenting falsified data.
  5. There may be an ulterior motive for the information being presented.

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.5 Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Topic: The Importance of Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. When engaging in critical thinking, how do you evaluate the quality of the evidence used to support claims?
  2. Evaluate the claim using the “common sense” test.
  3. Evaluate the author’s use of the scientific process to determine if the evidence is reliable.
  4. Relate the results to your own personal experience.
  5. Relate the claims to an online search.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.5 Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Topic: The Importance of Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A(n) __________ enables researchers to observe and describe behaviors without investigating the relationship between specific variables.
  2. correlation
  3. experiment
  4. descriptive study
  5. replication

Answer: C

Learning Objective: NA

Topic: Descriptive Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A researcher wants to study if being stuck in a construction zone on the highway will make people more impatient in their driving once they leave the highway. He sets up a camera near an intersection just off the highway and measures how many cars previously stopped on the highway by construction run the yellow or red light at the intersection. This study is an example of a __________.
  2. A) case study
  3. B) survey
  4. C) true experiment
  5. D) naturalistic observation

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.6 Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages of using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Naturalistic Observations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Karissa is interested in determining how people behave at weddings. She attends a number of weddings and records the behaviors she observes while there. Karissa is conducting a(n) ___________.
  2. case study
  3. experiment
  4. correlation
  5. naturalistic observation

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.6 Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages of using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Naturalistic Observations

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. When a researcher came to the daycare center to conduct observations, the teachers reported far fewer behavioral problems in their classroom than when the observer was not there. The teachers hypothesized that having the researcher in the room caused the children to be on their best behavior. This is an example of _________.
  2. observer bias
  3. hindsight bias
  4. false consensus effect
  5. reactivity

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.6 Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages of using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Naturalistic Observations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. If a participant in a naturalistic observation detects they are being observed and changes their behavior as a result of the observation, this is called __________.
  2. replication
  3. observer bias
  4. reactivity
  5. generalizability

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.6 Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages of using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Naturalistic Observations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Jacqui knew that “Oscar,” the monkey she was observing in the lab, had been separated from his mother early in life. Jacqui saw Oscar sitting in the corner with his shoulders hunched over and his hands on the floor and recorded his behavior as a “depressive posture.” Another researcher started to laugh as she noticed from her angle that Oscar was actually playing with a mouse he had trapped under his hands. Jacqui made an error in her judgment of Oscar’s behavior because of her expectations, which is a form of __________.
  2. A) reactivity
  3. B) blind observation
  4. C) observer bias
  5. D) sampling error

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.6 Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages of using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Naturalistic Observations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. One benefit of a laboratory study over a naturalistic observation is that it can allow __________.
  2. reduced participant expectations
  3. increased observer bias
  4. control over environmental conditions
  5. reduced reactivity

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.6 Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages of using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Naturalistic Observations

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A case study with an individual who has insensitivity to pain syndrome showed the person has fewer pain receptors than normal. Scientists conclude that insensitivity to pain syndrome is caused by a reduced number of pain receptors. This conclusion violates a number of things you know about case studies. Why is this conclusion problematic?
  2. Case studies should not be generalized to a larger population.
  3. The control group in the study was not randomly selected.
  4. Case studies do not typically reveal important information.
  5. A case study is not an appropriate research method when studying one individual.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.7 Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

Topic: Case Studies

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A case study would be the best option for which of the following research questions?
  2. What is the relationship between eating sugary cereals and hyperactivity?
  3. What causes slower cognition in people who have consumed alcohol?
  4. Would people prefer to read the news on the Internet or in a newspaper?
  5. How well does a child develop language abilities after years of neglect and abuse?

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.7 Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

Topic: Case Studies

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A __________ consists of an in-depth study of one individual or a few individuals.
  2. survey
  3. correlation
  4. case study
  5. field study

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.7 Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

Topic: Case Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A chief officer of a company wants to gauge the job satisfaction of his employees. He sends out an online questionnaire that gathers information from all his employees. This is an example of a __________.
  2. survey
  3. correlational study
  4. naturalistic observation
  5. case study

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.8 Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Topic: Surveys

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. What is a primary advantage of using a survey to conduct research?
  2. It allows causal conclusions to be drawn from the data.
  3. It allows relatively easy access to the private information of a large number of people.
  4. It allows researchers to take advantage of naturally occurring behaviors as they occur in their natural environment.
  5. It allows researchers to study something in great depth that occurs in only a few people.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.8 Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Topic: Surveys

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Ben is a researcher who is sitting down individually with numerous participants to ask them the same set of questions. Their responses are then coded with numerical methods to score the responses. Ben’s research method is a(n) __________.
  2. case study
  3. naturalistic observation
  4. self-report questionnaire
  5. interview

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.8 Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Topic: Surveys

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Jonathan wants to understand how people in Colorado feel about a new tax. Which of the following would be the most appropriate way for Jonathan to obtain his sample for his study?
  2. Place the names of all Colorado residents in a hat and draw out 100 of them.
  3. Get a Colorado phonebook and call the first 100 people listed.
  4. Get a Colorado phonebook and call the last 100 people in the book.
  5. Drive around neighborhoods in Colorado and survey people who are home.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.8 Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Topic: Surveys

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Chih wants to find out how the seniors at his high school feel about the new plans for graduation this year. Due to time constraints, he can’t survey everyone, so what is the best way for Chih to make sure his data is representative of the seniors in his school?
  2. Survey all students who are 18 years of age.
  3. Obtain a list of seniors and randomly select 50 of them.
  4. Survey the first 50 seniors in an alphabetical list.
  5. Survey all students who show up to the protest about the new graduation plans.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.8 Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Topic: Surveys

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Correlational studies allow researchers to measure the degree to which _________.
  2. one variable causes another
  3. two variables are related
  4. three variables interact
  5. four or more variables cause changes together

Answer: B

Learning Objective: NA

Topic: Correlational Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.3

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A(n) __________ is any characteristic that can vary, such as age, weight, or height.
  2. correlation coefficient
  3. operational definition
  4. variable
  5. confounding variable

Answer: C

Learning Objective: NA

Topic: Correlational Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The correlation coefficient can range from __________
  2. −100 to +100
  3. +1 to −1
  4. 0 to 1
  5. −1 to 0

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.9 Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Correlational Coefficients

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.2

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship?
  2. −.05
  3. +.35
  4. −.69
  5. +.17

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.9 Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Correlational Coefficients

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.2

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A negative correlation indicates that __________.
  2. the two variables vary in the same direction up
  3. the two variables vary in the same direction down
  4. the two variables vary in opposite directions
  5. the two variables are unrelated

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.9 Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Correlational Coefficients

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.1

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. There is a very strong negative correlation between cold temperatures and your heating bill. Which of the following best represents a strong negative correlation?
  2. −.02
  3. +.60
  4. −.83
  5. −.22

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.9 Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Correlational Coefficients

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.2

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A zero-sloping scatterplot graph of two variables indicates that __________.
  2. there is a positive correlation between the two variables
  3. there is a negative correlation between the two variables
  4. there is no relationship between the two variables
  5. there is a perfect relationship between the two variables

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.9 Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Correlational Coefficients

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. In a recent study, researchers found that as first-year college students’ use of social media increased, their reported GPAs decreased. Which of the following correlation coefficients best represents this relationship?
  2. 0
  3. +.21
  4. +.34
  5. −.27

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.9 Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Correlational Coefficients

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.1

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Researchers found a correlation coefficient of .46 when studying the relationship between caffeine intake and restlessness. Which of the following best summarizes the data?
  2. As caffeine intake increases, restlessness increases.
  3. As caffeine intake increases, restlessness decreases.
  4. As caffeine intake decreases, restlessness increases.
  5. There is no relationship between caffeine and restlessness.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.9 Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Correlational Coefficients

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.1

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Correlation ________ causation.
  2. is equal to
  3. does not equal
  4. predicts
  5. leads to

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.10 Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Topic: Separating Correlation from Causation

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.3

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Imagine a researcher found that there is a strong negative correlation between frosted flake consumption and cancer. Which of the following conclusions is most likely correct?
  2. Eating frosted flakes increases the incidence of cancer.
  3. Having cancer causes you to eat fewer frosted flakes.
  4. There is a relationship between eating frosted flakes and cancer, but the nature of that relationship is unknown.
  5. There is no reason to believe these variables are related because you have several family members who have had cancer but they never ate frosted flakes.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.10 Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Topic: Separating Correlation from Causation

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.3

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A study shows that the correlation between eating rice and intelligence is −.03. This indicates that __________.
  2. eating more rice will cause you to become more intelligent
  3. eating less rice will cause you to become more intelligent
  4. there is not a relationship between eating rice and intelligence
  5. the more intelligent you are, the more rice you seem to eat

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.10 Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Topic: Separating Correlation from Causation

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.3

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Proficiency at algebra is positively correlated with practice. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. There is no relationship between practice and how well you do algebra.
  3. There is a relationship between practicing algebra and being proficient at algebra.
  4. The less you practice algebra, the more proficient you become in using it.
  5. The more proficient you are with algebra, the less you will want to practice.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.10 Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Topic: Separating Correlation from Causation

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.1

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The most conclusive way to determine causal relationships between variables is to conduct a(n) __________.
  2. survey
  3. case study
  4. correlational study
  5. experiment

Answer: D

Learning Objective: NA

Topic: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.1

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Experiments are intended to determine if one variable __________ another.
  2. is related to
  3. causes
  4. is the same as
  5. is more important than

Answer: B

Learning Objective: NA

Topic: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.1

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. In experiments, a confederate is __________.
  2. a participant who responds to the experiment in the opposite way from what the experimenter expected
  3. a participant who responds the way the experimenter expected
  4. an actor who is part of the experiment and knows the aim of the study
  5. a variable that the researcher manipulates or changes in an experiment

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The __________ is the variable that a researcher manipulates or changes in an experiment.
  2. control group
  3. experimental group
  4. independent variable
  5. dependent variable

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.2

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The __________ is the variable that is being measured in an experiment to determine the impact of changes in the independent variable.
  2. control group
  3. experimental group
  4. independent variable
  5. dependent variable

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.2

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A(n) __________ is a precise definition of each variable in a study, including a specification of how the variables will be measured in the context of research.
  2. independent variable
  3. dependent variable
  4. operational definition
  5. confounding variable

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. An experimenter wanted to study the impact of a new intervention on students’ motivation. The experimenter assigned the first 10 students arriving in the classroom to the experimental group and the last 10 students to the control group. The experimenter then exposed the students in the experimental group to the motivational strategy, and they measured their motivation after the manipulation. Which of the following represents a confounding variable in this experiment?
  2. The students were not subjected to random assignment into groups.
  3. The motivational strategy is a confounding variable.
  4. The measure of motivation is a confounding variable.
  5. The classroom is a confounding variable.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. In an experiment, the __________ is subject to the independent variable.
  2. confederate
  3. control group
  4. experimental group
  5. dependent variable

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.3

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. In an experiment, the __________ is given either no treatment or a treatment with no effect.
  2. confederate
  3. control group
  4. experimental group
  5. dependent variable

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.3

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A researcher wants to study the effects of alcohol on cognitive function. The experimental group is given 10 ounces of alcohol, while the control group gets a nonalcoholic beverage. Participants must then complete a 40-question test that requires varying levels of cognitive function. Scores on the test are compared, and it is found that the group that drank alcohol performed worse than the group that drank the nonalcoholic beverage. In this experiment, __________ is the dependent variable.
  2. A) cognitive function
  3. B) alcohol
  4. C) nonalcoholic beverage
  5. D) the amount of beverage the participants received

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.2

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. In an experiment, the researcher wants to determine the impact of nutrition on energy levels. Participants are provided fast food or a healthy diet for three days and then asked to engage in a long day of physical activity. The amount of time participants continue to engage in physical activity is measured. It is found that participants provided a healthy diet are able to engage in physical activity for a significantly longer period of time compared to those who were in the fast-food group. In this experiment, how is the dependent variable operationally defined?
  2. A) Fast food
  3. B) Healthy diet
  4. C) Amount of time participants continue to engage in physical activity
  5. D) Engaging in physical activity

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.2

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Shanika wants to study the effects of stress on performance. In her experiment, she exposes the experimental group to a scary video while the control group watches a cartoon. Fifteen minutes after watching the videos, participants are asked to perform a manual dexterity task that involves picking up small metal rods from a table placed in front of them. The length of time it takes for the participant to pick up the metal rods is measured. In this experiment, what is the operational definition of stress?
  2. Exposure to a cartoon
  3. The amount of time it takes to pick up the rods
  4. Exposure to a scary movie
  5. The 15 minutes between the video and the performance task

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.2

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Carlton conducts a study for his senior project in psychology. He gives students a questionnaire that measures their degree of anxiety and then exposes the experimental group to a relaxation exercise (15 minutes of visual imagery) while the control group is given the same time to listen to music. After the exercise, he measures their anxiety again to see if it has been reduced. In this experiment, what is the independent variable?
  2. Amount of time exposed to relaxation
  3. Questionnaire measuring anxiety
  4. Relaxation exercise versus listening to music
  5. Degree of anxiety

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.2

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Victoria is conducting an experiment to determine the impact of pet visitation on life satisfaction in an assisted living center. She first measures life satisfaction in all residents using a survey. Then, Victoria randomly assigns residents to the experimental and control groups and then provides pet visitation (three times per week for 30 minutes) for the experimental group. After six weeks, the life satisfaction survey is administered again and comparisons between the control group and experimental group are assessed. In this experiment, what is the independent variable?
  2. Scores on the life satisfaction scale
  3. Receiving pet visitations or not
  4. Amount of time the pet visitations last
  5. Lifespan of the individual living in the assisted living center

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.2

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Jerrika wants to study the impact of caffeine consumption on performance in a classroom. She takes two classes (one meets at 9 a.m. and the other meets at 3 p.m.) and provides caffeine to the 9 a.m. class. She then compares scores on identical exams between the two classes. She finds that caffeine dramatically affects performance by improving scores. What might be a concern about the conclusions she draws about her data?
  2. Assignment to the experimental versus control groups was not random.
  3. There may have been a placebo effect.
  4. The conclusions would be stronger if she had varied the exams between the two classes as well.
  5. Jerrika cannot compare scores on identical exams.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. In an experiment on painkillers, the control group received a sugar pill after having a painful procedure. Over 80 percent of the participants reported less pain after taking the sugar pill. These participants were demonstrating the ____________ effect.
  2. A) confounding
  3. B) placebo
  4. C) blind observer
  5. D) double-blind

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. When a participant engages in a study and is told that the treatment may make them dizzy, the participant may report dizziness because they believe that it is expected. The __________ can be one source of bias in an experiment.
  2. expectations of the participant
  3. errors in data collection
  4. expectations of the experimenter
  5. errors in ethics

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The __________ effect occurs when participants receiving a fake treatment react as if they were receiving the real treatment because they believe they are actually receiving the real treatment.
  2. single-blind
  3. violation
  4. placebo
  5. expectation

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. When conducting drug studies, researchers must have a control group that receives a(n) __________ pill to avoid the placebo effect.
  2. active
  3. real
  4. sugar
  5. no

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. If the experimenter knows which participants are in the control group and which are in the experimental group, using a placebo control group sets up a(n) __________ experiment.
  2. incomplete
  3. complete
  4. single-blind
  5. double-blind

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A __________ experiment occurs when the research participants do not know if they have been assigned to the control group or the experimental group, but the experimenter does.
  2. controlled
  3. single-blind
  4. double-blind
  5. marginally ethical

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Gabriel conducted a study to investigate the impact of gingko biloba on memory. He has used gingko biloba for a long time and truly believes it is an amazing memory aid. While conducting his research, a few participants receiving gingko biloba provided data that was difficult to interpret. Because Gabriel wanted to give them the benefit of the doubt, he scored their memory tests reflecting an improvement in memory function. This is known as __________ bias.
  2. participant
  3. placebo
  4. experimenter
  5. analysis

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. To minimize both experimenter bias and placebo effects, the best type of experimental design would be a __________ study.
  2. single-blind
  3. confounding
  4. double-blind
  5. confounding

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A _________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is receiving a particular treatment.
  2. correlation
  3. naturalistic observation
  4. double-blind
  5. single-blind

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The __________ is the ethics review panel established by a publicly funded research institution to evaluate all proposed research by an institution.
  2. Institutional Review Board
  3. Ethics Consortium
  4. American Psychological Association
  5. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Before conducting his research, Max had to submit his research proposal to the __________ for evaluation for potential breaches of ethics.
  2. American Psychological Association
  3. Moral Principle Guide
  4. Institutional Review Board
  5. Informed Consortium

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Gigi is participating in a study being conducted at her school. Prior to starting the study, she receives information about what the study is trying to do and what will be expected of her as she participates in the study so that Gigi can make a decision about her desire to participate in the study. If Gigi decides to continue with the study, she is providing __________.
  2. a release of rights
  3. voluntary withdrawal
  4. protection of confidentiality
  5. informed consent

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Gail is participating in a study and gave her informed consent for her participation. However, after the study starts, Gail becomes concerned about some of the aspects of the study. What ethical consideration should be used to address this situation?
  2. Avoiding deception when speaking to Gail.
  3. Allowing Gail to voluntarily withdraw from the study.
  4. Protection of Gail’s confidentiality.
  5. The study should be changed to address Gail’s concerns.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Richard is participating in a study and has asked that the results be communicated to him once the study is finished. When Richard receives the study summary, he discovers that the data gathered is listed with each participant’s name. In this case, the study has violated what ethical principle?
  2. Avoiding deception
  3. Obtaining informed consent
  4. Assuring confidentiality
  5. Minimizing harm to participants

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Jessup is proposing a study that will require participants to have a probe surgically placed in their brain. This probe will then provide constant feedback about activation and the movement of chemicals in the brain to Jessup and his research team. Jessup has just submitted the study for ethical approval. What ethical issue needs to be addressed most strongly by Jessup?
  2. Developing a legal waiver in case of complications
  3. Cost/benefit analysis to justify potential harm to subjects from surgery
  4. Voluntary withdrawal from research if the surgery goes badly
  5. Protecting the confidentiality of the participants

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Which of the following is true about the original research that outlined a causal relationship between vaccines and autism?
  2. A) The original sample was representative of the greater population.
  3. B) Participants were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups.
  4. C) The researchers were “blind” to the study and its intent.
  5. D) The original study had a very small sample size.

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.13 Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. What led scientists to begin asking if there was a causal relationship between vaccines and autism?
  2. A) Autism is first diagnosed around the same time that children receive immunizations.
  3. B) Other countries have found a causal relationship between immunizations and autism.
  4. C) Immunizations contain neurotoxins, but it has always been believed they were safe.
  5. D) As the use of immunizations increased, there was an increase in diagnoses of autism.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.13 Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Who published the controversial study that claimed a causal relationship between vaccines and autism?
  2. A) Hooker
  3. B) DeStefano
  4. C) Wakefield
  5. D) Smith

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.13 Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. What happened to the original study that claimed it found a causal relationship between vaccines and autism?
  2. A) It was found to be fraudulent and was retracted from the journal that originally published it.
  3. B) It has been reprinted in a number of new journals so that its findings can be further disseminated.
  4. C) It was found to use proper ethical practices, but the data became questionable.
  5. D) It was confirmed by many other researchers through replication.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.13 Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. A study published in 2014 by Brian Hooker asserted that __________.
  2. A) the original study done by Wakefield was appropriate in its ethics and conclusions
  3. B) the CDC intentionally withheld findings that indicated a link between autism and Black boys
  4. C) the results of the original Wakefield study were falsified
  5. D) immunizations did not contribute to autism but were likely involved in Down syndrome

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.13 Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The Wakefield study was criticized for having a small sample size, nonblind researchers, and it __________.
  2. A) lacked a control group
  3. B) ignored that the children in the study were diagnosed with autism before they received their vaccines
  4. C) ignored that the children in the study also had heart defects that may have come from the vaccines
  5. D) included data from children that were not a part of the study

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.13 Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Hooker published a paper that argued that the CDC has omitted data that showed an increased risk of the development of autism in Black boys vaccinated between 2 and 3. This paper was later removed because of concerns about the accuracy. Which of the following summarizes a primary concern with the re-analysis?
  2. A) The CDC study used a case-control methodology while Hooker used a cohort model and this could account for some differences in the data.
  3. B) Hookers study was not based on actual data from Black children.
  4. C) Hookers study used a different definition for autism than the CDC used in their study.
  5. D) The CDC study used older children than the Hooker study did.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.13 Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Wakefield lost his medical license due to concerns about his ethical behavior in the study where he stated the MMR immunization caused autism. Which of the following represents one of the ethical concerns about his data and potential motives?
  2. A) Wakefield did not obtain informed consent from the participants in his study.
  3. B) Wakefield exposed the children in his study to harmful procedures.
  4. C) Wakefield received money from lawyers that were bringing a lawsuit against immunization companies.
  5. D) Wakefield never actually gathered data from participants.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.13 Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The ethical violations of the Tuskegee syphilis experiment led to what common practice in research today?
  2. A) The use of control groups.
  3. B) The use of ethics review boards.
  4. C) The use informed consent.
  5. D) The use of peer review before publication of research.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.13 Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

Short-Answer Questions

  1. List the seven modern perspectives in psychology and briefly describe each.

Answers may vary but should contain the following for full credit:

  • The psychodynamic approach focuses on unconscious processes.
  • The behavioral approach focuses on effects of reward/punishment.
  • The humanistic approach focuses on people’s tendency toward self-actualization.
  • The cognitive approach focuses on how we process information.
  • The biological approach focuses on the structure and function of the nervous system.
  • The evolutionary approach focuses on understanding a behavior based on how well it serves the survival of the species.
  • The sociocultural perspective focuses on the interaction between social and cultural factors and how they impact behavior and thinking.

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Imagine a person seeks help from different psychologists about issues he is having at work. Propose questions that could be asked by psychologists from each of the approaches listed below.
    • Psychodynamic approach
    • Humanistic approach
    • Behavioral approach
    • Biological approach

Answers may vary. Check to make sure they include the attributes of that particular approach.

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Identify the three main categories for career opportunities in psychology and provide an example of each area.

Answers may vary, but should contain the following for full credit:

  • Clinical psychology: a therapist who helps people overcome life challenges
  • Academic psychology: a teacher who may also do research in their area of specialty.
  • Applied psychology: a psychologist who applies principles of psychology to real-world situations (i.e., sports psychology).

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. List the steps of the scientific method

Answers may vary, but should contain the following for full credit:

  • Identify the problem
  • Conduct background research
  • Formulate a hypothesis
  • Test the hypothesis
  • Analyze the results
  • Report your results

Learning Objective: 1.4 List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: The Steps of the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Summarize the four steps for evaluating information critically.

Answers may vary, but should contain the following for full credit:

  • Consider any underlying motives for making a particular claim.
  • Evaluate the quality of the evidence used to support the claim.
  • Generate alternative explanations for the results.
  • Avoid using emotions or personal experiences when evaluating the claim.

Learning Objective: 1.5 Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Topic: The Importance of Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Outline the costs and benefits of conducting naturalistic observations in the field or conducting observations in a laboratory.

Answers may vary, but should contain the following for full credit:

  • Field: more natural behavior (benefit)
    • Must watch for reactivity and observer bias (cost)
  • Laboratory: easier to control environmental variables (benefit)
    • May alter behavior due to unnatural situation (cost)

Learning Objective: 1.6 Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages of using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Naturalistic Observations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. What steps should a researcher take to make sure meaningful data is gathered from a survey?

Answers may vary, but should contain the following for full credit:

  • Random sampling
  • Questions free of bias or leading assumptions
  • The survey should have a well-defined purpose, and all questions should be associated specifically with that purpose.

Learning Objective: 1.8 Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Topic: Surveys

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Describe what information can be obtained from a correlation coefficient.

Answers may vary, but should contain the following for full credit:

A correlation coefficient provides you with the degree of relatedness of the two variables. The closer the coefficient is to zero, the smaller the correlation. The closer the coefficient is to −1 or +1, the stronger the correlation. The minus or plus sign indicates the direction of the relationship. Positive correlations indicate that both variables move in the same direction such that as one variable moves up, the other also moves up, and so on. The negative correlation indicates that the two variables move in opposition.

Learning Objective: 1.9 Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Correlational Studies

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway: 1.1.1 and 1.1.2

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Define each of the following:
  • Independent variable
  • Dependent variable
  • Control group
  • Experimental group
  • Confounding variable

Answers may vary, but should contain the following for full credit:

Independent variable: the variable manipulated by the researcher.

Dependent variable: the variable intended to measure the effect of the independent variable.

Control group: the group that receives no manipulation.

Experimental group: the group that receives the independent variable.

Confounding variable: a variable other than the independent variable that could have an impact on the dependent variable.

Learning Objective: 1.11 Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway: 1.2.2 and 1.2.3

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Describe five ethical considerations that should be addressed in any research study.

Answers may vary, but should contain the following for full credit:

  • Obtain informed consent
  • Minimize harm to participants
  • Avoid deception when possible
  • Voluntary withdrawal from research
  • Protect confidentiality of participants

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

Essay Questions

  1. Compare and contrast the structuralist and functionalist approaches to psychology. Give an example of a question that might be asked by each approach.

Answers will vary, but should contain the following for full credit:

The structuralist approach attempts to break down an answer to identify the individual elements of the question. The functionalist approach seeks to identify how the specific behavior in question serves an adaptive value.

(Student suggestions for examples of questions will vary.)

Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: A Brief History of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. Describe the careers available to psychologists. Include in your description an example of each career.

Answers will vary, but should contain the following for full credit (examples may also vary):

Psychologists can become clinical psychologists, applied psychologists, or academic psychologists. Clinical psychologists provide therapy or intervention for people who need help coping with life circumstances. An example would be a neuropsychologist who helps people cope with brain injury or disease. An applied psychologist is someone who applies psychological principles to real-world problems. An example of an applied psychologist is the industrial/organizational psychologist who uses his or her skills to improve work productivity and environments. An academic psychologist is generally someone who teaches at a college or university. Along with their teaching responsibilities, they will also engage in research for their area of specialty. Some examples of areas of specialty include developmental, biological, social, and so on.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Careers in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of the content domains of psychology.

  1. You are interested in running a naturalistic observation of peoples’ attitudes when they are stopped by a police officer. Describe how you would set up your study to gather your data and how you would avoid the common difficulties that can arise in a naturalistic observation study.

Answers may vary, but the key concepts that should be addressed include how the researcher will remain unobtrusive to control for participants altering their behavior because they know they are being watched. Further, the researcher will need to have clear operational definitions for the attitudes they will be rating for the participants.

Learning Objective: 1.6 Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages of using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Naturalistic Observations

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Describe how you would set up an experiment to determine whether stress causes illness. In your design, specify the independent and dependent variables. Define their operational definitions and state a clear hypothesis.

Answers may vary. Watch for the correct identification of independent and dependent variables. Look for clear operational definitions for how they will create stress and how they will measure illness. Make sure the hypothesis is truly testable by the research design as it is described.

Learning Objective: 1.11 Understand the components of experimental research.

Topic: Components of an Experiment

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Describe the importance of satisfying the ethical principles discussed in the text.

Answers may vary, but should address the following for full credit:

  • Obtain informed consent: All participants should be informed of what they are participating in and how it may impact them. Careful consideration should be given to the use of deception, so participants can fairly decide if they want to participate.
  • Minimize harm to participants: All studies should minimize any potential for harm to participants. While some studies still need to be done that could cause harm, a careful cost/benefit analysis should be done to make sure the study is absolutely necessary.
  • Avoid deception when possible: While gaining informed consent, participants should receive all the information when possible. If deception cannot be avoided, it should be minimized.
  • Voluntary withdrawal from research: All participants should be able to withdraw from a study at any time without threat of consequence. This protects the participant if they sense any issues once they begin a study.
  • Protect confidentiality of participants: Confidentiality in all things is critical. There is no reason that a participant should have their identification be sacrificed for the sake of research.

Learning Objective: 1.12 Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Cautions with Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Adaptive Pathway:

APA LO: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

Adaptive Pathway Questions

Adaptive Pathway 1.1: Correlations

The following pathway will test your understanding of this topic and adapt to your needs. Be sure to answer all of the questions and watch any of the short videos presented.

MISCONCEPTION #1 = Inability to distinguish positive and negative correlations

Pinpoint Question

Drinking orange juice is negatively correlated with the risk of cancer. Based on this information, which of the following statements is true?

  1. a) The more orange juice you drink, the higher your risk of cancer.
  2. b) The more orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer.

Correct. When as one variable goes up (juice drinking), the other goes down (risk of cancer); that is a negative correlation.

  1. c) The less orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer.
  2. d) The lower your risk of cancer, the less orange juice you drink.

Follow-up Question

Which correlation coefficient is most likely to describe the relationship between brushing one’s teeth and the number of cavities one gets?

  1. a) –.62

Correct. One would expect that as brushing increases, cavities tend to decrease. Thus, a negative correlation would best describe the relationship.

  1. b) 0

Incorrect. This correlation coefficient would suggest no relationship between brushing teeth and the number of cavities. Instead, a negative correlation would best describe the relationship Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. c) .45

Incorrect. This correlation coefficient would suggest that as brushing increases, the number of cavities increases. Actually, a negative correlation would best describe the relationship. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. d) .62

Incorrect. This correlation coefficient would suggest that as brushing increases, the number of cavities increases. Actually, a negative correlation would best describe the relationship Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

MISCONCEPTION #2 = Confusing the (+/) as an indicator of the strength of the relationship

Pinpoint Question

Which of the following statements is correct concerning correlation coefficients?

  1. a) A correlation of +.89 is strong and –.89 is weak.
  2. b) A correlation of +.89 and –.89 are both strong and equally so.

Correct. Both +.89 and –.89 are the same distance from 0.

  1. c) A correlation of –.10 is weaker than a correlation of +.10.
  2. d) A correlation of +.10 is weaker than a correlation of –.10.

Follow-up Question

Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables?

  1. a) .50

Incorrect. Because –.75 is closer to +/ 1.00, it is the strongest relationship of the options. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. b) .25

Incorrect. Because –.75 is closer to +/ 1.00, it is the strongest relationship of the options. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. c) –.25

Incorrect. Because –.75 is closer to +/ 1.00, it is the strongest relationship of the options. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. d) –.75

Correct. The closer a correlation coefficient is to +/1.00, the stronger the relationship it indicates.

MISCONCEPTION #3 = Confusing correlation with causality

Pinpoint Question

The higher your self-esteem, the lower your chance of depression. This means that:

  1. high self-esteem makes people feel happier.
  2. feeling happier makes people have higher self-esteem.
  3. depression causes people to have lower self-esteem.
  4. self-esteem and depression are related, but we don’t know what causes the relationship.

Correct. Because correlations do not provide causal information, any of the explanations could be correct, but we can’t determine this from a correlation.

Follow-up Question

As poverty increases, crime rates also tend to increase. Which of the following statements is true?

  1. Poverty leads people to become more desperate and therefore commit more crimes.

Incorrect. Because correlations do not provide causal information, any of these explanations could be correct, but we can’t determine this from a correlation. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. There is a relationship between poverty and crime rates.

Correct. Because correlations do not provide causal information, any of the other explanations could be correct, but we can’t determine this from a correlation. In this example, all we know is that poverty and crime are related.

  1. Increased crime rates cause people to fall into poverty more often.

Incorrect. Because correlations do not provide causal information, any of these explanations could be correct, but we can’t determine this from a correlation. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. Poor mental health causes an increase in both poverty and crime.

Incorrect. Because correlations do not provide causal information, any of these explanations could be correct, but we can’t determine this from a correlation. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

Adaptive Pathway 1.2: Experiments

The following pathway will test your understanding of this topic and adapt to your needs. Be sure to answer all of the questions and watch any of the short videos presented.

MISCONCEPTION #1 = Difficulty understanding that only experiments can determine cause and effect relationships

Pinpoint Question

Which research method will allow researchers to determine the cause of a behavior?

  1. Survey
  2. Naturalistic observation
  3. Laboratory observation
  4. Experiment

Correct. Experiments are the only research methods that can identify cause-and-effect relationships between variables.

Follow-up Question

Dr. Edwards wants to show a causal relationship between practicing meditation and stress levels. Dr. Edwards should:

  1. conduct an experiment in which some people meditate and other people use a different form of relaxation.

Correct. An experiment is the only way to establish causal relationships.

  1. find a correlation between meditation and stress levels.

Incorrect. An experiment is the only way to establish causal relationships. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. conduct a telephone survey asking people who meditate about their stress levels.

Incorrect. An experiment is the only way to establish causal relationships. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. observe people meditate.

Incorrect. An experiment is the only way to establish causal relationships. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

MISCONCEPTION #2 = Inability to distinguish between an independent variable and a dependent variable

Pinpoint Question

A researcher is interested in investigating the effects of exercise on weight. He divides people into two groups, and has one group engage in regular exercise while the second group watches television. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?

  1. a) The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.

Correct. The exercise is controlled by the experimenter and is therefore independent of anything the participants do, whereas the participants’ weight is expected to be dependent on the amount of exercise.

  1. b) The independent variable is the group that exercises; the dependent variable is the group that watches television.
  2. c) The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is exercise.
  3. d) The independent variable is the group that watches television; the dependent variable is the group that exercises.

Follow-up Question

Researchers are interested in the impact of a sleeping medication on quality of sleep. They have one group of participants take an actual sleeping medication prior to bed, while the other group takes a sugar pill. They ask participants to rate the quality of their sleep in the morning. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this proposed study.

  1. The dependent variable is the group that took the sleeping medication; the independent variable is the group that took the sugar pill.

Incorrect. The quality of sleep is expected to be dependent on whether or not a sleeping medication was taken, which is an independent variable controlled by the experimenter. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. b) The dependent variable is quality of sleep; the independent variable is the type of pill that was taken.

Correct. The quality of sleep is expected to be dependent on whether or not a sleeping medication was taken, which is an independent variable controlled by the experimenter.

  1. c) The dependent variable is the group that took the sugar pill; the independent variable is the group that took the sleeping medication.

Incorrect. The quality of sleep is expected to be dependent on whether or not a sleeping medication was taken, which is an independent variable controlled by the experimenter. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. d) The dependent variable is the type of pill that was taken; the independent variable is the quality of sleep.

Incorrect. The quality of sleep is expected to be dependent on whether or not a sleeping medication was taken, which is an independent variable controlled by the experimenter. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

MISCONCEPTION #3 = Inability to distinguish between the experimental group and the control group

Pinpoint Question

In a study designed to test the impact of nicotine on driving ability, smokers are asked to “drive” using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, which participants were in the experimental group, and which were in the control group?

  1. a) The participants who smoke a cigarette without nicotine comprise the control group; the participants who smoke a cigarette with nicotine comprise the experimental group.

Correct. A control group gets either no treatment or treatment with no effect; in this case, experimenters are controlling for the possibility that the cigarette itself (not the nicotine) might cause people to get into collisions. Therefore, the control group received cigarettes without nicotine, and the experimental group received cigarettes with nicotine.

  1. The participants who smoke a cigarette with nicotine comprise the control group; the participants who smoke a cigarette without nicotine comprise the experimental group.
  2. This study does not have an experimental group; the participants who smoked either a cigarette with or without nicotine were in the control group.
  3. This study does not have a control group; the participants who smoked either a cigarette with or without nicotine were in the experimental group.

Follow-up Question

In a study that examines the impact of caffeine intake on exam performance, a researcher randomly assigns participants to drink either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee just prior to taking an exam. In this study, which participants were in the experimental group, and which were in the control group?

  1. The participants who drank the caffeinated coffee were in the control group; the participants who drank the decaffeinated coffee were in the experimental group.

Incorrect. A control group gets either no treatment or treatment with no effect; in this case, experimenters are controlling for the possibility that drinking coffee itself (not the caffeine) might cause people to improve on their test performance. Therefore, the control group received coffee without caffeine, and the experimental group received coffee with caffeine. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. The participants who drank the caffeinated coffee were in the experimental group; the participants who drank the decaffeinated coffee were in the control group.

Correct. A control group gets either no treatment or treatment with no effect; in this case, experimenters are controlling for the possibility that drinking coffee itself (not the caffeine) might cause people to improve on their test performance. Therefore, the control group received coffee without caffeine, and the experimental group received coffee with caffeine.

  1. This study does not have an experimental group; the participants who drank both types of coffee were in the control group.

Incorrect. A control group gets either no treatment or treatment with no effect; in this case, experimenters are controlling for the possibility that drinking coffee itself (not the caffeine) might cause people to improve on their test performance. Therefore, the control group received coffee without caffeine, and the experimental group received coffee with caffeine. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

  1. This study does not have a control group; the participants who drank both types of coffee were in the experimental group.

Incorrect. A control group gets either no treatment or treatment with no effect; in this case, experimenters are controlling for the possibility that drinking coffee itself (not the caffeine) might cause people to improve on their test performance. Therefore, the control group received coffee without caffeine and the experimental group received coffee with caffeine. Consider returning to the text where this concept is first discussed and create a note for yourself. Try to rephrase the concept in your own words and even provide an example from your own life, if possible.

Revel Quiz Questions

The following questions appear at the end of each module and at the end of the chapter in Revel for Psychology, 1e.

End of Module Quiz 1.1: The Discipline of Psychology

EOM Q1.1.1

The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called __________, which involved “looking inward” and reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person’s experiences.

  1. a) introspection
  2. b) intervention

Consider this: This technique was developed as a means to understand the structures of the mind by looking inward as a person engaged in an activity such as smelling a flower. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

  1. c) insight inventory

Consider this: This technique was developed as a means to understand the structures of the mind by looking inward as a person engaged in an activity such as smelling a flower. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

  1. d) induction

Consider this: This technique was developed as a means to understand the structures of the mind by looking inward as a person engaged in an activity such as smelling a flower. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: The Discipline of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts


EOM Q1.1.2

__________ established the first psychological laboratory in 1879.

  1. a) Sigmund Freud

Consider this: Most psychologists agree that the birth of modern psychology occurred in a laboratory in Germany in 1879. The founder of the laboratory argued that the mind could be examined both scientifically and objectively. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

  1. b) Wilhelm Wundt
  2. c) John Locke

Consider this: Most psychologists agree that the birth of modern psychology occurred in a laboratory in Germany in 1879. The founder of the laboratory argued that the mind could be examined both scientifically and objectively. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

  1. d) William James

Consider this: Most psychologists agree that the birth of modern psychology occurred in a laboratory in Germany in 1879. The founder of the laboratory argued that the mind could be examined both scientifically and objectively. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: The Discipline of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.1.3

Professor Thomas approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes unconscious processes within the individual, such as inner forces or conflicts. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches?

  1. a) sociocultural approach

Consider this: This approach was developed by Freud and focuses on the influences of the unconscious mind and inner conflicts on overt behavior. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

  1. b) humanistic approach

Consider this: This approach was developed by Freud and focuses on the influences of the unconscious mind and inner conflicts on overt behavior. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

  1. c) psychodynamic approach
  2. d) behavioral approach

Consider this: This approach was developed by Freud and focuses on the influences of the unconscious mind and inner conflicts on overt behavior. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: The Discipline of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.1.4

The __________ perspective is a psychological approach that emphasizes the mental processes in perception, memory, language, and problem solving.

  1. a) cognitive
  2. b) biological

Consider this: This perspective focuses on how we learn, memorize, process language, and problem solve. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

  1. c) learning

Consider this: This perspective focuses on how we learn, memorize, process language, and problem solve. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

  1. d) sociocultural

Consider this: This perspective focuses on how we learn, memorize, process language, and problem solve. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: The Discipline of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts


EOM Q1.1.5

Which of the following professionals is NOT a mental health practitioner?

  1. a) clinical psychologist

Consider this: Mental health practitioners work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, and schools. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

  1. b) neuropsychologist

Consider this: Mental health practitioners work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, and schools. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

  1. c) industrial organizational psychologist
  2. d) psychiatric nurse

Consider this: Mental health practitioners work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, and schools. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: The Discipline of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.1.6

__________ usually divide their time between supervising and teaching students, completing administrative tasks, and carrying out psychological research.

  1. a) sports psychologists

Consider this: Many psychologists don’t spend their time treating psychological disorders; instead, they divide their time between teaching and research. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

  1. b) academic psychologists
  2. c) counseling psychologists

Consider this: Many psychologists don’t spend their time treating psychological disorders; instead, they divide their time between teaching and research. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

  1. d) psychiatric social workers

Consider this: Many psychologists don’t spend their time treating psychological disorders; instead, they divide their time between teaching and research. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: The Discipline of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

End of Module Quiz 1.2: Psychology and the Scientific Method

EOM Q1.2.1

The first step in any scientific investigation is __________.

  1. a) forming a hypothesis

Consider this: The first step in a scientific inquiry is to notice something that you would like to explain or investigate. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. b) coming to a conclusion

Consider this: The first step in a scientific inquiry is to notice something that you would like to explain or investigate. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. c) identifying the question
  2. d) developing an argument

Consider this: The first step in a scientific inquiry is to notice something that you would like to explain or investigate. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: Psychology and the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.2.2

“Children who watch violent cartoons will become more aggressive.” According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a __________.

  1. a) conclusion

Consider this: This is an educated guess based on observation that can be tested using the scientific method. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. b) result

Consider this: This is an educated guess based on observation that can be tested using the scientific method. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. c) fact

Consider this: This is an educated guess based on observation that can be tested using the scientific method. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. d) hypothesis

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: Psychology and the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOM Q1.2.3

After you have identified a problem you want to study, the next step in the scientific method is to ____________.

  1. a) conduct background research
  2. b) develop a hypothesis

Consider this: This step involves investigating what other research has been conducted on the topic. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. c) test the hypothesis

Consider this: This step involves investigating what other research has been conducted on the topic. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. d) report your results

Consider this: This step involves investigating what other research has been conducted on the topic. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: Psychology and the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.2.4

A way of processing information in which we examine assumptions, evaluate evidence, look for hidden agendas, and assess conclusions is called __________.

  1. a) critical thinking
  2. b) scientific evidence

Consider this: This allows us to participate in the scientific process and evaluate research studies. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

  1. c) hindsight bias

Consider this: This allows us to participate in the scientific process and evaluate research studies. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

  1. d) false consensus

Consider this: This allows us to participate in the scientific process and evaluate research studies. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Topic: Psychology and the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.2.5

If you are reading a review of a product and discover that the person writing the review is a part owner of the product’s company, you might question the reviewer’s claims based on which of the following?

  1. a) the quality of the evidence

Consider this: It is one of the steps in the process of critical thinking that examines who is behind a message. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

  1. b) the underlying motive of the writer
  2. c) the emotional appeal

Consider this: It is one of the steps in the process of critical thinking that examines who is behind a message. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

  1. d) alternative explanations for the results

Consider this: It is one of the steps in the process of critical thinking that examines who is behind a message. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Topic: Psychology and the Scientific Method

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

End of Module Quiz 1.3: Descriptive Research Methods

EOM Q1.3.1

Joaquin went to McDonald’s to observe people eating in fast-food restaurants. He brought a camera crew and bright lights, and they all wore yellow jump suits. Joaquin said he wanted to do a naturalistic observation but may have had some problems because of __________.

  1. a) room crowding

Consider this: Participants would know they are being observed and behave differently because of the camera crew. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

  1. b) participant observation

Consider this: Participants would know they are being observed and behave differently because of the camera crew. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

  1. c) reactivity
  2. d) eating McDonald’s food

Consider this: Participants would know they are being observed and behave differently because of the camera crew. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Descriptive Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know


EOM Q1.3.2

When you watch dogs play in the park, or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of __________.

  1. a) case study research

Consider this: It is the study of people or animals in their own environment. It enables researchers to obtain a realistic picture of how their subjects behave. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

  1. b) survey research

Consider this: It is the study of people or animals in their own environment. It enables researchers to obtain a realistic picture of how their subjects behave. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

  1. c) psychometric study

Consider this: It is the study of people or animals in their own environment. It enables researchers to obtain a realistic picture of how their subjects behave. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

  1. d) naturalistic observation

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Descriptive Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.3.3

A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics?

  1. a) the development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis
  2. b) the ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls

Consider this: This type of study is useful for providing information that would otherwise not be possible—or ethical—to obtain. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

  1. c) the math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U.S. students

Consider this: This type of study is useful for providing information that would otherwise not be possible—or ethical—to obtain. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

  1. d) physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies

Consider this: This type of study is useful for providing information that would otherwise not be possible—or ethical—to obtain. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

Topic: Descriptive Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOM Q1.3.4

A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called a __________.

  1. a) case study
  2. b) representative sample

Consider this: It is an in-depth study of an individual or individuals with detailed observations. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

  1. c) single-blind study

Consider this: It is an in-depth study of an individual or individuals with detailed observations. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

  1. d) naturalistic observation

Consider this: It is an in-depth study of an individual or individuals with detailed observations. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

Topic: Descriptive Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.3.5

Which of the following questions could be answered best by using the survey method?

  1. a) What is the relationship between number of hours of study per week and grade point average?

Consider this: This type of research is usually conducted through self-report questionnaires or interviews. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

  1. b) Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses?
  2. c) Does wall color affect the frequency of violence in prison populations?

Consider this: This type of research is usually conducted through self-report questionnaires or interviews. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

  1. d) What is the effect of ingesting alcohol on problem-solving ability?

Consider this: This type of research is usually conducted through self-report questionnaires or interviews. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Topic: Descriptive Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.3.6

A group of randomly selected participants for a study that matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called __________.

  1. a) volunteer bias

Consider this: A research study must have a random method of selection to ensure that each person in your sample has the same chance of being chosen for the study and matches the characteristics of your population. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

  1. b) an experimental group

Consider this: A research study must have a random method of selection to ensure that each person in your sample has the same chance of being chosen for the study and matches the characteristics of your population. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

  1. c) a control group

Consider this: A research study must have a random method of selection to ensure that each person in your sample has the same chance of being chosen for the study and matches the characteristics of your population. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

  1. d) a representative sample

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Topic: Descriptive Research Methods

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

End of Module Quiz 1.4: Correlational Studies

EOM Q1.4.1

Paul records data that indicate that the number of hot chocolates sold at the concession stand increases as temperature outside decreases (for example, more hot chocolates are purchased during late fall than late spring). Which of the following statements is the most accurate depiction of this finding?

  1. a) There is no correlation between the two variables.

Consider this: As one variable increases, the other variable decreases. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. b) There is a strong, positive correlation between the two variables.

Consider this: As one variable increases, the other variable decreases. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. c) There is a negative correlation between the two variables.
  2. d) There is a weak, positive correlation between the two variables.

Consider this: As one variable increases, the other variable decreases. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Correlational Studies

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOM Q1.4.2

All of the following variables, except for __________, would likely show a positive correlation.

  1. a) height and weight

Consider this: Two variables that increase or decrease together are positively correlated. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. b) men’s educational level and their income

Consider this: Two variables that increase or decrease together are positively correlated. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. c) school grades and IQ scores

Consider this: Two variables that increase or decrease together are positively correlated. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. d) alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Correlational Studies

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.4.3

A study shows that the correlation between shoe size and intelligence is .05. This means that __________.

  1. a) there is no relationship between shoe size and intelligence score
  2. b) the larger your foot size, the higher your intelligence score

Consider this: The closer the correlation coefficient is to +/-1.00, the stronger the relationship between the two variables while the closer the correlation coefficient is to 0, the weaker the relationship between the two variables. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. c) the smaller your shoe size, the lower your intelligence score

Consider this: The closer the correlation coefficient is to +/-1.00, the stronger the relationship between the two variables while the closer the correlation coefficient is to 0, the weaker the relationship between the two variables. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. d) being highly intelligent causes people to have larger feet

Consider this: The closer the correlation coefficient is to +/-1.00, the stronger the relationship between the two variables while the closer the correlation coefficient is to 0, the weaker the relationship between the two variables. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Correlational Studies

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOM Q1.4.4

Golf skill is negatively correlated with golf scores. Based on this information, which of the following statements is true?

  1. a) The more skilled you are at golf, the lower your golf score.
  2. b) The more skilled you are at golf, the higher your golf score.

Consider this: A negative correlation means that the variables vary in the opposite directions so as one increases the other variable decreases. It allows us to predict relationships, but not prove cause and effect. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

  1. c) The less skilled you are at golf, the lower your golf score.

Consider this: A negative correlation means that the variables vary in the opposite directions so as one increases the other variable decreases. It allows us to predict relationships, but not prove cause and effect. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

  1. d) Being highly skilled at golf causes people to have low golf scores.

Consider this: A negative correlation means that the variables vary in the opposite directions so as one increases the other variable decreases. It allows us to predict relationships, but not prove cause and effect. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Topic: Correlational Studies

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOM Q1.4.5

Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the weakest relationship between two variables?

  1. a) +.05
  2. b) -.10

Consider this: The positive or negative sign in a correlation coefficient only indicates the direction of the relationship rather than the strength of the relationship. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

  1. c) +.50

Consider this: The positive or negative sign in a correlation coefficient only indicates the direction of the relationship rather than the strength of the relationship. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

  1. d) -.70

Consider this: The positive or negative sign in a correlation coefficient only indicates the direction of the relationship rather than the strength of the relationship. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Topic: Correlational Studies

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOM Q1.4.6

The variables of stress and depression are positively correlated. This means __________.

  1. a) stress causes depression

Consider this: Correlational studies allow us to predict relationships between variables, but they do not provide us with information about cause and effect. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

  1. b) we cannot determine causality with a correlation
  2. c) depression causes stress

Consider this: Correlational studies allow us to predict relationships between variables, but they do not provide us with information about cause and effect. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

  1. d) there is a third variable that causes both stress and depression

Consider this: Correlational studies allow us to predict relationships between variables, but they do not provide us with information about cause and effect. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Topic: Correlational Studies

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts



End of Module Quiz 1.5: Experimental Research

EOM Q1.5.1

The administration of Midwest State University wants to know if the arrangement of chairs affects student participation in classrooms. They arrange the chairs in two different ways (theater style and circular) and then measure participation. In this study, __________ is the independent variable, and __________ is the dependent variable.

  1. a) student participation; arrangement of chairs

Consider this: The independent variable is the variable the researchers manipulate, while the dependent variable is the variable affected by the manipulation. The dependent variable is the measured outcome. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. b) arrangement of chairs: theater style or circular

Consider this: The independent variable is the variable the researchers manipulate, while the dependent variable is the variable affected by the manipulation. The dependent variable is the measured outcome. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. c) arrangement of chairs; student participation
  2. d) theater style or circular; arrangement of chairs

Consider this: The independent variable is the variable the researchers manipulate, while the dependent variable is the variable affected by the manipulation. The dependent variable is the measured outcome. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOM Q1.5.2

Experiments are more valuable than other research methods because they __________.

  1. a) are always double-blind

Consider this: The major limitation of case studies, surveys, and correlational studies is eliminated by using an experimental design. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. b) can determine correlations

Consider this: The major limitation of case studies, surveys, and correlational studies is eliminated by using an experimental design. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. c) require informed consent

Consider this: The major limitation of case studies, surveys, and correlational studies is eliminated by using an experimental design. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. d) allow a determination of cause-effect relationships

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.5.3

In a laboratory, children are given either a beverage with sugar or one without sugar. The experimenter measures the level of hyperactivity in the children following consumption of the beverage. The experimental group in this scenario consists of children who __________.

  1. a) drink the beverage with sugar
  2. b) do not drink anything

Consider this: The experimental group is the group that is subject to the independent variable. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. c) are in the waiting room

Consider this: The experimental group is the group that is subject to the independent variable. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. d) drink the beverage without sugar

Consider this: The experimental group is the group that is subject to the independent variable. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOM Q1.5.4

Isabella is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. If Isabella does not account for variables such as age, which could also influence one’s ability to recall these events, age could be considered a(n) __________ variable.

  1. a) confounding
  2. b) random

Consider this: This is a variable other than the independent variable that could have an impact on the dependent variable. Researchers may use random assignment to protect against this problem. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

  1. c) dependent

Consider this: This is a variable other than the independent variable that could have an impact on the dependent variable. Researchers may use random assignment to protect against this problem. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

  1. d) independent

Consider this: This is a variable other than the independent variable that could have an impact on the dependent variable. Researchers may use random assignment to protect against this problem. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know


EOM Q1.5.5

Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment?

  1. a) In random assignment, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each condition.
  2. b) In random assignment, each participant is assigned alphabetically to each condition.

Consider this: Random assignment prevents the groups from having significant differences prior to the study that could impact the dependent variable. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

  1. c) Random assignment can only be determined after an experiment is over.

Consider this: Random assignment prevents the groups from having significant differences prior to the study that could impact the dependent variable. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

  1. d) The best formula for random assignment is birth dates.

Consider this: Random assignment prevents the groups from having significant differences prior to the study that could impact the dependent variable. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Experimental Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts


End of Module Quiz 1.6: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

EOM Q1.6.1

What does the evidence show about the link between autism and vaccines?

  1. a) There have been no scientifically sound studies showing a link between autism and vaccines.
  2. b) The evidence is mixed with some studies showing a link between autism and vaccines and other studies showing that no link exists.

Consider this: Only one study has ever shown a link between autism and vaccines and that study was later found to be fraudulent. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

  1. c) There is significant evidence of a link between autism and vaccines.

Consider this: Only one study has ever shown a link between autism and vaccines and that study was later found to be fraudulent. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

  1. d) Conclusions cannot be made because very few research studies have examined this question.

Consider this: Only one study has ever shown a link between autism and vaccines and that study was later found to be fraudulent. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.6.2

How were the research methods flawed in Wakefield et al’s. 1998 study that linked MMR to the development of autism?

  1. a) nonrandom assignment; too many variables; nonblind researchers

Consider this: Only 12 children were in the group, all the children had neurodevelopmental concerns, and the researchers knew what the study was about. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

  1. b) small sample size; lack of control group; nonblind researchers
  2. c) small sample size; too many variables; nonrandom assignment

Consider this: Only 12 children were in the group, all the children had neurodevelopmental concerns, and the researchers knew what the study was about. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

  1. d) lack of control group; nonrandom assignment; nonblind researchers

Consider this: Only 12 children were in the group, all the children had neurodevelopmental concerns, and the researchers knew what the study was about. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.6.3

Numerous ethical concerns were raised in Wakefield’s study linking MMR to autism. Which concern was related to a conflict of interest?

  1. a) He falsified much of the data in the study.

Consider this: Wakefield engaged in multiple layers of fraud, dishonesty, and ethical violations. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

  1. b) He actively recruited participants into his study out of a pool of parents who already held a belief that the MMR vaccine caused autism.

Consider this: Wakefield engaged in multiple layers of fraud, dishonesty, and ethical violations. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

  1. c) He never received approval from the ethics review board at the hospital

Consider this: Wakefield engaged in multiple layers of fraud, dishonesty, and ethical violations. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

  1. d) He was paid $780,000 by lawyers planning to sue makers of the MMR vaccine months before he conducted his study.

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.6.4

Many African American citizens are distrustful and wary of the medical establishment based on what study conducted by the U.S Public Health Service between 1932 and 1972?

  1. a) Tuskegee syphilis experiment
  2. b) Tuskegee LSD experiment

Consider this: The results of the study were horrific and many men died and their wives and children contracted the disease. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

  1. c) autism experiment

Consider this: The results of the study were horrific and many men died and their wives and children contracted the disease. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

  1. d) marijuana experiment

Consider this: The results of the study were horrific and many men died and their wives and children contracted the disease. LO 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.13: Analyze how the cross-cutting themes of psychology relate to the topic of vaccine research in autism.

Topic: Piecing It Together: Vaccines and Autism

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts


End of Chapter Quiz: Psychology as a Science

EOC Q1.1

Which early movement of psychology investigated how our minds help us adapt to the world around us?

  1. a) behaviorism

Consider this: This approach focused on how organisms use their learning and perceptual abilities to function in their environment. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

  1. b) cognitivism

Consider this: This approach focused on how organisms use their learning and perceptual abilities to function in their environment. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

  1. c) functionalism
  2. d) structuralism

Consider this: This approach focused on how organisms use their learning and perceptual abilities to function in their environment. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.2

What advice might John B. Watson have offered to psychologists of his time?

  1. a) “Life is an effort to overcome inferiority.”

Consider this: John Watson’s approach focused on behavior and the scientific analysis of behavior. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

  1. b) “We cannot know others until we know ourselves.”

Consider this: John Watson’s approach focused on behavior and the scientific analysis of behavior. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

  1. c) “Remember that what we accomplish is due to the composition of our genes.”

Consider this: John Watson’s approach focused on behavior and the scientific analysis of behavior. LO 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

  1. d) “Focus on observable behavior.”

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.1: Describe the major historical perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know


EOC Q1.3

Evolutionary psychology might suggest that certain cognitive strategies and goals are built into the brain because __________.

  1. a) they help humans adapt to their natural environment
  2. b) human brains are similar to the brains of the higher primates

Consider this: This approach focuses on how humans have passed on behaviors and psychological traits that have helped them adapt and survive. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

  1. c) they are the result of learning that has taken place over many centuries

Consider this: This approach focuses on how humans have passed on behaviors and psychological traits that have helped them adapt and survive. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

  1. d) they are the result of memories we have inherited from our ancestors

Consider this: This approach focuses on how humans have passed on behaviors and psychological traits that have helped them adapt and survive. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.4

You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented?

  1. a) humanism
  2. b) behaviorism

Consider this: This perspective developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow emphasizes self-esteem, self-expression, and reaching one’s full potential; also known as self-actualization. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

  1. c) functionalism

Consider this: This perspective developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow emphasizes self-esteem, self-expression, and reaching one’s full potential; also known as self-actualization. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

  1. d) psychodynamic

Consider this: This perspective developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow emphasizes self-esteem, self-expression, and reaching one’s full potential; also known as self-actualization. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.5

If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the __________ perspective.

  1. a) sociocultural
  2. b) cognitive

Consider this: This approach focuses on the social environment rather than individuals. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

  1. c) behavioral

Consider this: This approach focuses on the social environment rather than individuals. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

  1. d) psychodynamic

Consider this: This approach focuses on the social environment rather than individuals. LO 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2: Summarize the seven modern perspectives in psychology.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.6

Which of the following is NOT an example of applied psychology?

  1. a) A personality psychologist assists a prosecutor with the jury selection process for a trial.

Consider this: Applied psychology refers to the use of psychological theory and practice to tackle real-world problems. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

  1. b) An I/O psychologist performs individual assessments to determine whether candidates are suitable for a position.

Consider this: Applied psychology refers to the use of psychological theory and practice to tackle real-world problems. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

  1. c) A health psychologist researches a potential link between depression and brain tumors.
  2. d) A clinical psychologist teaches a patient to use breathing exercises to calm his anxiety.

Consider this: Applied psychology refers to the use of psychological theory and practice to tackle real-world problems. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOC Q1.7

__________ psychologists interview patients, give diagnostic tests, provide psychotherapy, and design and implement behavioral modification programs

  1. a) Industrial organizational

Consider this: Psychologists in this field work to treat people with mental disorders like depression or schizophrenia. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

  1. b) Academic

Consider this: Psychologists in this field work to treat people with mental disorders like depression or schizophrenia. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

  1. c) Developmental

Consider this: Psychologists in this field work to treat people with mental disorders like depression or schizophrenia. LO 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

  1. d) Clinical

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3: Identify various career options available to those with a degree in psychology.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.8

A psychology student had to use the steps of the scientific method for a class project. He first decided to study the effect of age on clothing choices. He then formulated a hypothesis that older people would prefer more conservative clothing than younger people. Where did he go wrong?

  1. a) He did not conduct background research before developing his hypothesis.
  2. b) His hypothesis was not a testable statement.

Consider this: The second step in the scientific method is to determine what other studies have been conducted on the topic. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. c) He did not first test his hypothesis.

Consider this: The second step in the scientific method is to determine what other studies have been conducted on the topic. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. d) He did not analyze his results first.

Consider this: The second step in the scientific method is to determine what other studies have been conducted on the topic. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.9

Ashley is using the scientific method to test whether male children are more violent than female children. What will she most likely do first?

  1. a) Research previous scientific studies about children, gender roles, and violence.
  2. b) Formulate a hypothesis stating that young males are more violent than young females.

Consider this: The next step after development of the question is to see what other researchers have done on the topic. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. c) Select five male children and five female children and monitor their reaction to a violent video game.

Consider this: The next step after development of the question is to see what other researchers have done on the topic. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. d) Perform statistical analysis to determine whether male children are more violent than female children.

Consider this: The next step after development of the question is to see what other researchers have done on the topic. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.10

Testing a hypothesis is the __________ step in a scientific investigation.

  1. a) first

Consider this: Testing a hypothesis comes after identification of the problem and conducting background research. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. b) second

Consider this: Testing a hypothesis comes after identification of the problem and conducting background research. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. c) third

Consider this: Testing a hypothesis comes after identification of the problem and conducting background research. LO 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

  1. d) fourth

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4: List the steps of the scientific method and apply them to the field of psychology.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.11

Which of the following is an example of critical thinking?

  1. a) accurately measuring and recording results

Consider this: Critical thinking is a way of processing information in which we examine assumptions, evaluate evidence, look for hidden agendas, and assess conclusions. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

  1. b) copying a previous experiment

Consider this: Critical thinking is a way of processing information in which we examine assumptions, evaluate evidence, look for hidden agendas, and assess conclusions. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

  1. c) considering alternative explanations for a study’s results
  2. d) researching facts about a topic

Consider this: Critical thinking is a way of processing information in which we examine assumptions, evaluate evidence, look for hidden agendas, and assess conclusions. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.12

A large automobile company says the cars the company makes are the safest in the world. You have driven one of these vehicles for a week and have not had any accidents or problems. Therefore, you believe the company’s claim about safety. This error in critical thinking is related to which of the following steps?

  1. a) Failing to do follow-up research

Consider this: You are using something you have experienced to arrive at your conclusion without considering other evidence. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

  1. b) Evaluate the quality of the evidence for the claim

Consider this: You are using something you have experienced to arrive at your conclusion without considering other evidence. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

  1. c) Consider any alternative explanations for the results

Consider this: You are using something you have experienced to arrive at your conclusion without considering other evidence. LO 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

  1. d) Avoid using emotions or personal experiences when evaluating the claim

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.5: Recall some of the skills needed to be a critical thinker.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOC Q1.13

__________ occurs in situations where a research participant’s behavior is different than normal because the participant is being observed.

  1. a) Reactivity
  2. b) Hindsight bias

Consider this: People change their behavior when they know they are being watched. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

  1. c) Confounding

Consider this: People change their behavior when they know they are being watched. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

  1. d) False consensus effect

Consider this: People change their behavior when they know they are being watched. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.14

Dr. Littman-Smith is conducting research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, she most likely is engaged in __________.

  1. a) naturalistic observation
  2. b) laboratory observation

Consider this: This researcher mostly likely watches participants in their natural environment without controlling their experiences. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

  1. c) correlational research

Consider this: This researcher mostly likely watches participants in their natural environment without controlling their experiences. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

  1. d) experimental research

Consider this: This researcher mostly likely watches participants in their natural environment without controlling their experiences. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOC Q1.15

Sam conducted a naturalistic observation as a project for a psychology class. He observed the interactions of parents and children at a restaurant. He believes many parents spoil their children in today’s society. He observed many parents allowing children to get away with bad behavior such as being rude to the wait staff. When Sam described his work to his teacher, she suggested he find out more about the __________.

  1. a) butterfly effect

Consider this: This phenomenon happens when the observer expects to see a particular behavior and notices only actions that support that theory. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

  1. b) observer effect
  2. c) parent effect

Consider this: This phenomenon happens when the observer expects to see a particular behavior and notices only actions that support that theory. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

  1. d) restaurant effect

Consider this: This phenomenon happens when the observer expects to see a particular behavior and notices only actions that support that theory. LO 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.6: Summarize the potential advantages and disadvantages to using naturalistic observation.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know


EOC Q1.16

Dr. Sardonicus wants to know whether or not the first three years of life are critical for acquiring language. She decides to study a child who was tragically deprived of human language by her parents. This type of research is called a(n) __________.

  1. a) experiment

Consider this: This type of research is an in-depth study of an individual or individuals with a unique set of circumstances that could not be replicated in an experiment due to ethical concerns and guidelines. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

  1. b) survey

Consider this: This type of research is an in-depth study of an individual or individuals with a unique set of circumstances that could not be replicated in an experiment due to ethical concerns and guidelines. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

  1. c) case study
  2. d) correlational study

Consider this: This type of research is an in-depth study of an individual or individuals with a unique set of circumstances that could not be replicated in an experiment due to ethical concerns and guidelines. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts


EOC Q1.17

Which of the following is a limitation of a case study?

  1. a) Case studies provide information that would otherwise be difficult to obtain.

Consider this: Case studies provide detailed information about unique or unusual situations with one or a few individuals. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

  1. b) It is difficult to obtain detailed information using a case study.

Consider this: Case studies provide detailed information about unique or unusual situations with one or a few individuals. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

  1. c) Case studies focus on too many people at one time.

Consider this: Case studies provide detailed information about unique or unusual situations with one or a few individuals. LO 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

  1. d) It is difficult to generalize to other people or situations based on a case study.

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.7: Recall some uses and limitations of case studies.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts


EOC Q1.18

Jana conducts a study in which she calls participants and asks them questions about their opinions. She is conducting a __________.

  1. a) survey
  2. b) case study

Consider this: A researcher uses this method, which consists of a series of questions about the participants’ behavior or opinions, to collect a large quantity of data. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

  1. c) biased study

Consider this: A researcher uses this method, which consists of a series of questions about the participants’ behavior or opinions, to collect a large quantity of data. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

  1. d) laboratory observation

Consider this: A researcher uses this method, which consists of a series of questions about the participants’ behavior or opinions, to collect a large quantity of data. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.19

Dr. Wiseman wants to know about the alcohol consumption patterns among college juniors in the United States. He should __________.

  1. a) draw a representative sample among college juniors
  2. b) require students’ names on each survey to avoid the tendency to lie

Consider this: A cross-section of the entire group a researcher is interested in needs to be drawn to ensure the survey is unbiased and representative of that group. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

  1. c) remember that sample size is the most critical factor in survey research

Consider this: A cross-section of the entire group a researcher is interested in needs to be drawn to ensure the survey is unbiased and representative of that group. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

  1. d) give the survey to every college junior in the country

Consider this: A cross-section of the entire group a researcher is interested in needs to be drawn to ensure the survey is unbiased and representative of that group. LO 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.8: Explain the methods used by researchers when designing a survey.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts


EOC Q1.20

Julie finds that the more she sleeps on the eve of an exam, the higher the score she gets on the exam. There is __________ correlation between the amount Julie sleeps and her exam scores.

  1. a) a negative

Consider this: This type of correlation happens when two variables increase or decrease together. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. b) a positive
  2. c) a perfect

Consider this: This type of correlation happens when two variables increase or decrease together. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. d) no

Consider this: This type of correlation happens when two variables increase or decrease together. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know


EOC Q1.21

Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables?

  1. a) .25

Consider this: The strength of the relationship between the two variables is signified by how close the coefficient is to the absolute value of 1.00 (the + or – of the number doesn’t matter). LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. b) –.25

Consider this: The strength of the relationship between the two variables is signified by how close the coefficient is to the absolute value of 1.00 (the + or – of the number doesn’t matter). LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. c) –.75
  2. d) .50

Consider this: The strength of the relationship between the two variables is signified by how close the coefficient is to the absolute value of 1.00 (the + or – of the number doesn’t matter). LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.22

All of the following variables would likely be negatively correlated EXCEPT __________.

  1. a) average income and the incidence of dental disease

Consider this: When two variables change in the opposite direction, that is a negative correlation. As one increases, the other variable decreases. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. b) the value of a car and the age of a car

Consider this: When two variables change in the opposite direction, that is a negative correlation. As one increases, the other variable decreases. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. c) hours spent watching TV and grade point average

Consider this: When two variables change in the opposite direction, that is a negative correlation. As one increases, the other variable decreases. LO 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

  1. d) calories consumed and weight gain

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.9: Describe how correlations measure relationships between variables.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know


EOC Q1.23

Correlations do not show __________.

  1. a) causal relationships
  2. b) the strength of a relationship between two variables

Consider this: Correlational research shows the strength and direction of relationships between variables. It can predict the relationship between two variables. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

  1. c) the direction of a relationship between two variables

Consider this: Correlational research shows the strength and direction of relationships between variables. It can predict the relationship between two variables. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

  1. d) the degree to which two variables are related

Consider this: Correlational research shows the strength and direction of relationships between variables. It can predict the relationship between two variables. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.24

You read online that people who make more money are also healthier. Your friends says, “I guess money can even buy good health now.” You respond with __________.

  1. a) “Just because those variables are correlated doesn’t mean that one caused the other”
  2. b) “Money and health can’t possibly be related”

Consider this: Correlational research demonstrates a relationship between two variables and can predict the relationship between the two variables but doesn’t indicate cause-and effect-relationships. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

  1. c) “Actually, people who are healthier are able to make more money”

Consider this: Correlational research demonstrates a relationship between two variables and can predict the relationship between the two variables but doesn’t indicate cause-and effect-relationships. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

  1. d) “It looks like that is true!”

Consider this: Correlational research demonstrates a relationship between two variables and can predict the relationship between the two variables but doesn’t indicate cause-and effect-relationships. LO 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.10: Distinguish between correlation and causation.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts


EOC Q1.25

Independent variable is to dependent variable as __________.

  1. a) measure is to manipulate

Consider this: A researcher will change the experience of one group and look for the outcome as a result of that change. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. b) manipulate is to measure
  2. c) experimental is to correlation

Consider this: A researcher will change the experience of one group and look for the outcome as a result of that change. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. d) effect is to confound

Consider this: A researcher will change the experience of one group and look for the outcome as a result of that change. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.26

A researcher wants to know whether eating chocolate makes people nervous. Some participants are given two bars of chocolate to eat, and some are given no chocolate at all, and then all of the participants are tested for nervousness an hour later. In this experiment, the participants who eat the chocolate are in the __________ group, while the people who did not eat any chocolate are in the __________ group.

  1. a) control; experimental

Consider this: Which group is subject to the independent variable, and which group has had no change at all? LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. b) independent variable; dependent variable

Consider this: Which group is subject to the independent variable, and which group has had no change at all? LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. c) experimental; control
  2. d) dependent variable; independent variable

Consider this: Which group is subject to the independent variable, and which group has had no change at all? LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOC Q1.27

A research hypothesis proposes that consuming a low carbohydrate diet results in increased weight loss. One group of participants follows a low-carb diet for 3 weeks, whereas a second group follows a high-carb diet containing the same number of calories for 3 weeks. The average number of pounds lost for each group is then is compared. What is the dependent variable?

  1. a) length of time on the diet

Consider this: The dependent variable is the outcome variable or what is measured in the experiment. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. b) amount of carbs in each diet

Consider this: The dependent variable is the outcome variable or what is measured in the experiment. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. c) number of calories in each diet

Consider this: The dependent variable is the outcome variable or what is measured in the experiment. LO 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

  1. d) number of pounds lost

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.11: Recall the components of experimental research.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know


EOC Q1.28

__________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied.

  1. a) The double-blind study
  2. b) Field research

Consider this: This type of study is the most effective at reducing bias because neither the researchers nor the participants know to which group the participants are assigned. This reduces the placebo effect as well as researcher bias. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

  1. c) The single-blind study

Consider this: This type of study is the most effective at reducing bias because neither the researchers nor the participants know to which group the participants are assigned. This reduces the placebo effect as well as researcher bias. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

  1. d) Correlational research

Consider this: This type of study is the most effective at reducing bias because neither the researchers nor the participants know to which group the participants are assigned. This reduces the placebo effect as well as researcher bias. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.29

Which of the following is NOT an ethical principle for psychological research?

  1. a) Avoid any deception
  2. b) Voluntary withdrawal from research

Consider this: Ethical guidelines must protect participants from physical or psychological harm. Some research may need to hide the true reason for the research to obtain the most effective results. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

  1. c) Minimize harm to participants

Consider this: Ethical guidelines must protect participants from physical or psychological harm. Some research may need to hide the true reason for the research to obtain the most effective results. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

  1. d) Obtain informed consent

Consider this: Ethical guidelines must protect participants from physical or psychological harm. Some research may need to hide the true reason for the research to obtain the most effective results. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.30

Researchers designed an experiment that tested the impact of drinking alcohol on test taking abilities. They gave one group a drink with vodka and the other group a drink with tonic water. Neither group knew which drink they received. One interesting result of the experiment was that several members of the group who received the drink with the tonic water acted as if they were impaired. This result is called the __________.

  1. a) bystander effect

Consider this: Some participants in research experiments act like they are receiving a treatment simply because they believe they are receiving a treatment. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

  1. b) placebo effect
  2. c) drunk effect

Consider this: Some participants in research experiments act like they are receiving a treatment simply because they believe they are receiving a treatment. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

  1. d) variable effect

Consider this: Some participants in research experiments act like they are receiving a treatment simply because they believe they are receiving a treatment. LO 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.12: Explain how researchers try to control for potential bias and consider ethical standards when conducting research.

Topic: Psychology as a Science

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

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