Test Bank Psychology, 2nd Edition Amy J. Marin

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology, 2nd Edition Amy J. Marin

Test Bank Psychology, 2nd Edition Amy J. Marin

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology, 2nd Edition Amy J. Marin

Test Bank Psychology, 2nd Edition Amy J. Marin

Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology

Total Assessment Guide (TAG)

Learning Objective

Question

Type

Remember
the Facts

Understand
the Concepts

Apply What
You Know

Analyze It

1.1: What Is Psychology?

Multiple
Choice

2

3

Essay

1.1a Goals of Psychology

1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Multiple
Choice

4, 5, 14

9, 10, 11, 13

6, 7, 8, 12

Essay

157

1.1b What Psychology
Is Not

1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Multiple
Choice

16, 17, 19, 21, 22

18, 24, 25

23

15, 20

Essay

157

1.1c The Profession of Psychology

1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Multiple
Choice

28, 30

26, 27, 29

Essay

1.2: Approaches to Human Behavior

Multiple
Choice

Essay

1.2a Historical Approaches

1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Multiple
Choice

32, 33, 42, 43, 44, 49, 51, 54

34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 47, 48, 52, 53, 55

31, 35, 41, 46, 50, 58

56, 57

Essay

158

1.2b Universal Themes

1.2b Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.

Multiple
Choice

59

60, 61, 62

Essay

1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Multiple
Choice

63, 67

66, 69, 73, 74

64, 65, 68, 70, 71, 72

Essay

159

1.3: Conducting Research in Psychology

Multiple
Choice

Essay

1.3a The Scientific Method

1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Multiple
Choice

75, 80, 81, 84, 86

85

76, 77, 78, 79, 82, 83

Essay

160

1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Multiple
Choice

90, 94

87, 88, 100, 101

89, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 99

97, 98

Essay

161

1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Multiple
Choice

104, 112, 113

102, 103, 105, 107, 114

106, 108

109, 110, 111

Essay

162, 163

1.4: Experimental Methods

Multiple
Choice

Essay

1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Multiple
Choice

118, 125, 127, 129, 132, 134

116, 130, 131

115, 117, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126, 133

120, 128

Essay

163, 164

1.4b Limitations of the Experimental Method

1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Multiple
Choice

137, 138, 139, 140, 141

135, 136, 142, 143

Essay

165

1.4c Ethical Principles in Psychological

Research

1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Multiple
Choice

149

144, 146, 148, 151

145, 147, 150

Essay

166

1.5 Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

Classic Study: Truth or Lie? Let’s Watch Your Brain!

1.5a Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.

Multiple
Choice

154

152, 153

Essay

1.5b Demonstrate psychology information literacy through an understanding of research methods and design.

Multiple
Choice

155

156

Essay

Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. Which of the following is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?
  2. a) The scientific study of behavior
  3. b) The scientific study of mental processes
  4. c) The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  5. d) The scientific study of human behavior and mental processes

Answer: c

Learning Objective: None

Topic: 1.1 What Is Psychology?

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 66 a = 2 b = 1 c = 66 d = 32 r = .37

  1. In the definition of psychology, the term mental processes refers to __________.
  2. a) internal, unobservable behaviors
  3. b) outward behavior
  4. c) overt actions and reactions
  5. d) only animal behavior

Answer: a

Learning Objective: None

Topic: 1.1 What Is Psychology?

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 85 a = 85 b = 1 c = 13 d = 1 r = .39

  1. Dr. Candell is interested in studying dreams and their role in improving memory. Dr. Candell is interested in studying __________.
  2. a) behavior
  3. b) unconsciousness
  4. c) mental processes
  5. d) pseudoscience

Answer: c

Learning Objective: None

Topic: 1.1 What Is Psychology?

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The goals of psychology are to __________.
  2. a) explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind
  3. b) understand, compare, and analyze human behavior
  4. c) improve psychological well-being in all individuals, from birth until death
  5. d) describe, explain, predict, and control behavior

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 40 a = 17 b = 39 c = 3 d = 40 r = .35

% correct 96 a = 4 b = 0 c = 0 d = 96 r = .54

  1. In addition to describing and explaining mental processes and behavior, psychology also attempts to __________ these phenomena.
  2. a) predict and control
  3. b) analyze and manipulate
  4. c) categorize and organize
  5. d) synthesize and regulate

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 89 a = 7 b = 89 c = 3 d = 2 r = .29

  1. Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores, it was decided that she would do well in the gifted-child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology?
  2. a) Describing behavior
  3. b) Explaining behavior
  4. c) Predicting behavior
  5. d) Controlling behavior

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 76 a = 8 b = 7 c = 76 d = 9 r = .20

% correct 80 a = 6 b = 5 c = 80 d = 9 r = .21

  1. A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of __________.
  2. a) description
  3. b) explanation
  4. c) prediction
  5. d) control

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 92 a = 2 b = 92 c = 4 d = 2 r = .24

  1. A teacher tells the school psychologist that Kate is late to class, does not turn in her homework, squirms around a lot in her seat, and swings her feet constantly. This is an example of which goal of psychology?
  2. a) Describing behavior
  3. b) Explaining behavior
  4. c) Predicting behavior
  5. d) Controlling behavior

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 85 a = 85 b = 14 c = 0 d = 0 r = .34

  1. The question “What is happening?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
  2. a) Description
  3. b) Explanation
  4. c) Prediction
  5. d) Control

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 64 a = 64 b = 28 c = 8 d = 1 r = .21

  1. The question “Why is it happening?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
  2. a) Description
  3. b) Explanation
  4. c) Prediction
  5. d) Control

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 90 a = 6 b = 90 c = 4 d = 0 r = .20

  1. The question “When will it happen again?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
  2. a) Description
  3. b) Explanation
  4. c) Prediction
  5. d) Control

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 92 a = 0 b = 4 c = 92 d = 4 r = .36

  1. Some psychologists are hired to give potential employees tests that determine if they will be successful in the job for which they are applying. This function speaks to the goal of __________ in psychology.
  2. a) Description
  3. b) Explanation
  4. c) Prediction
  5. d) Control

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 83 a = 7 b = 41 c = 83 d = 7 r = .29

  1. The question “How can it be changed?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
  2. a) Description
  3. b) Explanation
  4. c) Prediction
  5. d) Control

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The text states that common sense assumptions are often counterintuitive. This means that __________.
  2. a) common sense assumptions are a reliable way to predict behavior
  3. b) some findings in psychology are contrary to what you may have experienced or expect
  4. c) common sense leads to good, testable questions in psychology
  5. d) some findings in psychology are simply common sense and do not need to be scientifically studied

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Which of the following statements best describes critical thinking?
  2. a) Critical thinking is a way of drawing conclusions from common sense without experimentation.
  3. b) Critical thinking is isolating fact from fiction through experimentation.
  4. c) Critical thinking is being negative about new ideas that do not agree with our own beliefs.
  5. d) Critical thinking is using a reflective set of attitudes and abilities to evaluate information.

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

  1. Pop psychology is best used for __________.
  2. a) sound scientific conclusions
  3. b) entertainment
  4. c) healing from mental illness
  5. d) life skills advice

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

  1. Phenomena such as telekinesis, clairvoyance, telepathy, and psychic healing are all examples of ________.
  2. a) critical thinking
  3. b) parapsychology
  4. c) experimental methods
  5. d) correlations

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

  1. The major difference between pseudoscience and science is that __________.
  2. a) pseudoscience addresses different questions than science
  3. b) pseudoscience is less similar to popular psychology than science is
  4. c) pseudoscience lacks the real evidence or plausibility that characterizes science
  5. d) pseudoscience lacks the general level of public support that characterizes science

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

  1. Despite its very scientific-sounding name, __________, or the practice of reading the shape of a person’s skull, is actually a very good example of a pseudoscience. There is no valid evidence to support any of its conclusions.
  2. a) phrenology
  3. b) graphology
  4. c) teratology
  5. d) homeopathy

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

  1. Which of the following statements would the textbook authors be likely to find the most worrisome?
  2. a) Pseudoscience is not science.
  3. b) The majority of Americans do not believe in the existence of ghosts or witches.
  4. c) Pseudoscience seems to be so much more interesting and engaging than science.
  5. d) Science cannot answer all of the questions I am interested in, such as “Why am I here?” or “What is my life’s purpose?”

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

  1. According to the textbook authors, homeopathy is considered __________.
  2. a) an experimental science
  3. b) a pseudoscience
  4. c) clairvoyance
  5. d) a science with a firm foundation

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

  1. If a person said that a scientific finding was replicated, he or she would be saying that the finding was __________.
  2. a) accurate and truthful
  3. b) capable of being consistently duplicated
  4. c) not the result of correlation
  5. d) parsimonious and straightforward

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

  1. One evening when he couldn’t sleep, Mr. Bradley turned on the television and saw an infomercial for a new sleep aid. As a critical thinker, Mr. Bradley should be most cautious about this new product if __________.
  2. a) the product has been subjected to an experimental study and the scrutiny of a peer-review process
  3. b) its makers support their claims using the testimonials and anecdotal reports of “ordinary people”
  4. c) its makers discuss scientific investigations that have compared it to other effective sleep aids, rather than relying on testimonials of those with insomnia
  5. d) the results of research connect the efficacy of the sleep aid to other widely accepted scientific findings

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

  1. A key characteristic of a pseudoscience is that its theories are ___________.
  2. a) frequently discarded
  3. b) formulated and revised as needed
  4. c) unable to be tested
  5. d) seldom believed by the general public

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

  1. Science is __________, while pseudoscience is __________.
  2. a) untestable; testable
  3. b) always changing; often static
  4. c) well marketed and known; rarely shared
  5. d) anecdotal; experimental

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

  1. Which of the following types of psychologists is best prepared to help a person who hears voices and believes she is Joan of Arc?
  2. a) A forensic psychologist
  3. b) A developmental psychologist
  4. c) A school psychologist
  5. d) A clinical psychologist

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Topic: 1.1c The Profession of Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.2 Demonstrate psychology information literacy.

% correct 87 a = 3 b = 10 c = 1 d = 87 r = .34

  1. Kenneth is a psychologist who studies how video games can be used to help people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. Kenneth is most likely a(n) __________ psychologist.
  2. a) school
  3. b) experimental
  4. c) clinical
  5. d) certified

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Topic: 1.1c The Profession of Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The American Psychological Association has designated __________ divisions of psychological specialization.
  2. a) 21
  3. b) 35
  4. c) 46
  5. d) 54

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Topic: 1.1c The Profession of Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. On a television talk show, an actor describes the symptoms of anxiety that he has been experiencing. He reports that the severity of the symptoms has decreased since he has been working with a therapist in Hollywood. You conclude that the actor’s therapist is most likely a(n) __________.
  2. a) clinical psychologist
  3. b) pediatric psychologist
  4. c) social worker
  5. d) experimental psychologist

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Topic: 1.1c The Profession of Psychology

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Which of the following is the largest applied work setting for psychologists?
  2. a) Health care
  3. b) Universities
  4. c) Middle and high schools
  5. d) Nonprofit companies

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Topic: 1.1c The Profession of Psychology

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 37 a = 37 b = 37 c = 5 d = 21 r = .27

  1. Gilbert believes that women are more empathetic than men. He decides to test his belief by observing men and women in a situation that encourages empathy. This method is known as __________.
  2. a) humanism
  3. b) behaviorism
  4. c) empiricism
  5. d) monism

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany, the first psychological laboratory was established by __________.
  2. a) William James
  3. b) Francis Bacon
  4. c) Wilhelm Wundt
  5. d) Sigmund Freud

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called __________, which involved examining, analyzing, and measuring one’s own mental processes.
  2. a) intervention
  3. b) introspection
  4. c) insight inventory
  5. d) induction

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. Studying the elements of sensations, feelings, and emotions is most directly associated with which school of psychology?
  2. a) Structuralism
  3. b) Functionalism
  4. c) Behaviorism
  5. d) Humanism

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 64 a = 64 b = 14 c = 12 d = 10 r = .52

  1. Joey likes to take his toys apart and figure out how they are built. Joey would most closely identify with which school of psychology?
  2. a) Functionalism
  3. b) Behaviorism
  4. c) Structuralism
  5. d) Humanism

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 54 a = 20 b = 2 c = 54 d = 24 r = .42

  1. What is the primary criticism of introspection?
  2. a) It is objective.
  3. b) It is impersonal.
  4. c) It is easily defined.
  5. d) It is subjective.

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. Why was the approach of Wilhelm Wundt and his followers called structuralism?
  2. a) They wanted to identify the major brain structures and their functions.
  3. b) Their primary goal was to understand the physiology of the mind.
  4. c) They focused their efforts on analyzing the elements of the nervous system.
  5. d) Their primary focus was on breaking down the mind into its most basic elements to understand how it is structured.

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. What was the primary criticism of structuralism?
  2. a) No one really agreed on its definition.
  3. b) It only explained the contents of people’s minds.
  4. c) It only explained people’s behavior.
  5. d) It only explained people’s decision-making processes.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. Structuralism emphasized __________.
  2. a) individual differences
  3. b) the application of biological principles to the mind
  4. c) the influence of subconscious urges on conscious behavior
  5. d) the basic units of experience and their combinations

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 45 a = 12 b = 30 c = 14 d = 45 r = .41

  1. A student of Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchener, was responsible for naming the __________ school of thought.
  2. a) structuralist
  3. b) functionalist
  4. c) behaviorist
  5. d) reductionist

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 70 a = 70 b = 16 c = 12 d = 3 r = .39

  1. Edward is interested in answering the question “How are thoughts constructed?” Edward most closely identifies with which school of thought in psychology?
  2. a) Structuralism
  3. b) Functionalism
  4. c) Behaviorism
  5. d) Humanism

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. You are assigned to write a paper in your “History of Psychology” class on the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology. Which of the following would be the best title for the paper?
  2. a) “Examining Mary Whiton Calkins”
  3. b) “Anna Freud: It’s Good to Have a Famous Father”
  4. c) “Margaret Meade: An Unlikely Journey Through Academia”
  5. d) “The Life and Struggle of Margaret Floy Washburn”

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. __________ was the first African American to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States.
  2. a) Francis Sumner
  3. b) Max Wertheimer
  4. c) Francis Bacon
  5. d) Jeremiah Block

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. Who was an early proponent of functionalism?
  2. a) Ivan Pavlov
  3. b) William James
  4. c) Wilhelm Wundt
  5. d) Max Wertheimer

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 100 a = 0 b = 100 c = 0 d = 0 r = .00

  1. The psychological school that asks, “What are mental processes for?” rather than “How are mental processes constructed?” is __________?
  2. a) structuralism
  3. b) functionalism
  4. c) humanism
  5. d) Gestalt

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 76 a = 13 b = 76 c = 2 d = 10 r = .48

  1. Claudia believes that her inability to form a relationship is due to her unconscious fear of abandonment, because she was adopted. Claudia identifies with __________.
  2. a) structuralism
  3. b) functionalism
  4. c) the psychoanalytic perspective
  5. d) the behavioral perspective

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 56 a = 7 b = 9 c = 56 d = 27 r = .37

  1. According to Sigmund Freud, much of our behavior is controlled by __________.
  2. a) unconscious desires
  3. b) environmental stimuli
  4. c) mental Gestalts
  5. d) mental associations

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 90 a = 90 b = 7 c = 1 d = 2 r = .27

  1. What did Sigmund Freud identify as the key to understanding the psychological problems he observed in his patients?
  2. a) Free will
  3. b) Brain physiology
  4. c) The unconscious mind
  5. d) External consequences

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. Which treatment approach involving “talking sessions” did Sigmund Freud develop for treating his patients?
  2. a) Drug therapy
  3. b) Neuropsychology
  4. c) Clinical psychology
  5. d) Psychoanalysis

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. Steve, a college sophomore, is seeing a psychologist because of his intense fear of people. His counselor feels that Steve’s fear is a product of unresolved childhood conflicts about his parents. This view is most characteristic of which school of psychology?
  2. a) Behaviorism
  3. b) The psychoanalytic perspective
  4. c) Humanism
  5. d) Gestalt

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 80 a = 6 b = 80 c = 13 d = 1 r = .33

  1. Max Wertheimer was one of the founders of __________ psychology.
  2. a) functionalist
  3. b) psychoanalytic
  4. c) Gestalt
  5. d) existential

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 50 a = 23 b = 21 c = 50 d = 6 r = .43

  1. Which type of early psychologists believed that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”?
  2. a) Gestaltists
  3. b) Behaviorists
  4. c) Structuralists
  5. d) Functionalists

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 68 a = 68 b = 4 c = 19 d = 9 r = .39

  1. The total experience is more important than the parts of the experience, according to __________?
  2. a) humanists
  3. b) Gestaltists
  4. c) functionalists
  5. d) behaviorists

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 79 a = 7 b = 79 c = 8 d = 7 r = .43

  1. The school of thought that became known as behaviorism was founded by __________.
  2. a) John Watson
  3. b) Edward Titchener
  4. c) William James
  5. d) Wilhelm Wundt

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 63 a = 63 b = 8 c = 15 d = 13 r = .50

  1. John Watson believed that psychology should only involve the study of __________.
  2. a) behavior
  3. b) the mind
  4. c) the brain
  5. d) consciousness

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 74 a = 74 b = 6 c = 7 d = 12 r = .33

  1. What advice might John Watson have offered to psychologists of his time?
  2. a) “Focus only on observable, measurable behaviors.”
  3. b) “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts, so study the whole.”
  4. c) “We cannot know others until we know ourselves.”
  5. d) “Remember that what we accomplish is due to the composition of our genes.”

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

  1. Which pair of scientists shared the most similar views of behavior?
  2. a) William James and Wilhelm Wundt
  3. b) B. F. Skinner and Max Wertheimer
  4. c) Ivan Pavlov and John Watson
  5. d) Carl Rogers and Edward Titchener

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 46 a = 31 b = 19 c = 46 d = 5 r = .28

  1. Suppose you were a graduate student studying for a Ph.D. in psychology in the 1920s and your advisor was strongly influenced by John Watson. Which of the following might she consider an acceptable choice for your research?
  2. a) A survey of daydreams
  3. b) An analysis of how specific behaviors are acquired
  4. c) A survey of sexual imagery in dreams of men and women
  5. d) An analysis of the thought processes that students report while answering test items

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 1.2 Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains.

% correct 81 a = 7 b = 81 c = 3 d = 7 r = .45

  1. The concept of __________ suggests that there are two different parts of an individual’s existence: a physical self and a mental self.
  2. a) ethnocentrism
  3. b) morphism
  4. c) empiricism
  5. d) dualism

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2b Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.

Topic: 1.2b Universal Themes

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. “I notice that Jamilla is very outgoing and always makes friends very easily. I wonder if she was just born with that sort of personality or if her parents have taught her to be so extraverted.” This statement addresses which universal question in psychology?
  2. a) Dynamic systems versus static enterprise
  3. b) Universality versus cultural specificity
  4. c) The mind-body connection
  5. d) Nature versus nurture

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2b Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.

Topic: 1.2b Universal Themes

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The fact that all human beings need oxygen to survive is an example of a(n) __________.
  2. a) universal law
  3. b) cultural specificity
  4. c) ethnographic truth
  5. d) experimental correlation

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2b Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.

Topic: 1.2b Universal Themes

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. In some countries, children are expected to leave home when they reach the end of adolescence and start their own lives. In other countries, children are expected to stay in their parents’ home until such time as they get married, and sometimes even after that. These differences reflect __________.
  2. a) universal law
  3. b) cultural specificity
  4. c) ethnographic truths
  5. d) experimental correlation

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2b Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.

Topic: 1.2b Universal Themes

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The psychodynamic perspective was based on the earlier work of __________.
  2. a) John Watson
  3. b) Wilhelm Wundt
  4. c) Gestalt psychology
  5. d) Sigmund Freud

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 62 a = 23 b = 2 c = 12 d = 62 r = .42

% correct 55 a = 10 b = 21 c = 14 d = 55 r = .38

  1. Bahai has been resistant to potty training. A psychologist suggests that Bahai’s parents reward him with stickers each time he chooses to sit on the potty. This psychologist is taking a __________ perspective in addressing Bahai’s resistance.
  2. a) psychoanalytic
  3. b) humanistic
  4. c) cognitive
  5. d) behavioral

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Each day in class, Dr. Helms explains to his students that they are wonderful whether they are academic successes or failures. He also points out that each individual consciously chooses to attend class and study, and that these choices dramatically affect whether one is academically successful. Dr. Helms is most likely a __________ psychologist.
  2. a) psychoanalytic
  3. b) humanistic
  4. c) behavioral
  5. d) Gestalt

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 77 a = 3 b = 77 c = 17 d = 4 r = .36

  1. Humanistic psychologists believe that __________.
  2. a) humans are basically destructive and must constantly fight negative impulses
  3. b) psychologists should study only objective events such as stimuli and behaviors
  4. c) people are basically good and will generally strive to achieve their full potential
  5. d) early childhood experiences root in our unconscious and affect our adult personality

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 85 a = 3 b = 7 c = 85 d = 5 r = .37

  1. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are most closely associated with __________ psychology.
  2. a) humanistic
  3. b) behavioral
  4. c) cognitive
  5. d) existential

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Dr. Geier studies how students can improve their learning by using various methods for memorizing information. Dr. Geier takes the __________ perspective in his research.
  2. a) humanistic
  3. b) behaviorist
  4. c) psychodynamic
  5. d) cognitive

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The scientific study of mental processes in the broadest sense—including such topics as intelligence, language, perception, and emotions—is __________ psychology.
  2. a) behavioral
  3. b) humanistic
  4. c) cognitive
  5. d) existential

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Dr. Scheck believes that human behavior can be best explained by unraveling the brain, neurochemicals, hormones, and physiological processes in the body. Dr. Scheck appears to be a proponent of the __________ perspective.
  2. a) behavioral
  3. b) humanistic
  4. c) cognitive
  5. d) neuroscience

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Dr. Stein studies what drugs might be helpful in the treatment of obesity. Dr. Stein appears to be a __________.
  2. a) humanistic psychologist
  3. b) behavioral psychologist
  4. c) neuroscientist
  5. d) biologist

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. “Human beings sleep at night instead of in the daytime to protect themselves from nocturnal predators and from injuring themselves while stumbling around in the darkness. These behaviors ensure our survival and our ability to procreate.” This statement is one that would be made by a person who favors the __________ perspective in psychology.
  2. a) evolutionary
  3. b) humanistic
  4. c) cognitive
  5. d) existential

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. If you are interested in how such things as language, customs, and norms influence behavior, you are interested in the __________ perspective.
  2. a) behavioral
  3. b) sociocultural
  4. c) psychodynamic
  5. d) cognitive

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

% correct 66 a = 20 b = 66 c = 5 d = 10 r = .22

% correct 73 a = 17 b = 73 c = 2 d = 6 r = .28

  1. In order to better understand the world around us, psychologists use techniques based on __________.
  2. a) cultural ethnocentrism
  3. b) objective introspection
  4. c) philosophical logic
  5. d) the scientific method

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. The first step in any scientific investigation is __________.
  2. a) formulating the hypothesis
  3. b) generating ideas
  4. c) drawing a conclusion
  5. d) sharing the findings

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Juan observes that, in contrast to when he watches them, his children behave differently when they are being watched by his mother. He decides that he wants to study other children to see if they behave in the same way. Juan is in the process of __________.
  2. a) drawing a conclusion
  3. b) sharing his findings
  4. c) generating an idea
  5. d) testing his hypothesis

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. “Watching violent cartoons is likely to make children behave in a more aggressive fashion.” According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a __________.
  2. a) conclusion
  3. b) result
  4. c) hypothesis
  5. d) fact

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 81 a = 4 b = 81 c = 0 d = 15 r = .19

  1. Sally proposes the idea that one’s sexual history prior to marriage predicts whether one ends up getting divorced. This best represents which step of the scientific method?
  2. a) Testing the hypothesis
  3. b) Observing events
  4. c) Forming a hypothesis
  5. d) Formulating a theory

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. Which term most accurately describes the scientist’s idea?
  2. a) Hypothesis
  3. b) Dependent variable
  4. c) Extraneous variable
  5. d) Experimental estimate

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 94 a = 94 b = 1 c = 4 d = 2 r = .31

% correct95 a = 95 b = 1 c = 2 d = 1 r = .41

  1. Which of the following is the correct order of steps in the scientific method?
  2. a) Generate ideas, test the hypothesis, draw conclusions, formulate a hypothesis, share the findings
  3. b) Formulate a hypothesis, generate ideas, draw conclusions, test the hypothesis, share the findings
  4. c) Formulate a hypothesis, draw conclusions, test the hypothesis, generate ideas, share the findings
  5. d) Generate ideas, formulate a hypothesis, test the hypothesis, draw conclusions, share the findings

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. An operational definition is __________.
  2. a) a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested
  3. b) an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships
  4. c) a clear and precise explanation of how a concept will be measured in a study or an experiment
  5. d) the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 40 a = 23 b = 23 c = 40 d = 12 r = .36

% correct 56 a = 4 b = 22 c = 56 d = 15 r = .53

  1. Adaris has always been drawn to the saying “Absence makes the heart grow fonder,” and she decides to incorporate this saying into her research project. Adaris is trying to define absence in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate __________.
  2. a) hypothesis
  3. b) operational definition
  4. c) double-blind study
  5. d) theory

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 48 a = 37 b = 48 c = 1 d = 14 r = .42

  1. The administration of Midwest State University wants to know if the arrangement of chairs affects student participation in classrooms. What would be a good operational definition of student participation in an experiment designed to measure this relationship?
  2. a) Class size: under 50 or over 50
  3. b) Number of emails sent to the professor each week
  4. c) Number of pages of the text the students read for class
  5. d) Frequency with which students ask questions

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 47 a = 4 b = 11 c = 38 d = 47 r = .45

  1. A variable is __________.
  2. a) something that is constantly changing
  3. b) detailed description
  4. c) anything that can be measured numerically
  5. d) anything that can be observed

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly?
  2. a) To comply with legal requirements
  3. b) To identify all the extraneous variables
  4. c) To allow other scientists to replicate their studies
  5. d) To explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 96 a = 4 b = 0 c = 96 d = 0 r = .23

  1. The final step in the scientific method is to __________.
  2. a) draw conclusions
  3. b) share the findings
  4. c) test the hypothesis
  5. d) generate questions

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys are all examples of __________ research methods.
  2. a) descriptive
  3. b) experimental
  4. c) quasi-experimental
  5. d) statistical

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research..

  1. Which of the following statements about naturalistic observation is true?
  2. a) It re-creates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid.
  3. b) It involves observing behavior in the context in which it ordinarily occurs.
  4. c) It is basically the same process as objective introspection.
  5. d) It involves observing behavior in the lab without taking formal notes or using technological equipment to measure the experimental findings.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Gerard wants to study whether traffic volume impacts people’s willingness to run a red light. He sits at an intersection in a downtown area and watches when traffic is light and when it is heavy. Gerard is conducting a __________.
  2. a) naturalistic observation
  3. b) case study
  4. c) correlation
  5. d) true experiment

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Which research method involves watching behaviors as they occur without intervening or altering the behaviors in any way?
  2. a) Case study
  3. b) Experiment
  4. c) Correlational study
  5. d) Naturalistic observation

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 96 a = 1 b = 1 c = 2 d = 96 r = .33

  1. When you watch dogs play in the park or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are engaging in a form of __________.
  2. a) case study research
  3. b) naturalistic observation
  4. c) survey research
  5. d) psychometric study

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 96 a = 2 b = 96 c = 1 d = 1 r = .20

  1. Sam conducted a naturalistic observation as a project for a psychology class. He observed the interactions of parents and children at a restaurant. Many of the people he observed seemed to notice him. When Sam described his work to his teacher, she suggested he find out more about the __________ effect.
  2. a) restaurant
  3. b) parent
  4. c) butterfly
  5. d) observer

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Sandi believes that people who eat at McDonald’s are overweight, so she decides to do a naturalistic observation of people who eat at McDonald’s. What should most concern us about Sandi’s observations?
  2. a) The placebo effect
  3. b) The bystander effect
  4. c) Observer bias
  5. d) Participant bias

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 74 a = 15 b = 2 c = 74 d = 7 r = .21

  1. A detailed description of one person or a single phenomenon is called a __________.
  2. a) between-participants study
  3. b) case study
  4. c) single-blind study
  5. d) naturalistic observation

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 94 a = 2 b = 94 c = 2 d = 2 r = .21

% correct 90 a = 4 b = 90 c = 4 d = 2 r = .35

  1. A detailed, well-researched biography of a famous historical person is technically an example of the __________ method of research.
  2. a) psychometric
  3. b) naturalistic observation
  4. c) case study
  5. d) correlational

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 83 a = 5 b = 9 c = 83 d = 2 r = .18

  1. In the 1970s, a 13-year-old girl was found locked in a room, strapped to a potty chair. Because she had grown up in a world without human speech, researchers studied the ability of “Genie” to acquire words, grammar, and pronunciation. This type of research is called __________ because a lot of data were gathered about a single case.
  2. a) a case study
  3. b) a representative sample
  4. c) a single-blind study
  5. d) a naturalistic observation

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of the following topics?
  2. a) The ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls
  3. b) The development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis
  4. c) The math skills of students in Japan compared to those of U.S. students
  5. d) Physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Which of the following questions could be answered best by using the survey method?
  2. a) What is the effect of ingesting alcohol on problem-solving ability?
  3. b) Does wall color affect the frequency of violence in prison populations?
  4. c) Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses?
  5. d) What is the relationship between number of hours of study per week and grade-point average?

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 88 a = 2 b = 1 c = 88 d = 8 r = .46

  1. A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes on gun control. Which research technique is being used?
  2. a) Survey
  3. b) Experiment
  4. c) Case study
  5. d) Naturalistic observation

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 95 a = 95 b = 1 c = 4 d = 1 r = .22

% correct 98 a = 98 b = 0 c = 1 d = 1 r = .21

  1. Political polls taken before major elections are examples of __________ research.
  2. a) correlational
  3. b) experimental
  4. c) case study
  5. d) survey

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 92 a = 4 b = 1 c = 3 d = 92 r = .21

  1. A weakness of __________ is that participants in the research often report inaccurate information, sometimes without even intending to.
  2. a) naturalistic observation
  3. b) surveys
  4. c) field experiments
  5. d) laboratory experiments

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. A(n) __________ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to each other.
  2. a) independent variable
  3. b) dependent variable
  4. c) experimental effect
  5. d) correlation

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 93 a = 0 b = 4 c = 3 d = 93 r = .56

% correct 98 a = 0 b = 2 c = 1 d = 98 r = .34

  1. The word correlation could often be used as a synonym for __________.
  2. a) validity
  3. b) reliability
  4. c) variable
  5. d) relationship

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 96 a = 2 b = 1 c = 2 d = 96 r = .21

  1. The degree of relationship between two or more variables is __________.
  2. a) a correlation
  3. b) validity
  4. c) reliability
  5. d) a hypothesis

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 97 a = 97 b = 0 c = 1 d = 2 r = .09

  1. A correlation of .00 indicates that __________.
  2. a) you made a mistake in your calculation
  3. b) you did not find out anything about the relationship between the two variables
  4. c) the two variables are unrelated
  5. d) everyone who scored low on one variable scored high on the other variable, and vice versa

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 56 a = 2 b = 26 c = 56 d = 17 r = .25

  1. A researcher wishes to study the relationship between high school grades and college grades. Which of the following research methods would be the most appropriate?
  2. a) Case study
  3. b) Correlation
  4. c) Experiment
  5. d) Survey

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 37 a = 22 b = 37 c = 10 d = 31 r = .31

  1. A correlation is a numerical measure of the __________.
  2. a) unintended changes in participants’ behavior due to cues from the experimenter
  3. b) strength of the relationship between two variables
  4. c) behaviors of participants of different ages compared at a given time
  5. d) behaviors of participants followed and periodically assessed over time

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 94 a = 3 b = 94 c = 1 d = 2 r = .29

  1. Eating corn flakes is negatively correlated with the incidence of cancer. Based on this information, which of the following statements is true?
  2. a) The less corn flakes you consume, the lower your incidence of cancer.
  3. b) The more corn flakes you consume, the lower your incidence of cancer.
  4. c) The more corn flakes you consume, the greater your incidence of cancer.
  5. d) Corn flake consumption causes cancer.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 88 a = 6 b = 88 c = 6 d = 1 r = .20

% correct 89 a = 4 b = 0 c = 89 d = 7 r = .19

  1. Of the following variable pairs, which would be likely to show a negative correlation.
  2. a) Height and weight
  3. b) People’s educational level and their income
  4. c) Alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test
  5. d) School grades and IQ scores

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 80 a = 7 b = 4 c = 80 d = 8 r = .26

  1. As children grow older, their vocabulary increases. The best conclusion to draw from this is that age and vocabulary are __________.
  2. a) causally related
  3. b) uncorrelated
  4. c) negatively correlated
  5. d) positively correlated

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 92 a = 1 b = 3 c = 4 d = 92 r = .31

  1. Julie finds that the number of hours she sleeps each night is related to the scores she receives on quizzes the next day. As her sleep approaches eight hours, her quiz scores improve; as her sleep drops to five hours, her quiz scores show a similar decline. Julie realizes that __________.
  2. a) there is a negative correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades
  3. b) there is a positive correlation between the number of hours she sleeps and her quiz grades
  4. c) her low quiz scores are caused by sleep deprivation the night before a quiz
  5. d) she should sleep about ten hours a night to ensure 100 percent quiz grades

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. A positive correlation shows __________.
  2. a) the extent to which two independent variables change together
  3. b) that as one independent variable increases, another decreases
  4. c) that as one variable changes, another changes in the same direction
  5. d) the degree to which one variable causes another

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 62 a = 18 b = 9 c = 62 d = 11 r = .40

  1. A negative correlation means that __________.
  2. a) high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other
  3. b) high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other
  4. c) low values of one variable are associated with low values of the other
  5. d) there is no relationship between the two variables

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 76 a = 76 b = 2 c = 3 d = 16 r = .39

  1. The greatest disadvantage of correlational research is that __________.
  2. a) it has a limited range of values, only –1 to +1
  3. b) it does not support cause-and-effect conclusions
  4. c) its value can be negative
  5. d) its value can be zero

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 85 a = 11 b = 85 c = 4 d = 1 r = .44

  1. A group of students were asked to write essays in support of the legalization of marijuana. They were paid 50 cents. Another group of students received two dollars for the same task. It was subsequently found that those students who received only 50 cents developed a more positive attitude towards the legalization of marijuana. The researcher in this study was using __________.
  2. a) the correlational method
  3. b) the experimental method
  4. c) naturalistic observation
  5. d) survey research

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 44 a = 47 b = 44 c = 1 d = 8 r = .31

  1. If identifying the causes of thoughts, feelings, and behavior is a psychologist’s goal, then the __________ method of research should be used.
  2. a) correlational
  3. b) experimental
  4. c) survey
  5. d) naturalistic observation

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. A researcher is investigating the effects of different amounts of exercise on weight. Some participants are assigned to a group that exercises 50 minutes a day, while others are assigned to a group that does no exercise each day. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment?
  2. a) The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is amount of exercise.
  3. b) The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet.
  4. c) The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed.
  5. d) The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 78 a = 78 b = 4 c = 0 d = 19 r = .66

  1. The variable that is measured to determine the impact of an experimenter’s manipulation is called the __________ variable.
  2. a) correlative
  3. b) dependent
  4. c) control
  5. d) independent

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 70 a = 1 b = 21 c = 8 d = 70 r = .42

% correct 68 a = 1 b = 23 c = 8 d = 68 r = .34

  1. To determine if sugar-rich diets affect hyperactivity in kids, a researcher first obtained parental permission and then prepared two daily menus that children received for a 30-day period. A high-sugar diet was given to the boys, whereas the girls had a menu that seemed identical but was not a high-sugar diet. At the end of the 30 days, the boys and girls were evaluated to determine their levels of hyperactivity. In the study, the amount of sugar in each child’s diet is the __________.
  2. a) placebo
  3. b) independent variable
  4. c) dependent variable
  5. d) control group

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Independent variable is to dependent variable as __________.
  2. a) effect is to confound
  3. b) experimental is to correlation
  4. c) experimental is to control
  5. d) manipulate is to measure

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Based on her review of relevant scientific studies, a researcher believes that there is a relationship between the frequency of a baby’s crying and whether it is nursed at set intervals or on a demand schedule. If this belief was tested by experimentally manipulating feeding schedules, the feeding schedule would be called the __________.
  2. a) independent variable
  3. b) dependent variable
  4. c) extraneous variable
  5. d) control factor

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 76 a = 76 b = 17 c = 1 d = 6 r = .44

  1. Based on her review of relevant scientific studies, a researcher believes that there is a relationship between the frequency of a baby’s crying and whether it is nursed at set intervals or on a demand schedule. If this belief was tested by experimentally manipulating feeding schedules, the frequency of crying would be called the __________.
  2. a) latent factor
  3. b) dependent variable
  4. c) independent variable
  5. d) control factor

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 64 a = 24 b = 64 c = 24 d = 9 r = .43

  1. A researcher studies student achievement based on their studying strategies. Students who study a little each day are compared with students who cram before an exam. In this example, the performance on an exam is the __________.
  2. a) independent variable
  3. b) dependent variable
  4. c) manipulation
  5. d) hypothesis

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. A researcher tests the hypothesis that students who study in the room where they will take a test perform better on the test than students who study in other rooms. She assigns one group of volunteer participants to study in the classroom where the exam is to be given and another group to study in the library. All students take the test in the classroom, and their test performances are compared. In this example, where the students studied is __________.
  2. a) the dependent variable
  3. b) the independent variable
  4. c) the manipulation
  5. d) the control group

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. In a formal experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable is called the __________ group.
  2. a) independent
  3. b) experimental
  4. c) dependent
  5. d) control

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 77 a = 2 b = 77 c = 9 d = 12 r = .34

  1. In an experiment investigating the effectiveness of a new drug to treat depression, one group receives the new drug and the other group receives a placebo. The group receiving the placebo is called the __________ group.
  2. a) experimental
  3. b) control
  4. c) active
  5. d) confederate

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. In a formal experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable, and used for comparison with a group not subjected to any change, is called the __________ group.
  2. a) independent
  3. b) experimental
  4. c) dependent
  5. d) control

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 90 a = 3 b = 4 c = 4 d = 90 r = .42

  1. Why is it essential that the experimental and control groups be treated identically in every respect but one?
  2. a) So that the dependent variable can be accurately measured using the operational definition stated by the experimenter
  3. b) So that the results will apply outside the laboratory setting
  4. c) So that the manipulation of the dependent variable is the only thing that varies for the groups
  5. d) So that if the behavior of the two groups differs, the difference can be attributed to the independent variable

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. In psychological studies, random assignment is used to ensure that __________.
  2. a) there will be an independent and dependent variable
  3. b) each person has an equal chance of being assigned to each participant group
  4. c) the control group does not know the purpose of the study
  5. d) the experimenter won’t know who is in each group

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 84 a = 5 b = 84 c = 3 d = 7 r = .33

  1. What is the impact of using random assignment in an experiment?
  2. a) Important differences between people in the experiment are averaged out and not likely to affect one condition more than the other.
  3. b) It makes it easier to ensure you have equal numbers of participants in each group.
  4. c) It keeps the experimenter from knowing which subjects are part of which group.
  5. d) It helps ensure that the groups are different at the beginning of the experiment.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. In an experiment, a researcher wants to avoid the presence of __________.
  2. a) extraneous variables
  3. b) dependent variables
  4. c) independent variables
  5. d) random assignment

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. In an experiment, any factor other than the independent variable that can influence the movement of the dependent variable is called a(n) __________ variable.
  2. a) extraneous
  3. b) control
  4. c) comparison
  5. d) random

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the 1960s. Ken neglects to account for variables such as age that could also influence one’s ability to recall these events. In this example, age could be considered a(n) __________ variable.
  2. a) random
  3. b) dependent
  4. c) extraneous
  5. d) independent

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. __________, or the ability to repeat a study and get the same results, is vital to scientific credibility.
  2. a) Confounding
  3. b) Randomness
  4. c) Replication
  5. d) Designation

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. A scientist conducting a research study on sleep and learning questions her own objectivity and decides to let a third person, who is not associated with conducting the experiment, score the tests. The scientist is probably trying to eliminate __________ bias.
  2. a) experimenter
  3. b) sample
  4. c) control
  5. d) treatment

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Topic: 1.4b Limitations of the Experimental Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 95 a = 95 b = 2 c = 3 d = 1 r = .25

  1. Max was observing the group of animals. Knowing that the black rat had been separated from its mother soon after birth, Max immediately scored its lack of movement as depression. Max has possibly introduced __________ into his experiment.
  2. a) random bias
  3. b) subject confounds
  4. c) experimenter bias
  5. d) treatment bias

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Topic: 1.4b Limitations of the Experimental Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or their interpretation are called __________.
  2. a) experimental blinds
  3. b) experimenter bias
  4. c) sample bias
  5. d) treatment bias

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Topic: 1.4b Limitations of the Experimental Method

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 97 a = 1 b = 97 c = 1 d = 1 r = .29

  1. Experimenter bias can best be controlled by using __________.
  2. a) a placebo
  3. b) a double-blind study
  4. c) randomization
  5. d) participants who do not know the purpose of the study

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Topic: 1.4b Limitations of the Experimental Method

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research..

% correct 79 a = 2 b = 79 c = 16 d = 4 r = .46

  1. __________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know if participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied.
  2. a) A double-blind study
  3. b) Field research
  4. c) A single-blind study
  5. d) Correlational research

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Topic: 1.4b Limitations of the Experimental Method

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

% correct 96 a = 96 b = 1 c = 1 d = 3 r = .19

% correct 99 a = 99 b = 1 c = 0 d = 0 r = .29

  1. Volunteer __________ is a problem in experimental research because some types of people may be more willing to participate in certain studies than others. This willingness may end up impacting the results of the research.
  2. a) bias
  3. b) blindness
  4. c) generalizability
  5. d) demand

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Topic: 1.4b Limitations of the Experimental Method

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. When psychologists examine the world only through the perspective of their own culture, it is known as __________.
  2. a) experimenter bias
  3. b) demand characteristics
  4. c) ethnocentrism
  5. d) artificiality

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Topic: 1.4b Limitations of the Experimental Method

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Eila is participating in a psychological experiment for one of the graduate students at her university. She is pretty confident that she knows the true intent of the study and is trying to answer the questions accordingly. This is because the graduate student who designed the study unintentionally left hints as to what the true purpose of the experiment was, and Eila has figured out that purpose. Eila has been influenced by __________, a common pitfall in experiments.
  2. a) intentionality
  3. b) the Rosenthal effect
  4. c) observer bias
  5. d) demand characteristics

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Topic: 1.4b Limitations of the Experimental Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Upon hearing of his research associate’s idea for a new study, Dr. McLaren tells her, “I think that is a good idea, but I wonder if the results we collect would be true of a larger group of people outside of the research participants.” Dr. McLaren is clearly concerned about an issue of __________.
  2. a) demand characteristics
  3. b) parsimony
  4. c) ethical standards
  5. d) generalizability

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Topic: 1.4b Limitations of the Experimental Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. What is the purpose of an institutional review board?
  2. a) To safeguard the rights and welfare of research participants
  3. b) To hinder the research process by placing unnecessary hurdles in the way of researchers
  4. c) To help protect the university from lawsuits by unhappy research participants
  5. d) To encourage the use of deception in medical and psychological research with humans

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Topic: 1.4c Ethical Principles in Psychological Research

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 3.1 Apply ethical standards to evaluate psychological science and practice.

  1. If a researcher leaves a study and says to a colleague, “You can’t believe the answers I got on my questionnaire from your student Jim Baxter. Let me tell you about him,” he has violated what ethical principle?
  2. a) Data must remain confidential.
  3. b) Volunteers must willingly give informed consent prior to participating.
  4. c) Participants cannot be subjected to any physically or emotionally painful stimuli.
  5. d) Deception must be justified.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Topic: 1.4c Ethical Principles in Psychological Research

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 3.1 Apply ethical standards to evaluate psychological science and practice.

  1. Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association?
  2. a) Participants may not withdraw once they start.
  3. b) Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision.
  4. c) Participants must be paid for their time and effort in the research.
  5. d) Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Topic: 1.4c Ethical Principles in Psychological Research

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 3.1 Apply ethical standards to evaluate psychological science and practice.

% correct 67 a = 3 b = 67 c = 14 d = 15 r = .26

  1. Dr. Williams believes that by administering brief electric shocks to his students, he can improve their attention during his lectures. He blames daydreaming and inattention by his students for their poor performance in his class. His colleagues are not convinced that the potential benefits to the students will outweigh the physical pain they may endure. Ultimately, what will Dr. Williams have to obtain from his students before proceeding?
  2. a) Medical records
  3. b) A debriefing of the results of the study
  4. c) Information about the students’ parents
  5. d) Informed consent

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Topic: 1.4c Ethical Principles in Psychological Research

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 3.1 Apply ethical standards to evaluate psychological science and practice.

  1. Experimenters can justify the use of deception because __________.
  2. a) there is informed consent
  3. b) research is more important than people
  4. c) it may be necessary for the experiment to work
  5. d) it is not that harmful

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Topic: 1.4c Ethical Principles in Psychological Research

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 3.1 Apply ethical standards to evaluate psychological science and practice.

% correct 67 a = 24 b = 0 c = 67 d = 8 r = .21

  1. To obtain objective information, researchers must sometimes deceive their participants. Ethically, research involving deception must always involve __________.
  2. a) paying participants for their time and effort
  3. b) maintaining participant anonymity
  4. c) the use of a double-blind control
  5. d) a debriefing after the participants’ input is concluded

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Topic: 1.4c Ethical Principles in Psychological Research

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 3.1 Apply ethical standards to evaluate psychological science and practice.

  1. Professor Wagner is explaining to his participants the purpose behind the experiment they just participated in, along with a general description of the results. He is engaging in what aspect of a research study?
  2. a) Debriefing
  3. b) Informed consent
  4. c) Ethical considerations
  5. d) Correlation

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Topic: 1.4c Ethical Principles in Psychological Research

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 3.1 Apply ethical standards to evaluate psychological science and practice.

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the use of animals in research is correct?
  2. a) There are no ethical guidelines when it comes to animals.
  3. b) There are rules that prevent the killing of animals.
  4. c) Animals must be treated in a humane way that minimizes their discomfort.
  5. d) New ethical guidelines prevent the use of primates in psychological research.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Topic: 1.4c Ethical Principles in Psychological Research

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 3.1 Apply ethical standards to evaluate psychological science and practice.

  1. In the study described in your text as changing psychology, what happened when people were lying during the experiment?
  2. a) They sweat more.
  3. b) The fMRI showed activity in two brain regions.
  4. c) The MRI showed damage to an area of the brain.
  5. d) Subjects stuttered and had difficulty answering subsequent questions.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.5a Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.

Topic: 1.5 Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. When compared with the polygraph, an fMRI may be __________.
  2. a) less accurate
  3. b) equally accurate or inaccurate
  4. c) more accurate
  5. d) used in the courts

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.5a Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.

Topic: 1.5 Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. In the study presented as changing psychology, what was the goal of the research?
  2. a) To determine if people would lie when instructed to do so
  3. b) To determine if brain activity is different when you tell the truth or lie
  4. c) To determine if a CT scan can show brain function
  5. d) To get courts to see how inaccurate polygraphs are in predicting lying

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.5a Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.

Topic: 1.5 Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. An advancement in brain-imaging techniques allows scientists to view a “video” of your brain in action. It is called a(n) __________.
  2. a) MRI
  3. b) CT
  4. c) fMRI
  5. d) EEG

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.5b Demonstrate psychology information literacy through an understanding of research methods and design.

Topic: 1.5 Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. In the study looking at brain activity when telling the truth or lying, the independent variable in the experiment was __________.
  2. a) brain activity
  3. b) validation of the fMRI
  4. c) telling the truth or lying
  5. d) the amount of sweat the subject felt in the scanner

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.5b Demonstrate psychology information literacy through an understanding of research methods and design.

Topic: 1.5 Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

ESSAY

  1. Distinguish between psychology, pop psychology, and parapsychology, and give examples where appropriate. What do you think are some concerns or dangers associated with pseudoscience masquerading as a science?

Answer: Psychology is a science that examines behavior and mental processes through experimentation. Psychology seeks to describe, predict, explain, and control behavior and mental processes. Pop psychology and parapsychology are not dedicated to scientific inquiry. They are used for entertainment only, as they are not based in fact or truth. Pop psychology is found in self-help books and advice from psychologists on TV and radio. Parapsychology refers to phenomena that are outside scientific boundaries, such as hauntings, telepathy, clairvoyance, psychic “healing,” telekinesis, etc. The primary danger of the pseudosciences is that people believe they are the truth or real.

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals; 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Topic: 1.1a Goals of Psychology; 1.1b What Psychology Is Not

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Compare and contrast four of the early perspectives in psychology as presented in your textbook. What do you think were the greatest contributions and drawbacks of each perspective?

Answer: Structuralism was an early perspective that sought to break down the mind into a basic structure. It contributed to a focus on breaking things down into simple elements, but it largely depended on introspection, which has not been found to be reliable. Structuralism is also limited in its focus and does not really help us understand why a behavior may occur. Further, structuralism focuses on internal behavior, which can’t be observed. Functionalism looked at the proposed function of thought and behavior in contributing to the survival of the person/animal. Functionalists thought it was important to study the applications of psychology to educational, home, and work settings, and gave birth to a number of the current areas of psychology. Criticisms may include that functionalism focuses too much on the biology of the organism and not enough on its psychology. The psychoanalytic perspective looked at behavior as being driven by problems and conflicts in the unconscious mind, rooted in unresolved issues from childhood. The psychoanalytic perspective is still influential today. However, it has been criticized because it is hard to verify unconscious processes, as they cannot be observed. Gestalt psychology believed that humans experience the world as a collection of meaningful or unified patterns. It is still influential in the study of personality and psychotherapy. Gestalt psychology may be criticized because it focuses on describing behavior and doesn’t contribute to predicting, controlling, or changing behavior. Behaviorism focused on studying observable behaviors, and it dominated psychology for decades. It continues to contribute to new ideas in education, parenting, and therapy. Behaviorism may be criticized because it does not account for internal influences such as moods, thoughts, and feelings. Students must only discuss four of the above.

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Topic: 1.2a Historical Approaches

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Compare and contrast four of the modern perspectives in psychology as presented in your textbook. What do you think were the greatest contributions and drawbacks of each?

Answer: Neuroscience looks at the contribution of the brain and bodily processes in guiding behavior. Its strength is that it acknowledges that thinking and behavior do not occur alone; they are in part dependent on biological processes. The weakness of neuroscience is that it can be limited in how it incorporates social and emotional contributors to behavior. The psychodynamic perspective focuses on how unconscious motives drive behavior. As with other perspectives, its explanation of behavior may ignore other, critical contributors to behavior. The behavioral perspective looks at how interacting with the environment guides behavior, and focuses on observable behaviors. It may be limited because it does not acknowledge that internal factors such as free will and moods can alter behavior. Humanistic psychologists assume that people are basically good and can change their behavior for the better. This view may be criticized for focusing too much on positive behavior and doing nothing to explain negative or bad behaviors. The cognitive perspective emphasizes mental states and thinking processes and may be criticized for how it fails to acknowledge the role of emotion or mood in cognitive processes. The evolutionary perspective looks at how behavior contributes to survival and could be criticized for how difficult it is to test its hypotheses through experimentation. Finally, the sociocultural perspective examines how social and cultural factors influence behavior; as is true with other perspectives, sociocultural ones limit the value of individual differences. Students must only discuss four of the above.

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Topic: 1.2c Seven Modern Perspectives

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. List the steps of the scientific method in their correct order and describe what occurs in each step.

Answer: (1) Generate Ideas, when you identify a problem. (2) Formulate a Hypothesis, when you create a testable prediction. (3) Test the Hypothesis, when you design and conduct a study. (4) Draw Conclusions, when you analyze the findings. (5) Share the Findings, when you publish or present your data.

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Topic: 1.3a The Scientific Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 1.1 Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology.

  1. Let’s say you are given an extra-credit assignment by your psychology professor. You are required to put together a descriptive research study, carry it out, and report on the findings. What question do you think you would ask, what sort of design would you use, and what do you think would be the potential drawbacks to your selection?

Answer: Proposed studies will vary, but they may include naturalistic observations, case studies, or surveys. Make sure students identify the question they are asking and the hypothesis they will use to guide their research. They should also make clear the design they will use and why they chose that design to answer their specific question. Students should point out the loss of control of extraneous variables in a naturalistic observation, the difficulties in generalizing data from case studies, and the biases that can be inherent in surveys.

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Topic: 1.3b Descriptive Research Methods

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. What are the primary benefits of conducting correlational research? Why might this approach give you flexibility that is not found in an experimental design? What does it mean to have a positive or a negative correlation?

Answer: Correlational methods allow researchers to investigate if there is a relationship between two variables. The data will tell the research whether the two variables are related, the strength of the relationship, and to what degree one variable can predict the second variable. This design gives more flexibility than a true experiment and will help identify if further research is a good idea. A positive correlation indicates that both variables move in the same direction in their relationship, while a negative correlation indicates that they move in opposition to each other.

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Compare and contrast the conclusions that can be drawn from correlational and experimental research designs.

Answer: While both designs ask about the relationship between two variables, the correlational study asks about the direction and degree of relatedness between the two variables. The experimental design asks if one causes the other. Therefore, you can conclude if two variables are related in a correlational study, whereas in an experimental study, you can conclude if one variable caused the other.

Learning Objective: 1.3c Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation; 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.3c Predictive or Correlational Research Methods; 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Design a fictitious experiment, making sure to include the independent and dependent variables (and their operational definitions), the ways you would assign people to your experimental and control groups, the potential extraneous variables you would control for, and the ways you would ensure that the research was not influenced by different types of bias.

Answer: Check each proposed experiment to make sure the student identifies a hypothesis, independent and dependent variables (and their operational definitions), random assignment, and any potential controls they will build in to their experiment. They should address potential experimenter bias, demand characteristics, and confounds.

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Topic: 1.4a Anatomy of an Experiment

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. As your textbook authors note, experimental research carries with it the risk of situational limitations and constraints. Differentiate artificiality, demand characteristics, and generalizability as they relate to experimental research. Identify how they can be controlled in an experiment and generate an example of each constraint and the problem it poses.

Answer: Artificiality occurs when an experiment must be conducted in an environment and under conditions that are not “ordinary” for the behavior being studied. Artificiality can be improved by creating as natural an environment for the study as possible. For instance, if you are researching a question about the willingness of people to help others, bringing them into a laboratory situation where an artificial interaction occurs between the participant and someone needing help may bias the data. Most people, knowing that they are being observed, will change their behavior; therefore, it would lead to false behavior. Exposing participants to a similar situation in a natural environment may yield more accurate results. Demand characteristics are the cues that let a participant know the true purpose of an experiment. Due to their knowledge, the participants may alter their behavior. Demand characteristics can be reduced by using placebo’s and deception. For instance, if participants are told that the study they are participating in is to measure morality, it will most likely change their behavior. So, the researcher can use deception to “hide” the true purpose of the experiment in hopes of getting more accurate results. Generalizability refers to the degree to which a study’s findings are true of a larger group of people beyond the participants themselves. It can be increased by increasing the size of the sample used in the study. A consideration is that the majority of studies done in psychology are done with college students, and yet they are generalized to the population of the United States. College students may or may not be a good predictor of behavior in the general public.

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Topic: 1.4b Limitations of the Experimental Method

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 2.4 Interpret, design, and conduct basic psychological research.

  1. Identify and discuss several ethical principles of conducting research with both human and nonhuman participants. Justify what you believe are the most significant ethical issues in research today?

Answer: Informed consent is the requirement that participants receive enough information prior to consenting to the research to make an informed decision on whether or not they want to participate. They must be allowed to withdraw at any time during the research without penalty. Participants cannot be required to participate or be coerced into participating. Deception in research should only be used when the data of a study might be compromised by the participant knowing the true purpose of the research. Participants should be debriefed at the end of a study and be given the option to obtain the final data if they desire the study results. All data should be kept confidential. Students may defend any of the principles mentioned as the most important.

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Topic: 1.4c Ethical Principles in Psychological Research

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

APA Learning Objective: 3.1 Apply ethical standards to evaluate psychological science and practice.

REVEL QUIZ QUESTIONS

The following questions appear at the end of each module and at the end of the chapter in Revel for Psychology 2e.

End of Module Quiz 1.1: What Is Psychology?

EOM Q1.1.1

Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of psychology?

  1. Describe
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists want to know what people do and why they do it to foresee future decisions and actions, and to empower people to change their own behaviors in healthy and productive ways. LO 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.
  2. Predict
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists want to know what people do and why they do it to foresee future decisions and actions, and to empower people to change their own behaviors in healthy and productive ways. LO 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.
  3. Evaluate
  4. Control
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists want to know what people do and why they do it to foresee future decisions and actions, and to empower people to change their own behaviors in healthy and productive ways. LO 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Module: 1.1 What Is Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.1.2

Which is NOT a characteristic of pseudosciences?

  1. Untestable claims
    CONSIDER THIS: Pseudosciences claim to be scientific but lack any real evidence or plausibility; they are often used for profit. LO 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.
  2. Misleading language
    CONSIDER THIS: Pseudosciences claim to be scientific but lack any real evidence or plausibility; they are often used for profit. LO 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.
  3. Poorly marketed
  4. Failure to replicate
    CONSIDER THIS: Pseudosciences claim to be scientific but lack any real evidence or plausibility; they are often used for profit. LO 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Module: 1.1 What Is Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.1.3

Which mental health professional gets trained in a medical school?

  1. Psychologist
    CONSIDER THIS: Not every mental health profession requires the knowledge obtained in a medical school. LO 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.
  2. Psychiatrist
  3. Counselor
    CONSIDER THIS: Not every mental health profession requires the knowledge obtained in a medical school. LO 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.
  4. Social worker
  5. CONSIDER THIS: Not every mental health profession requires the knowledge obtained in a medical school. LO 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Module: 1.1 What Is Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.1.4

Additional training and expertise in a subfield of psychology is called a _____.

  1. specialty area
  2. secondary major
    CONSIDER THIS: Examples of this kind of training include experimental, school, or clinical psychology. LO 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.
  3. license
    CONSIDER THIS: Examples of this kind of training include experimental, school, or clinical psychology. LO 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.
  4. certificate
    CONSIDER THIS: Examples of this kind of training include experimental, school, or clinical psychology. LO 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Module: 1.1 What Is Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.1.5

Which of the following would NOT be considered an applied setting in which psychologists might work?

  1. School
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists in applied settings use psychological principles to overcome problems in specific fields such as education, health, or business. LO 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.
  2. Government agency
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists in applied settings use psychological principles to overcome problems in specific fields such as education, health, or business. LO 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.
  3. Business
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists in applied settings use psychological principles to overcome problems in specific fields such as education, health, or business. LO 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.
  4. University laboratory

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Module: 1.1 What Is Psychology?

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

End of Module Quiz 1.2: Approaches to Human Behavior

EOM Q1.2.1

The idea that human behavior should be studied through systematic observation and experimentation is known as _______________.

  1. Dualism
    CONSIDER THIS: This method, first suggested by Francis Bacon, provided a new set of tools that philosophers and other thinkers could use to move beyond speculation and into the world of science. LO 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.
  2. Empiricism
  3. Introspection
    CONSIDER THIS: This method, first suggested by Francis Bacon, provided a new set of tools that philosophers and other thinkers could use to move beyond speculation and into the world of science. LO 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.
  4. Observation
    CONSIDER THIS: This method, first suggested by Francis Bacon, provided a new set of tools that philosophers and other thinkers could use to move beyond speculation and into the world of science. LO 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Module: 1.2 Approaches to Human Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.2.2

Which early school of thought emphasized the use of "talking sessions" to explore a person's unconscious?

  1. Structuralism
    CONSIDER THIS: Sigmund Freud used these sessions to explore the early childhood experiences and social relationships at the core of adult personality and behavior. LO 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.
  2. Functionalism
    CONSIDER THIS: Sigmund Freud used these sessions to explore the early childhood experiences and social relationships at the core of adult personality and behavior. LO 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.
  3. Psychoanalysis
  4. Gestalt
    CONSIDER THIS: Sigmund Freud used these sessions to explore the early childhood experiences and social relationships at the core of adult personality and behavior. LO 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Module: 1.2 Approaches to Human Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.2.3

Which fundamental question about human behavior was heavily influenced by religious beliefs?

  1. Mind–body connection
  2. Nature vs. nurture
    CONSIDER THIS: Early on, dualism—the idea that the physical world and mental world were distinct—dominated psychological thought. LO 1.2b Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.
  3. Universality vs. cultural specificity
    CONSIDER THIS: Early on, dualism—the idea that the physical world and mental world were distinct—dominated psychological thought. LO 1.2b Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.
  4. Biology vs. environment
    CONSIDER THIS: Early on, dualism—the idea that the physical world and mental world were distinct—dominated psychological thought. LO 1.2b Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2b Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.

Module: 1.2 Approaches to Human Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.2.4

Which modern psychological perspective would explain aggression by examining its adaptive function for human survival?

  1. Sociocultural
    CONSIDER THIS: This perspective emphasizes basic principles of adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection to explain human behaviors. LO 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.
  2. Behavioral
    CONSIDER THIS: This perspective emphasizes basic principles of adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection to explain human behaviors. LO 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.
  3. Evolutionary
  4. Cognitive
    CONSIDER THIS: This perspective emphasizes basic principles of adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection to explain human behaviors. LO 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Module: 1.2 Approaches to Human Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.2.5

Which of the following statements does NOT reflect the interplay between the psychological perspectives?

  1. The different views of human behavior are complementary.
    CONSIDER THIS: Many psychologists adopt an eclectic approach, incorporating various perspectives in trying to explain human behavior. LO 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.
  2. There is a great deal of overlap between the perspectives.
    CONSIDER THIS: Many psychologists adopt an eclectic approach, incorporating various perspectives in trying to explain human behavior. LO 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.
  3. When behavior is viewed through multiple lenses, a more complete picture emerges.
    CONSIDER THIS: Many psychologists adopt an eclectic approach, incorporating various perspectives in trying to explain human behavior. LO 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.
  4. Psychologists may adopt more than one approach, but one always emerges as the clear front-runner.

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Module: 1.2 Approaches to Human Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

End of Module Quiz 1.3: Conducting Research in Psychology

EOM Q1.3.1

The scientific method refers to _____.

  1. laboratory experiments investigating human behavior
    CONSIDER THIS: Five steps comprise the scientific method. LO 1.3a Describe the scientific method.
  2. a basic set of steps used in carrying out research across a wide range of disciplines
  3. a style of scientific communication used in journal articles and at academic conferences
    CONSIDER THIS: Five steps comprise the scientific method. LO 1.3a Describe the scientific method.
  4. a style of training scientists receive in their specialized fields
    CONSIDER THIS: Five steps comprise the scientific method. LO 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Module: 1.3 Conducting Research in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.3.2

A testable prediction regarding the outcomes of a research study is also known as a(n) _____.

  1. Hypothesis
  2. Theory
    CONSIDER THIS: This is a psychologist's best educated guess about what will happen after the study is completed. LO 1.3a Describe the scientific method.
  3. operational definition
    CONSIDER THIS: This is a psychologist's best educated guess about what will happen after the study is completed. LO 1.3a Describe the scientific method.
  4. Correlation
    CONSIDER THIS: This is a psychologist's best educated guess about what will happen after the study is completed. LO 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Module: 1.3 Conducting Research in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.3.3

A scientist is conducting a research study on popularity among college students. She decides to count each participant's number of Facebook friends as an indicator of popularity. The number of friends represents _____.

  1. a correlation
    CONSIDER THIS: The researcher needs a detailed description of how each variable will be measured in a particular research project. LO 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.
  2. an operational definition
  3. a general theory
    CONSIDER THIS: The researcher needs a detailed description of how each variable will be measured in a particular research project. LO 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.
  4. the hypothesis
    CONSIDER THIS: The researcher needs a detailed description of how each variable will be measured in a particular research project. LO 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Module: 1.3 Conducting Research in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

EOM Q1.3.4

The tendency to respond to survey questions in a way that appears socially acceptable and wanted is called the_____.

  1. positive correlation
    CONSIDER THIS: This tendency is a disadvantage of survey techniques, especially face-to-face interviews, when people respond less than completely honestly in order to look good. LO 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.
  2. observer bias
    CONSIDER THIS: This tendency is a disadvantage of survey techniques, especially face-to-face interviews, when people respond less than completely honestly in order to look good. LO 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.
  3. deceptive response tendency
    CONSIDER THIS: This tendency is a disadvantage of survey techniques, especially face-to-face interviews, when people respond less than completely honestly in order to look good. LO 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.
  4. desirability bias

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Module: 1.3 Conducting Research in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.3.5

Correlation coefficients range between _____.

  1. 0 to +1.00
    CONSIDER THIS: When two variables change in the same direction, they have a positive correlation; when one variable increases as the other variable decreases, they have a negative correlation. LO 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.
  2. −1.00 to +1.00
  3. −1.00 to 0
    CONSIDER THIS: When two variables change in the same direction, they have a positive correlation; when one variable increases as the other variable decreases, they have a negative correlation. LO 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.
  4. 0 to 100
    CONSIDER THIS: When two variables change in the same direction, they have a positive correlation; when one variable increases as the other variable decreases, they have a negative correlation. LO 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Module: 1.3 Conducting Research in Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

End of Module Quiz 1.4: Experimental Methods

EOM Q1.4.1

In an experiment, the variable that is measured is called the _____.

  1. independent variable
    CONSIDER THIS: This variable is contingent on the variable that is being manipulated. LO 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.
  2. dependent variable
  3. extraneous variable
    CONSIDER THIS: This variable is contingent on the variable that is being manipulated. LO 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.
  4. Hypothesis
    CONSIDER THIS: This variable is contingent on the variable that is being manipulated. LO 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Module: 1.4 Experimental Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.4.2

Which property of a good experiment helps protect against fraudulent research?

  1. Replication
  2. Random assignment
    CONSIDER THIS: Even when an experiment is of good quality, it is important that it can be repeated over and over again with similar results. LO 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.
  3. Control groups
    CONSIDER THIS: Even when an experiment is of good quality, it is important that it can be repeated over and over again with similar results. LO 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.
  4. Extraneous variables
    CONSIDER THIS: Even when an experiment is of good quality, it is important that it can be repeated over and over again with similar results. LO 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Module: 1.4 Experimental Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.4.3

Which of the following is NOT one of the common limitations of the experimental method?

  1. Generalizability
    CONSIDER THIS: One of the biggest advantages of the experimental method, the ability to control and manipulate variables, is sometimes a disadvantage as well. LO 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.
  2. Ethnocentrism
    CONSIDER THIS: One of the biggest advantages of the experimental method, the ability to control and manipulate variables, is sometimes a disadvantage as well. LO 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.
  3. Naturalistic error
  4. Volunteer bias
    CONSIDER THIS: One of the biggest advantages of the experimental method, the ability to control and manipulate variables, is sometimes a disadvantage as well. LO 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Module: 1.4 Experimental Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOM Q1.4.4

The best description of volunteer bias is _____.

  1. some volunteers are too young to participate in research
    CONSIDER THIS: This bias can occur in terms of participants' underlying motivation to participate in a study, which may in turn invalidate the results. LO 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.
  2. some types of people are more willing to participate in a research study than others
  3. volunteers bring their attitudes and stereotypes to the experiment
    CONSIDER THIS: This bias can occur in terms of participants' underlying motivation to participate in a study, which may in turn invalidate the results. LO 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.
  4. letting people choose whether to be in the experimental or control group leads to problems
    CONSIDER THIS: This bias can occur in terms of participants' underlying motivation to participate in a study, which may in turn invalidate the results. LO 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Module: 1.4 Experimental Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.4.5

Which of the following is NOT one of the guidelines for the ethical treatment of animals?

  1. Anyone working with animals must receive specialized training.
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists who conduct research with animals must follow all federal, state, and local laws regarding their acquisition, care, housing, and use. LO 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.
  2. Research on animals should benefit the health and welfare of humans or other animals.
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists who conduct research with animals must follow all federal, state, and local laws regarding their acquisition, care, housing, and use. LO 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.
  3. Surgeries should not be performed on larger animals.
  4. Research animals should be housed in a safe and humane environment.
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists who conduct research with animals must follow all federal, state, and local laws regarding their acquisition, care, housing, and use. LO 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Module: 1.4 Experimental Methods

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

End of Module Quiz 1.5: Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

EOM Q1.5.1

How do a CT scan and an MRI differ when imaging the internal body?

  1. An MRI utilizes X-rays for imaging; the CT scan does not.
    CONSIDER THIS: An MRI can show many internal features more clearly (often in 3-D) than an X-ray or CT scan. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.
  2. An MRI is a more economical test than the CT scan.
    CONSIDER THIS: An MRI can show many internal features more clearly (often in 3-D) than an X-ray or CT scan. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.
  3. An MRI can show soft tissues in the body more clearly than a CT scan.
  4. An MRI of the brain can be done; a CT scan of the brain cannot.
    CONSIDER THIS: An MRI can show many internal features more clearly (often in 3-D) than an X-ray or CT scan. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.

Module: 1.5 Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.5.2

How is fMRI different from MRI?

  1. fMRI adds a low dose of X-rays to enhance the image.
    CONSIDER THIS: An MRI can show structures, but fMRI reveals more than that. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.
  2. fMRI provides superior images of bone and cartilage.
    CONSIDER THIS: An MRI can show structures, but fMRI reveals more than that. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.
  3. fMRI allows for the observation of the brain and body as they are functioning.
  4. fMRI is used in psychological research, whereas MRI is used in medicine.
    CONSIDER THIS: An MRI can show structures, but fMRI reveals more than that. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.5a: Demonstrate psychology information literacy through an understanding of research methods and design.

Module: 1.5 Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.5.3

What is the theory behind detecting lies using fMRI?

  1. Brain activity decreases overall when we are lying, and fMRI can detect this.
    CONSIDER THIS: With the fMRI, we can watch the brain at work. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.
  2. fMRI stimulates parts of the brain that are responsible for lying and truth-telling.
    CONSIDER THIS: With the fMRI, we can watch the brain at work. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.
  3. fMRI can detect the part of the brain that controls our guilt about lying.
    CONSIDER THIS: With the fMRI, we can watch the brain at work. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.
  4. Different parts of the brain are activated for truths and lies, and fMRI can detect this.

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.5a: Demonstrate psychology information literacy through an understanding of research methods and design.

Module: 1.5 Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts


EOM Q1.5.4

In the study described, what did the fMRI "see" when someone was engaged in lying?

  1. Instead of activation of the brain's truth-telling region, the lying region was activated.
    CONSIDER THIS: fMRI brain imaging reveals a brain's activity when engaged in information processing. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.
  2. The fMRI detected the brain region for the lie and the region of the brain that knows it's a lie.
  3. The fMRI detected the activation of anxiety regions of the brain corresponding to lying.
    CONSIDER THIS: fMRI brain imaging reveals a brain's activity when engaged in information processing. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.
  4. The fMRI "saw" the same region activated during truth-telling and lying, so it is less useful than a polygraph test.
    CONSIDER THIS: fMRI brain imaging reveals a brain's activity when engaged in information processing. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.5a: Demonstrate psychology information literacy through an understanding of research methods and design.

Module: 1.5 Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOM Q1.5.5

How did this study change psychology?

  1. It verified previous, similar studies using the same techniques.
    CONSIDER THIS: Its results might eventually be allowed in court, in much the same way as DNA evidence has become an accepted way of proving or disproving certain crimes. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.
  2. It demonstrated expanded uses for MRI technology beyond medical applications.
  3. It confirmed that we will probably never be able to tell for sure if someone is lying.
    CONSIDER THIS: Its results might eventually be allowed in court, in much the same way as DNA evidence has become an accepted way of proving or disproving certain crimes. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.
  4. It proved that the polygraph remains the best method for detecting lies.
    CONSIDER THIS: Its results might eventually be allowed in court, in much the same way as DNA evidence has become an accepted way of proving or disproving certain crimes. LO 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.5a: Describe how psychology may be applied to interpret and explain new behavioral phenomena.

Module: 1.5 Studies That Changed Psychology: Then and Now

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

End of Chapter 1 Quiz: The Science of Psychology

EOC Q1.1

Which of the following is an accurate list of the goals of psychology?

  1. To explore, to understand, and to influence the functions of the human mind
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes; like any science, it tries to meet goals to achieve a certain level of explanation. LO 1.1a: Define psychology and identify its major goals.
  2. To describe, to explain, to predict, and to control behavior
  3. To categorize, to understand, and to manipulate human thought processes
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes; like any science, it tries to meet goals to achieve a certain level of explanation. LO 1.1a: Define psychology and identify its major goals.
  4. To understand, to improve, and to assist the well-being of the human species
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes; like any science, it tries to meet goals to achieve a certain level of explanation. LO 1.1a: Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1a Define psychology and identify its major goals.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.2

Parapsychology is the study of ________.

  1. the impact of being disabled on the human mind
    CONSIDER THIS: Parapsychology studies phenomena such as hauntings, telepathy, and clairvoyance. LO 1.1b: Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.
  2. pseudoscience and its effects
    CONSIDER THIS: Parapsychology studies phenomena such as hauntings, telepathy, and clairvoyance. LO 1.1b: Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.
  3. phenomena that fall outside of scientific boundaries
  4. the question, "Why are we here?"
    CONSIDER THIS: Parapsychology studies phenomena such as hauntings, telepathy, and clairvoyance. LO 1.1b: Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1b Distinguish between the science of psychology and parapsychological, pseudoscientific, or popular representations of psychology that fall outside the scope of science.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.3

If an individual is hearing voices and making claims that he is someone he is not, which type of psychologist would be appropriate to evaluate and possibly treat him?

  1. Developmental psychologist
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists in this specialty area study how to help people with serious mental problems. LO 1.1c: Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.
  2. Forensic psychologist
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists in this specialty area study how to help people with serious mental problems. LO 1.1c: Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.
  3. Clinical psychologist
  4. School psychologist
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists in this specialty area study how to help people with serious mental problems. LO 1.1c: Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1c Describe the profession of psychology, including training and employment.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.4

Which psychological school of thought is best represented by this image?

(Credit: EyeEm/Getty Images)

  1. Gestalt
  2. Humanism
    CONSIDER THIS: This school of thought was developed in Germany around 1910 and derives from the German word meaning "organized whole." LO 1.2a: Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.
  3. Behaviorism
    CONSIDER THIS: This school of thought was developed in Germany around 1910 and derives from the German word meaning "organized whole." LO 1.2a: Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.
  4. Functionalism
    CONSIDER THIS: This school of thought was developed in Germany around 1910 and derives from the German word meaning "organized whole." LO 1.2a: Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.5

Although Charlie is a big man and can often be intimidating to others, he is terrified of dogs. His therapist believes that in his youth, Charlie must have had a traumatic experience with a dog and was not given satisfactory comfort from an adult to allay his fears. Now, in adulthood, dogs symbolize abandonment and indifference from caregivers. Charlie's therapist seems closely aligned with which school of psychology?

  1. Humanistic
    CONSIDER THIS: According to this perspective, human behavior is driven by problems deep in the unconscious mind. LO 1.2a: Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.
  2. Behaviorism
    CONSIDER THIS: According to this perspective, human behavior is driven by problems deep in the unconscious mind. LO 1.2a: Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.
  3. Developmental
    CONSIDER THIS: According to this perspective, human behavior is driven by problems deep in the unconscious mind. LO 1.2a: Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.
  4. Psychoanalytic

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2a Give a brief history of psychology, including the early schools of thought.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze it

EOC Q1.6

All humans require food, shelter, oxygen, and water in order to survive. This is known as ________.

  1. cultural specificity
    CONSIDER THIS: This type of psychological principle applies to all humans. LO 1.2b: Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.
  2. a logical law
    CONSIDER THIS: This type of psychological principle applies to all humans. LO 1.2b: Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.
  3. a universal law
  4. an environmental correlation
    CONSIDER THIS: This type of psychological principle applies to all humans. LO 1.2b: Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.2b Identify the universal themes and questions in psychology.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.7

You have been assigned a class research study. Your instructions are to investigate how adolescents listen to and respect authority. You are instructed to perform research as if you are part of the behavioral school of psychology. Which of the following locations would be the best place to conduct your research?

  1. A concert, where adolescents are free to act however they like
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists from the behavioral perspective stress the importance of the environment in determining and understanding behavior. LO 1.2c: Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.
  2. A classroom, where you can directly observe the actions of adolescents
  3. The library, where you can review previous studies on the impact of restrictions on adolescents
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists from the behavioral perspective stress the importance of the environment in determining and understanding behavior. LO 1.2c: Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.
  4. An interview with a teen outreach police officer
    CONSIDER THIS: Psychologists from the behavioral perspective stress the importance of the environment in determining and understanding behavior. LO 1.2c: Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2c Distinguish between the seven modern psychological perspectives.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

EOC Q1.8

"Children who eat candy on a daily basis will be less physically active than children who do not." This statement, within the scientific method, represents a(n) __________.

  1. Fact
    CONSIDER THIS: In this step of the scientific method, psychologists make their best educated guess about what will happen. LO 1.3a: Describe the scientific method.
  2. Hypothesis
  3. Variable
    CONSIDER THIS: In this step of the scientific method, psychologists make their best educated guess about what will happen. LO 1.3a: Describe the scientific method.
  4. Observation
    CONSIDER THIS: In this step of the scientific method, psychologists make their best educated guess about what will happen. LO 1.3a: Describe the scientific method.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3a Describe the scientific method.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.9

Which method of research is being used here?

(Credit: Jeffrey Greenberg/Science Source)

  1. Survey
    CONSIDER THIS: This method of research allows psychologists to study behavior in everyday environments like parks, schools, bars, sporting events, and grocery stores, which are more likely to reflect “true” behaviors. LO 1.3b: Define descriptive and correlational research methods and discuss the benefits and limitations of each.
  2. Experiment
    CONSIDER THIS: This method of research allows psychologists to study behavior in everyday environments like parks, schools, bars, sporting events, and grocery stores, which are more likely to reflect “true” behaviors. LO 1.3b: Define descriptive and correlational research methods and discuss the benefits and limitations of each.
  3. case study
    CONSIDER THIS: This method of research allows psychologists to study behavior in everyday environments like parks, schools, bars, sporting events, and grocery stores, which are more likely to reflect “true” behaviors. LO 1.3b: Define descriptive and correlational research methods and discuss the benefits and limitations of each.
  4. naturalistic observation

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3b Define descriptive research methods and discuss their benefits and limitations.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.10

When two variables move in the same direction it is referred to as ________.

  1. causal correlation
    CONSIDER THIS: In this kind of correlation, both variables increase together or decrease together predictably. LO 1.3c: Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.
  2. connected correlation
    CONSIDER THIS: In this kind of correlation, both variables increase together or decrease together predictably. LO 1.3c: Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.
  3. positive correlation
  4. negative correlation
    CONSIDER THIS: In this kind of correlation, both variables increase together or decrease together predictably. LO 1.3c: Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3c: Discuss the purpose of correlational research and distinguish between positive and negative correlation.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

EOC Q1.11

The measured variable in an experiment is the ________.

  1. dependent variable
  2. independent variable
    CONSIDER THIS: The value of this variable should result from the effects of the variable being manipulated. LO 1.4a: Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.
  3. control variable
    CONSIDER THIS: The value of this variable should result from the effects of the variable being manipulated. LO 1.4a: Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.
  4. hypothetical variable
    CONSIDER THIS: The value of this variable should result from the effects of the variable being manipulated. LO 1.4a: Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4a Identify the parts of an experiment and the advantages of this method.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts


EOC Q1.12

When neither the participants nor the researchers know which participants are part of the control group or the experimental group until after all the data are collected, it is called a ________.

  1. correlational study
    CONSIDER THIS: This kind of study is used to reduce experimenter bias. LO 1.4b: Describe the limitations of the experimental method.
  2. confusion study
    CONSIDER THIS: This kind of study is used to reduce experimenter bias. LO 1.4b: Describe the limitations of the experimental method.
  3. randomized study
    CONSIDER THIS: This kind of study is used to reduce experimenter bias. LO 1.4b: Describe the limitations of the experimental method.
  4. double-blind study

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

EOC Q1.13

Sheyna is participating in a research study. She believes she has figured out that the purpose of the experiment is to discover the IQ of participants by nontraditional methods. She begins to answer the researcher's questions in a particular manner due to her belief. The most likely reason Sheyna has determined the reason for the experiment is because of which of the following?

  1. Sheyna has discussed the experiment with others who have already participated.
    CONSIDER THIS: This limitation of research experiments can be reduced by limiting information and cues about the experiment, but it is impossible to eliminate completely. LO 1.4b: Describe the limitations of the experimental method.
  2. Sheyna is part of the control group.
    CONSIDER THIS: This limitation of research experiments can be reduced by limiting information and cues about the experiment, but it is impossible to eliminate completely. LO 1.4b: Describe the limitations of the experimental method.
  3. Sheyna has picked up on demand characteristics.
  4. Sheyna was subject to observer bias.
    CONSIDER THIS: This limitation of research experiments can be reduced by limiting information and cues about the experiment, but it is impossible to eliminate completely. LO 1.4b: Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4b Describe the limitations of the experimental method.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze It

EOC Q1.14

Terri was walking through the mall and was approached by a researcher, who asked if she would like to participate in a brief experiment. After agreeing, she was led to a room where she waited alone. After 30 minutes passed, the researcher came into the room and told her the experiment was over and that she could leave. Later that day, while describing the episode to her friend, Terri could not explain what the experiment was about. Why not?

  1. Terri didn't pay attention; all of the information about the experiment should have been posted on the door to the room she entered.
    CONSIDER THIS: This phase of a research experiment provides researchers the opportunity to answer participants' questions, ensure no distress lingers from the study, and thank participants for volunteering. LO 1.4c: Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.
  2. The researcher failed to debrief Terri, and therefore it was never made clear to her what the purpose of the experiment was.
  3. The researcher failed to get Terri's informed consent and therefore could not release details concerning the experiment.
    CONSIDER THIS: This phase of a research experiment provides researchers the opportunity to answer participants' questions, ensure no distress lingers from the study, and thank participants for volunteering. LO 1.4c: Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.
  4. Due to the fact that the experiment was in a public space, information regarding the purpose doesn't need to be made clear to the participants.
    CONSIDER THIS: This phase of a research experiment provides researchers the opportunity to answer participants' questions, ensure no distress lingers from the study, and thank participants for volunteering. LO 1.4c: Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

EOC Q1.15

Which situation allows experimenters to justify the use of deception?

  1. If all participants have given their consent
    CONSIDER THIS: Although deception in research studies is generally frowned upon, the American Psychological Association recognizes that there are circumstances in which deception is necessary. LO 1.4c: Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.
  2. When all participants are wards of the state
    CONSIDER THIS: Although deception in research studies is generally frowned upon, the American Psychological Association recognizes that there are circumstances in which deception is necessary. LO 1.4c: Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.
  3. When deception is the only way for the experiment to work
  4. When the deception does not cause physical harm
    CONSIDER THIS: Although deception in research studies is generally frowned upon, the American Psychological Association recognizes that there are circumstances in which deception is necessary. LO 1.4c: Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4c Discuss ethical principles in research, including specific guidelines for the protection of human and animal participants.

Module: The Science of Psychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

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