Test Bank Psychology A Concise Introduction 6th Edition by Richard A. Griggs

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology A Concise Introduction 6th Edition by Richard A. Griggs

Test Bank Psychology A Concise Introduction 6th Edition by Richard A. Griggs

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology A Concise Introduction 6th Edition by Richard A. Griggs

Test Bank Psychology A Concise Introduction 6th Edition by Richard A. Griggs

1. Which perspectives emphasize internal factors as determinates of behavior?

a.

sociocultural and behavioral

b.

behavioral and biological

c.

cognitive and behavioral

d.

cognitive and biological

ANSWER:

d

2. A psychologist with a biological perspective is interested in studying how human behavior is influenced by:

a.

environmental circumstances.

b.

unconscious drives.

c.

physiology.

d.

cultural experiences.

ANSWER:

c

3. Dr. Simon studies how the activity of neural chemicals influences our moods. Dr. Simon's work MOST directly illustrates psychology's _____ perspective.

a.

behavioral

b.

biological

c.

cognitive

d.

sociocultural

ANSWER:

b

4. Psychologists who study how brain chemistry influences behavior are most likely from the _____ perspective, whereas psychologists who study how we perceive and reason are most likely from the _____ perspective.

a.

biological; cognitive

b.

cognitive; biological

c.

biological; sociocultural

d.

behavioral; cognitive

ANSWER:

a

5. A biological explanation for why a depressed mother killed her children would focus on:

a.

a deficiency in the activity of certain chemicals in the brain.

b.

examining her belief that her life was miserable.

c.

uncovering her earlier episodes of postpartum depression.

d.

investigating the lack of social support she received to deal with her stressful life.

ANSWER:

a

6. Dr. Klein studies genetic factors that influence behavior. Dr. Klein's research illustrates the _____ perspective.

a.

biological

b.

cognitive

c.

behavioral

d.

sociocultural

ANSWER:

a

7. Kelli's psychology professor informed the class that she conducts research on problem solving and reasoning. Kelli's psychology professor is MOST likely a proponent of the _____ perspective.

a.

sociocultural

b.

behavioral

c.

biological

d.

cognitive

ANSWER:

d

8. Developmental psychology is a research area that emphasizes the:

a.

biological perspective.

b.

cognitive perspective.

c.

behavioral perspective.

d.

ways that the different perspectives complement one another.

ANSWER:

d

9. Dr. Lee is conducting a study in which participants are told a category and asked to name the first example that comes to mind. Dr. Lee discovers that when the category is "Things that are red," the words "apple" and "wagon" come up often. For this category, these words serve as:

a.

prototypes.

b.

stereotypes.

c.

determiners.

d.

outliers.

ANSWER:

a

10. Which investigation of violent behavior would MOST likely be conducted by a cognitive psychologist?

a.

exploring how exposure to TV violence influences children to model violent acts

b.

examining how aggressive children process information about acts of violence differently than nonaggressive children

c.

comparing different areas of the brain for increased activity levels during exposure to violent TV shows

d.

examining how cultures differ in their penalties for violent acts

ANSWER:

b

11. Dr. Wilson studies how people evaluate different options when making a decision. Dr. Wilson's research MOST directly illustrates psychology's _____ perspective.

a.

behavioral

b.

biological

c.

cognitive

d.

sociocultural

ANSWER:

c

12. When Jim witnessed his 4-year-old nephew cry and whine until he received what he wanted, he tried to explain to his sister that she was conditioning the crying and whining based on environmental events. Jim's explanation of his nephew's behavior is representative of the _____ perspective.

a.

sociocultural

b.

behavioral

c.

cognitive

d.

biological

ANSWER:

b

13. Which perspectives explain behavior by focusing on external causal factors?

a.

behavioral and cognitive

b.

biological and sociocultural

c.

sociocultural and behavioral

d.

cognitive and biological

ANSWER:

c

14. A study examining how other people affect one's behavior is MOST likely guided by which major research perspective?

a.

biological

b.

behavioral

c.

cognitive

d.

sociocultural

ANSWER:

d

15. Operant conditioning is an element of the _____ perspective and it involves learning the association between _____.

a.

cognitive; two environmental events

b.

cognitive; behavior and its environmental consequences

c.

behavioral; two environmental events

d.

behavioral; behavior and its environmental consequences

ANSWER:

d

16. In classical conditioning, new behaviors are learned as a result of the:

a.

reinforcers that follow behavior.

b.

reinforcers that precede behavior.

c.

pairing of two environmental events.

d.

pairing of a behavior with a punishment or reward.

ANSWER:

c

17. Maggie often makes unusual comments because she is rewarded when others pay attention to her. Maggie's continuing tendency to make unusual comments is an example of _____ conditioning, which is emphasized by psychology's _____ perspective.

a.

operant; cognitive

b.

operant; behavioral

c.

classical; cognitive

d.

classical; behavioral

ANSWER:

b

18. Dr. Brandon studies how the customs and norms of different countries shape children's educational and career goals. Dr. Brandon's research MOST likely reflects a _____ perspective.

a.

sociocultural

b.

behavioral

c.

cognitive

d.

biological

ANSWER:

a

19. A psychologist influenced by the _____ perspective would be MOST interested in studying why Canadians have almost as many guns per capita as Americans but a significantly lower level of per capita murders.

a.

biological

b.

behavioral

c.

cognitive

d.

sociocultural

ANSWER:

d

20. When Carla works in a group, she may not exert as much effort as she does when she is working alone. This example of the effect of other people on behavior is MOST directly related to psychology's _____ perspective.

a.

behavioral

b.

biological

c.

cognitive

d.

sociocultural

ANSWER:

d

21. As Janet is waiting in line at the theater, a man runs by and grabs her purse. Someone is more likely to respond to Janet's cries for help if she is waiting in line with _____ people, illustrating the _____ effect.

a.

very few other; bystander

b.

a large crowd of; bystander

c.

very few other; social facilitation

d.

a large crowd of; social facilitation

ANSWER:

a

22. Latané and Darley studied the bystander effect by manipulating the number of individuals that witnessed emergencies. They found that:

a.

while the number of bystanders had no effect on whether or not the victim received help, the victim's physical attractiveness was positively correlated with receiving help.

b.

when there is only one bystander the likelihood of a victim receiving help is higher than when there are many bystanders.

c.

as the number of bystanders increases, the likelihood of a victim receiving help increases only if the victim directly asks for assistance.

d.

people are more likely to help when there are other bystanders present because they want to create a positive impression.

ANSWER:

b

23. According to the bystander effect, in which situation is Tony MOST likely to receive help?

a.

He slips in a puddle of water while walking on a crowded street.

b.

He drops a package while on an elevator with one other person.

c.

He has a flat tire while driving on a busy highway.

d.

His papers fall out of a file on a bus with many other passengers.

ANSWER:

b

24. Which perspective can explain how children acquire language?

a.

behavioral

b.

biological

c.

sociocultural

d.

All of the perspectives contribute to a complete understanding.

ANSWER:

d

25. Which statement about the different psychological perspectives is TRUE?

a.

The biological perspective provides more meaningful psychological explanations than do the other perspectives.

b.

The more dominant internal perspectives make up for the explanatory weaknesses of the external perspectives.

c.

The four perspectives are complementary and work together to provide more complete psychological explanations.

d.

The sociocultural perspective sharply conflicts with the behavioral perspective.

ANSWER:

c

26. After his favorite football team lost an important game, Chuck commented that the coach should have known that the team's strategy would fail because of the opposition's strong defense. Chuck's comment BEST illustrates the:

a.

I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.

b.

bystander effect.

c.

third-variable problem.

d.

overconfidence effect.

ANSWER:

a

27. Andrew is a senior in college, about to graduate as a double major in both psychology and political science. He is experiencing hindsight bias when he states:

a.

"The problem with females is they always have an excuse for their mistakes!"

b.

"I'll only buy a used car if it will last me at least five years before needing repairs."

c.

"Of course people failed to help Kitty Genovese; when we are in a large group we are obviously less likely to help someone in trouble than when we are alone."

d.

"I know who will win the election because I have been able to accurately predict the winner in the past."

ANSWER:

c

28. Experimental study is to _____ as correlational study is to _____.

a.

describe; predict

b.

predict; explain

c.

explain; describe

d.

explain; predict

ANSWER:

d

29. Researchers use _____ techniques to determine cause–effect relationships and _____ techniques to predict events.

a.

survey; correlational

b.

correlational; survey

c.

experimental; correlational

d.

correlational; experimental

ANSWER:

c

30. The difference between naturalistic observation and participant observation is that:

a.

only naturalistic observation occurs in the natural environment.

b.

observers become part of the group that is being studied in a participant observation.

c.

observers must measure both their own behavior and that of their study participants in a naturalistic observation.

d.

naturalistic observation requires that observers become familiar with their group before recording any behaviors.

ANSWER:

b

31. In an attempt to more objectively observe drinking behavior among fraternity members, Henry joined a fraternity. Henry is utilizing the _____ research method.

a.

naturalistic observation

b.

participant observation

c.

case study

d.

correlational study

ANSWER:

b

32. Which method is NOT typically considered a descriptive research method?

a.

participant observation

b.

survey research

c.

case study

d.

experiments

ANSWER:

d

33. Dr. Matthews is observing children on the playground and recording instances of aggression. This BEST illustrates which research method?

a.

case study

b.

experimentation

c.

participant observation

d.

naturalistic observation

ANSWER:

d

34. Because Akira was interested in the nest-building behavior of wrens, he went into the field to observe them. Akira was using the _____ method of research.

a.

case study

b.

participant observation

c.

naturalistic observation

d.

correlational

ANSWER:

c

35. Which is a purely descriptive type of research method?

a.

observation

b.

correlation

c.

case study

d.

both observation and case study

ANSWER:

d

36. Dian Fossey's study of gorillas is an example of a:

a.

naturalistic observation.

b.

participant observation.

c.

naturalistic observation that turned into participant observation.

d.

case study.

ANSWER:

c

37. Describe is to predict as _____ study is to _____ study.

a.

correlational; naturalistic observation

b.

experimental; correlational

c.

survey; case

d.

case; correlational

ANSWER:

d

38. Researchers studied H. M., an amnesiac, in depth over an extended period of time in order to more fully understand the problems he experienced and to develop hypotheses for future research. The in-depth study of H. M. is an example of the _____ research method.

a.

experimental

b.

correlational

c.

case study

d.

participant observation

ANSWER:

c

39. The case study of H. M. revealed that after surgery H. M. was unable to _____, suggesting that the _____ plays a role in these types of memories.

a.

associate emotion with memories; amygdala

b.

form new memories; hippocampus

c.

remember information learned prior to surgery; hypothalamus

d.

remember procedural information; brainstem

ANSWER:

b

40. In order to understand the aggressive behavior of an adolescent client, a clinical psychologist has carefully investigated the adolescent's home environment, history of social relationships, academic record, and neurological functioning. Which research method has the psychologist employed?

a.

survey

b.

case study

c.

participant observation

d.

naturalistic observation

ANSWER:

b

41. To develop hypotheses about why people commit sex-related crimes, Dr. Green conducted an in-depth investigation of an individual convicted of indecent exposure. Dr. Green's investigation illustrated which methodology?

a.

case study

b.

correlational study

c.

participant observation

d.

naturalistic observation

ANSWER:

a

42. The most common goal of case studies in clinical settings is to:

a.

make predictions about human behavior in a general population.

b.

gather sufficient information to help treat a patient.

c.

explain why individuals engage in specific behaviors.

d.

identify causal relationships.

ANSWER:

b

43. One disadvantage of the case study method is that it:

a.

is difficult to recruit a large number of participants.

b.

does not provide findings that can be generalized.

c.

is not useful for generating hypotheses.

d.

involves traveling to multiple natural settings.

ANSWER:

b

44. Surveys are MOST useful when researchers wish to:

a.

explain why people behave in a particular manner.

b.

gather information that is unbiased and accurate.

c.

collect information about behavior, beliefs, and attitudes.

d.

test causal claims.

ANSWER:

c

45. Which data collection technique would be the MOST effective way of investigating the relationship between North Americans' political preferences and socioeconomic status?

a.

the survey

b.

the case study

c.

experimentation

d.

naturalistic observation

ANSWER:

a

46. As Jimmy constructs a survey about attitudes toward health care, he words the questions carefully to minimize the possibility that participants will respond in a way that does not reflect what they actually think. By attending to question construction, Jimmy aims to minimize:

a.

the third-variable problem.

b.

hindsight bias.

c.

the placebo effect.

d.

social desirability bias.

ANSWER:

d

47. The _____ is composed of the individuals who participate in a study, whereas the _____ is all of the people about whom a study is meant to generalize.

a.

sample; population

b.

population; sample

c.

control group; experimental group

d.

experimental group; control group

ANSWER:

a

48. The purpose of drawing a _____ from the _____ is to ensure that the sample is _____ of the population.

a.

random sample; population; representative

b.

random population; sample; representative

c.

representative sample; population; not a random sample

d.

representative population; sample; not a random sample

ANSWER:

a

49. Which statement regarding populations and samples is TRUE?

a.

If you have a convenience sample, then each member of a population has an equal opportunity of being in the sample.

b.

A representative sample is necessary for generalization of the research findings to the population.

c.

Using random sampling allows researchers to survey every person in a population.

d.

In survey research, it's preferable to collect data from a population rather than a sample.

ANSWER:

b

50. Sample is to population as _____ is to _____.

a.

representative; nonrepresentative

b.

nonrepresentative; representative

c.

subset; entire group

d.

entire group; subset

ANSWER:

c

51. Charlene is interested in determining whether the opinions of registered voters toward an increase in taxes for the public schools are influenced by the age of the voter. In her research, she attempts to contact every twentieth person on the voter registration lists. All registered voters constitute the _____ for this study and the people she contacts constitute the _____ for this study.

a.

experimental group; control group

b.

control group; experimental group

c.

sample; population

d.

population; sample

ANSWER:

d

52. Shere Hite's failure to use _____ resulted in misleading findings for her women and love survey study.

a.

a placebo group

b.

a double-blind procedure

c.

random assignment

d.

random sampling

ANSWER:

d

53. If a marketing researcher is trying to determine whether or not adults living in Boston prefer domestic or imported beer, which technique would MOST likely yield a sample that would generalize to this population?

a.

asking individuals to send a survey to their friends who live in Boston

b.

surveying individuals who are purchasing beer in Boston liquor stores

c.

surveying adults who were randomly selected from Massachusetts voter registration data

d.

surveying adults who were randomly selected from a list of Boston residents

ANSWER:

d

54. Which selection procedure(s) would be MOST likely to yield a random sample of voters' opinions toward capital punishment in the state of Texas?

a.

randomly selecting voters registered in the smallest and largest voting districts

b.

randomly selecting voters who visit the polls on election day in all voting districts

c.

randomly selecting voters from the complete list of all registered voters

d.

randomly selecting from a list of all Texas residents

ANSWER:

c

55. When each individual in the population has an equal opportunity of being in the sample, _____ sampling is being used.

a.

correlational

b.

random

c.

experimental

d.

subpopulation

ANSWER:

b

56. To obtain a representative sample, researchers use random _____, which allows them to _____.

a.

assignment; generalize results to the population of interest

b.

assignment; equalize participant characteristics across groups

c.

sampling; generalize results to the population of interest

d.

sampling; equalize participant characteristics across groups

ANSWER:

c

57. Which statement about random sampling is TRUE?

a.

Random sampling is used to assign participants to experimental and control groups.

b.

Random sampling does not provide a representative sample of the population being studied.

c.

In random sampling, each individual in the population has the same chance of being in the sample.

d.

In random sampling, researchers recruit their friends and associates at random.

ANSWER:

c

58. In order to discover the extent to which education can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are MOST likely to engage in:

a.

correlational research.

b.

naturalistic observation.

c.

the case study approach.

d.

experimental research.

ANSWER:

a

59. "Variable" is the answer to which question?

a.

What is any factor that can take on only one value?

b.

What is any factor that can take on more than one value?

c.

What is the statistic that tells us the type of relationship between two factors?

d.

What is the statistic that tells us the strength of the relationship between two factors?

ANSWER:

b

60. Which research technique would be MOST well suited to examining whether the number of hours spent watching TV predicts hours spent exercising?

a.

naturalistic observation

b.

case study

c.

correlational study

d.

participant observation

ANSWER:

c

61. A _____ study is a research method used to determine how well one variable predicts another variable.

a.

correlational

b.

experimental

c.

descriptive

d.

case

ANSWER:

a

62. Professor Bailey is examining the relationship between how close a student sits to the front of the classroom and that student's grade in a course. She believes that the greater the distance is between students and the front of the classroom, the lower their final grades will be. Which correlation coefficient BEST supports Professor Bailey's belief?

a.

–.30

b.

+.50

c.

–.70

d.

+.90

ANSWER:

c

63. Suppose Aaron finds that the correlation between students' levels of optimism and their scores on an exam is –.68. This correlation indicates that:

a.

highly optimistic students tend to have higher exam scores.

b.

less optimistic students tend to have higher exam scores.

c.

being highly optimistic has little to no effect on exam scores.

d.

lower exam scores are caused by high levels of optimism.

ANSWER:

b

64. There is a negative correlation between time spent watching TV and grades in school. This means that:

a.

as time spent watching TV increases, grades decrease.

b.

more TV watching causes lower grades.

c.

as time spent watching TV increases, grades increase.

d.

TV watching and school grades are unrelated.

ANSWER:

a

65. If you want to predict the relationship between age and intelligence quotient (IQ), which research method would be BEST?

a.

a correlational study

b.

a case study

c.

a controlled experiment

d.

a naturalistic observation

ANSWER:

a

66. Height and weight are _____ correlated; elevation and temperature are _____ correlated.

a.

positively; positively

b.

positively; negatively

c.

negatively; positively

d.

negatively; negatively

ANSWER:

b

67. Which correlation coefficient indicates the STRONGEST relationship?

a.

+.75

b.

–.81

c.

+.25

d.

0.00

ANSWER:

b

68. Which correlation coefficient indicates the WEAKEST relationship between two variables?

a.

–1.00

b.

–0.43

c.

+0.66

d.

+0.21

ANSWER:

d

69. We would expect the correlation between years of smoking and incidence of lung cancer to be _____, whereas we would expect the correlation between mountain elevation and temperature to be _____.

a.

curvilinear; negative

b.

positive; negative

c.

negative; positive

d.

positive; curvilinear

ANSWER:

b

70. When two variables increase and decrease together there is _____ relationship. When two variables change in opposite directions there is _____ relationship.

a.

no; a curvilinear

b.

a curvilinear; no

c.

a positive; a negative

d.

a negative; a positive

ANSWER:

c

71. "Positive correlation" is the answer to which question?

a.

What is an inverse relationship between two variables?

b.

What is a direct relationship between two variables?

c.

What is a correlation that describes a positive outcome from a manipulated variable?

d.

What is a correlation that predicts a positive outcome from a manipulated variable?

ANSWER:

b

72. "Negative correlation" is the answer to which question?

a.

What is an inverse relationship between two variables?

b.

What is a direct relationship between two variables?

c.

What is a correlation that describes a negative outcome from a manipulated variable?

d.

What is a correlation that predicts a negative outcome from a manipulated variable?

ANSWER:

a

73. The correlation coefficient informs researchers of both the _____ and _____ of the relationship between two variables.

a.

type; strength

b.

relevance; strength

c.

type; bias

d.

significance; bias

ANSWER:

a

74. Which correlation coefficient represents the variables with the weakest degree of relationship?

a.

+.99

b.

–1.00

c.

+.01

d.

–.59

ANSWER:

c

75. Which correlation coefficient represents the variables with the strongest degree of relationship?

a.

+.99

b.

–1.00

c.

+.01

d.

–.59

ANSWER:

b

76. Suppose the correlation between grades in school and amount of time studying is +.92. These variables have a _____ relationship.

a.

strong inverse

b.

strong direct

c.

weak inverse

d.

weak direct

ANSWER:

b

77. Virtually all correlation coefficients in psychological research have an absolute value of less than 1.00, which indicates that:

a.

data collection methods often include some degree of human error.

b.

one cannot predict behavior perfectly.

c.

virtually all relationships are very weak.

d.

research participants often provide inaccurate answers that contribute to measurement error.

ANSWER:

b

78. If data on a scatterplot show an increasing trend, points go from the bottom-left to top-right of the graph, the variables have _____ relationship.

a.

a negative

b.

a positive

c.

no

d.

a significant

ANSWER:

b

79. Looking at the _____ in a scatterplot indicates the strength of the relationship between two variables and looking at the _____ indicates what type of correlation exists.

a.

X-axis; Y-axis

b.

Y-axis; X-axis

c.

scatter; direction of data points

d.

direction of data points; scatter

ANSWER:

c

80. If Kate wanted to provide a visual depiction of the correlation between hours of sleep each night and grade point average, she would use a:

a.

scatterplot.

b.

pie chart.

c.

frequency distribution.

d.

bar graph.

ANSWER:

a

81. You must determine the strength and direction of a correlation between two variables, but you only have information concerning the scatterplot. Told there is little scatter among a set of data points that fall in a lower left to upper right direction on a graph, you conclude that the correlation would BEST be described as:

a.

strongly positive.

b.

weakly positive.

c.

strongly negative.

d.

weakly negative.

ANSWER:

a

82. If all the data points in a scatterplot form a perfectly straight line from the lower left to the upper right, it would mean that the correlation coefficient would equal:

a.

+1.0.

b.

0.0.

c.

–1.0.

d.

+.5.

ANSWER:

a

83. Which type of scatterplot depicts a weak, negative correlation?

a.

a lot of scatter with data points going from top left to bottom right

b.

very little scatter with data points going from top left to bottom right

c.

a lot of scatter with data points going from bottom left to top right

d.

very little scatter with data points going from bottom left to top right

ANSWER:

a

84. A teacher notices a correlation between students who have a car and their grades. She finds that those who have a car have better grades than those who do not have a car. She concludes that having a car has an effect on academic performance. What alternative explanation most likely explains her finding?

a.

Her data is biased because students lied about the type of car that they have.

b.

Having a car is indicative of a higher socioeconomic status, which is correlated with educational achievement.

c.

Brighter students have more money and are able to afford a car.

d.

Her tests are not difficult enough to produce a meaningful range of academic performance.

ANSWER:

b

85. If data on a scatterplot shows points scattered in a random fashion, the variables have _____ relationship.

a.

a negative

b.

a positive

c.

no

d.

a significant

ANSWER:

c

86. If the points on a scatterplot are spread all over the graph, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are:

a.

normally distributed.

b.

positively correlated.

c.

negatively correlated.

d.

not correlated.

ANSWER:

d

87. Suppose Abby finds a significant positive correlation between the number of electrical appliances an individual owns and use of contraceptive devices. Because she is aware of the _____, Abby concludes correctly that ownership of many electrical appliances _____ people to use birth control.

a.

third-variable problem; causes

b.

third-variable problem; does not cause

c.

social desirability bias; causes

d.

social desirability bias; does not cause

ANSWER:

b

88. A correlation in which the variables are related through their relationship with one or more other variables but not through a causal mechanism is called a(n) _____ correlation.

a.

direct

b.

indirect

c.

inverse

d.

spurious

ANSWER:

d

89. There is a correlation between shoe size and reading performance in elementary school children. However, this correlation likely occurs because both shoe size and reading performance increase with age. In this case, the correlation between shoe size and reading performance would be considered a(n) _____ correlation.

a.

inverse

b.

spurious

c.

illusory

d.

indirect

ANSWER:

b

90. How did Joseph Goldberger test whether pellagra was caused by infection or a third variable?

a.

He hosted "filth parties" where volunteers consumed urine and fecal matter from pellagrins.

b.

He conducted an experiment in which he manipulated the diet of prisoners.

c.

He examined the microorganisms present in the feces of pellagra victims.

d.

He conducted a meta-analysis, proving that economic status was a causal factor in developing pellagra.

ANSWER:

a

91. Random assignment is to _____ as random sampling is to _____.

a.

generalize; control

b.

control; generalize

c.

large groups; small groups

d.

small groups; large groups

ANSWER:

b

92. Caitlin plans to conduct research to answer the question, "Does loud music cause people to remember less of what they read?" Which research method should she use to answer her question?

a.

naturalistic observation

b.

survey

c.

correlational study

d.

experiment

ANSWER:

d

93. Only one research method can be used to determine if one variable causes a change in another variable. Which research method is designed to answer this type of question?

a.

case study

b.

experiment

c.

correlational study

d.

survey

ANSWER:

b

94. To equalize participant characteristics across groups in an experiment, researchers use random assignment, which allows them to:

a.

generalize results to the population of interest.

b.

eliminate participant characteristics as possible explanations for results.

c.

manipulate the independent variable.

d.

measure changes in the dependent variable across groups.

ANSWER:

b

95. Which factor is NOT an example of the use of control in experimentation?

a.

random assignment to conditions

b.

using a placebo group

c.

using the double-blind procedure

d.

random sampling from a population

ANSWER:

d

96. "Random assignment" is the answer to which question?

a.

What control measure can be used for survey research?

b.

What control measure can be used only for observational research?

c.

What control measure can be used only for correlational research?

d.

What control measure can be used only for experimental research?

ANSWER:

d

97. Random assignment is to _____ as random sampling is to generalization to the population.

a.

manipulation of the independent variable

b.

measurement of the dependent variable

c.

reducing experimenter bias in experimental research

d.

equalizing participant characteristics across groups

ANSWER:

d

98. To determine the effect of music on memorization, Dr. Majowski asks participants to study a list of words for two minutes. All participants study the same list of words, but half study in silence and half study while listening to music. After studying the words, all participants are asked to complete the same set of mathematical problems for one minute and then are asked to recall the words. Dr. Majowski measures the percentage of words correctly recalled. What is the independent variable in this study?

a.

study condition (music or silence)

b.

percentage of words correctly recalled

c.

time spent studying words

d.

mathematical problems

ANSWER:

a

99. To determine the effect of music on memorization, Dr. Majowski asks participants to study a list of words for two minutes. All participants study the same list of words, but half study in silence and half study while listening to music. After studying the words, all participants are asked to complete the same set of mathematical problems for one minute and then are asked to recall the words. Dr. Majowski measures the percentage of words correctly recalled. What is the dependent variable in this study?

a.

study condition (music or silence)

b.

percentage of words correctly recalled

c.

time spent studying words

d.

mathematical problems

ANSWER:

b

100. In an experiment, a researcher varies the speed of a treadmill and then measures the heart rate of the participant. The heart rate of the participant is the _____ variable.

a.

independent

b.

dependent

c.

placebo

d.

operational

ANSWER:

b

101. Manipulate is to _____ as independent variable is to dependent variable.

a.

correlate

b.

experiment

c.

measure

d.

operate

ANSWER:

c

102. To establish causality of an intervention on improving reading ability, a researcher should be sure to:

a.

use naturalistic observation.

b.

collect data at multiple points.

c.

assign students to either an experimental or control group.

d.

survey students about their study habits.

ANSWER:

c

103. A(n) _____ would be used to describe the variables in an experiment sufficiently to allow later replications.

a.

placebo

b.

operational definition

c.

control group

d.

representative sample

ANSWER:

b

104. Suppose Timothy is interested in testing the effect of stress on test performance. Which would be the MOST appropriate operational definition of the independent variable?

a.

whether the participant is told that the test score counts for a large or small percentage of course grade

b.

whether the participant scores above or below 70 percent on the test

c.

whether the participant does or does not complete the test within an hour

d.

whether the participant does or does not appear nervous while taking the test

ANSWER:

a

105. Why is the use of operational definitions helpful?

a.

They allow for creativity when designing an experiment.

b.

They reduce the probability of hindsight bias.

c.

They permit other researchers to attempt to replicate an experiment.

d.

They describe cause–effect relationships.

ANSWER:

c

106. In the aerobic exercise experiment described in the textbook, the experimenter might conclude there is a placebo effect if the reduction of anxiety in the placebo group was significantly _____ than the reduction in the _____ group.

a.

less; experimental

b.

less; control

c.

greater; experimental

d.

greater; control

ANSWER:

d

107. As part of an experiment to test the effectiveness of a drug for depression, one group of participants receives a pill that does not contain any active ingredients. The inclusion of these participants MOST directly indicates that the experiment involves:

a.

a double-blind procedure.

b.

a meta-analysis.

c.

a placebo group.

d.

two independent variables.

ANSWER:

c

108. Recovering from an illness because of the belief that treatment always works is indicative of:

a.

spurious correlation.

b.

random assignment.

c.

the double-blind procedure.

d.

the placebo effect.

ANSWER:

d

109. People in a placebo group:

a.

do not know they are participating in a study.

b.

are most likely participating in a correlational study.

c.

are not part of a control group.

d.

believe they are receiving treatment, but are not.

ANSWER:

d

110. Dr. Vance tells his patient about the potential positive side effects of a medication that will actually have no physiological effect. Dr. Vance is trying to see if his patient will recover based on his knowledge of:

a.

hindsight bias.

b.

the third-variable problem.

c.

the bystander effect.

d.

the placebo effect.

ANSWER:

d

111. In an experiment, the _____ group participants receive an inactive treatment but are told that the treatment will help them.

a.

experimental

b.

control

c.

placebo

d.

third-variable

ANSWER:

c

112. In experiments testing new drugs, neither the participant nor the researcher knows whether the participant has received the drug or a placebo. This describes _____, and it is done to control for participant and researcher expectations.

a.

the double-blind procedure

b.

random sampling

c.

random assignment

d.

the placebo effect

ANSWER:

a

113. The double-blind procedure controls for:

a.

experimenter expectation.

b.

statistical error.

c.

participants' socioeconomic status.

d.

hindsight bias.

ANSWER:

a

114. A researcher may conclude that the independent variable's effect on the dependent variable is NOT due to random variation through the use of:

a.

inferential statistics.

b.

the double-blind procedure.

c.

a placebo group.

d.

both placebo and control groups.

ANSWER:

a

115. A researcher reports that the results of a study are statistically significant. This would mean that the probability that the results are due to random variation would be:

a.

greater than .50.

b.

less than .50.

c.

greater than .05.

d.

less than .05.

ANSWER:

d

116. A research finding that is reported as being "statistically significant" would NOT be able to claim that the:

a.

research result probably did not occur by chance.

b.

manipulation of the independent variable influenced the dependent variable.

c.

manipulation of the independent variable caused a change in the dependent variable.

d.

research finding has practical significance.

ANSWER:

d

117. To investigate the effect of multitasking on test scores, Jenny conducted an appropriately controlled experimental study. Her inferential statistical analysis revealed that participants who multitasked while studying had significantly lower test scores than those who were not multitasking. She says, "Fantastic! I've just proved that multitasking while studying causes lower test scores." In response, her friend Ziva, who is knowledgeable about inferential statistics, is MOST likely to answer:

a.

"Your results clearly are practically important because there is a significant difference."

b.

"With a significant difference, there is no need to replicate the study."

c.

"You have not proved anything; inferential statistics involve probability, not certainty."

d.

"With a significant difference, there is no need to replicate the study" and "You have not proved anything; inferential statistics involve probability, not certainty" are both likely responses to Jenny's comment.

ANSWER:

c

118. Which procedure would increase the likelihood that neither the experimenter's nor the participants' expectations would impact the results of a research project?

a.

random sampling

b.

double-blind procedure

c.

control group

d.

operational definitions

ANSWER:

b

119. To test the effectiveness of two different drugs for depression, an individual who is not involved in conducting the experiment or analyzing the results codes the labels so that neither the experimenter nor the participants know which group of participants received which drug. This experiment MOST clearly involves:

a.

a double-blind procedure.

b.

inferential statistical analysis.

c.

a placebo group.

d.

two independent variables.

ANSWER:

a

120. Descriptive statistics provide a concise summary of a distribution of scores, while inferential statistics:

a.

describe the practical significance of results.

b.

describe the likelihood that the results of a study are due to chance.

c.

summarize normal distributions.

d.

summarize skewed distributions.

ANSWER:

b

121. To investigate whether gender and age influence people's perceptions of an individual's responsibility for an accident and an appropriate penalty, Donald created four scenarios describing the same accident. The only difference among the scenarios was whether the person involved in the accident was an older man, an older woman, a younger man, or a younger woman. After reading the scenario, participants rated the extent to which the individual was responsible for the accident and the amount of the fine. Based on this description, the experiment included:

a.

one independent variable and one dependent variable.

b.

one independent variable and two dependent variables.

c.

two independent variables and one dependent variable.

d.

two independent variables and two dependent variables.

ANSWER:

d

122. The method of combining results from a number of studies addressing the same experimental question is called a:

a.

correlational study.

b.

meta-analysis.

c.

case study.

d.

laboratory observation.

ANSWER:

b

123. Leroy combines the results of various experiments on exercise and depression. Leroy's research MOST clearly illustrates use of which statistical technique?

a.

a double-blind procedure

b.

a meta-analysis

c.

naturalistic observation

d.

percentile ranks

ANSWER:

b

124. The goal of a case study is:

a.

prevention.

b.

prediction.

c.

explanation.

d.

description.

ANSWER:

d

125. The goal of a correlational study is:

a.

prevention.

b.

prediction.

c.

explanation.

d.

description.

ANSWER:

b

126. Which term does NOT belong with the others?

a.

case study

b.

correlational study

c.

naturalistic observation

d.

participant observation

ANSWER:

b

127. With measures of central tendency, there can be more than one _____ but only one _____.

a.

standard deviation; mode

b.

range; median

c.

mean; standard deviation

d.

mode; median

ANSWER:

d

128. What is the median of the following set of scores: 0, 2, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8?

a.

2

b.

3

c.

4

d.

7

ANSWER:

b

129. What is the mode of the following set of scores: 0, 2, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8?

a.

2

b.

3

c.

4

d.

7

ANSWER:

a

130. The _____ is the score positioned in the middle of a distribution when all the scores are listed from the lowest to the highest.

a.

mean

b.

median

c.

mode

d.

standard deviation

ANSWER:

b

131. Measures of central tendency provide information about _____, and measures of variability provide information about _____.

a.

how spread out the scores are; the typical score

b.

the typical score; how spread out the scores are

c.

the percentile rank of scores; whether or not the distribution is skewed

d.

whether or not the distribution is skewed; the percentile rank of scores

ANSWER:

b

132. Which statistic describes the MOST frequently occurring score in a set of scores?

a.

the mean

b.

the median

c.

the mode

d.

the standard deviation

ANSWER:

c

133. Suppose the incomes for households in the small community of Hatcherville were $45,000, $50,000, $50,000, $53,000, $57,000, and $375,000. A real estate agent wants to portray the community as a high-income area. What measure of central tendency should the real estate agent use?

a.

mean

b.

median

c.

mode

d.

standard deviation

ANSWER:

a

134. What is the mean of the following set of scores: 0, 2, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8?

a.

2

b.

3

c.

4

d.

7

ANSWER:

c

135. Unusually high or low scores are MOST likely to distort:

a.

the mean.

b.

the median.

c.

the mode.

d.

both the median and mode.

ANSWER:

a

136. The most commonly used measure of central tendency is the mean, and the most commonly used measure of variability is the:

a.

mode.

b.

median.

c.

range.

d.

standard deviation.

ANSWER:

d

137. The measure of variability MOST likely to be affected by extreme scores is the:

a.

range.

b.

median.

c.

standard deviation.

d.

mode.

ANSWER:

a

138. Professor Jones noticed that the distribution of students' scores on his last biology exam had an extremely small standard deviation. This indicates that the:

a.

exam was given to a very small class of students.

b.

exam was a poor measure of the students' knowledge.

c.

students' scores tended to be very similar to one another.

d.

students' mean exam score was less than the median exam score.

ANSWER:

c

139. If students are interested in how many students received As, Bs, Cs, Ds, and Fs on their last exam, they should request that their professor provide information on the:

a.

range of scores.

b.

frequency distribution.

c.

mean and median.

d.

mean and standard deviation.

ANSWER:

b

140. Which statement concerning the normal distribution is FALSE?

a.

In a normal distribution, the mean, median, and mode are equal.

b.

In a normal distribution, half the scores are above the mean and half are below.

c.

The percentage of scores that fall within 1 (one) standard deviation of the mean on a normal distribution will increase as the value of the standard deviation increases.

d.

As the size of the standard deviation increases in a normal distribution, the shape of the distribution becomes shorter and wider.

ANSWER:

c

141. In the normal distribution, over _____ percent of scores fall within _____ standard deviations of the mean.

a.

68; 2

b.

68; 3

c.

99; 2

d.

99; 3

ANSWER:

d

142. Suppose you have a normal distribution of test scores with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 5. What percentage of scores falls between 40 and 60?

a.

20 percent

b.

50 percent

c.

68 percent

d.

95 percent

ANSWER:

d

143. Suppose you have a normal distribution of test scores with a mean of 70 and a standard deviation of 10. What is the approximate percentile rank of a score of 80?

a.

80

b.

84

c.

90

d.

95

ANSWER:

b

144. Dr. Matos wants to know the percentage of students who scored below a 60 in the last exam in all of his classes combined. Dr. Matos wants to know the:

a.

mode.

b.

skewed distribution.

c.

normal distribution.

d.

percentile rank.

ANSWER:

d

145. In a normal distribution, the percentile rank for a score that is 1 standard deviation below the mean is roughly _____percent.

a.

16

b.

34

c.

68

d.

84

ANSWER:

a

146. A frequency distribution with a mean of 50, a median of 60, and a mode of 80 would be considered a _____ distribution.

a.

normal

b.

right-skewed

c.

left-skewed

d.

This frequency distribution could be considered any of these types of distributions, depending on the size of the standard deviation.

ANSWER:

c

147. In a left-skewed distribution, the mean is _____ than the median; in a right-skewed distribution, the mean is _____ than the median.

a.

greater; greater

b.

greater; less

c.

less; greater

d.

less; less

ANSWER:

c

148. Age at retirement is to _____ distribution as average income in the United States is to _____ distribution.

a.

right-skewed; left-skewed

b.

left-skewed; right-skewed

c.

right-skewed; right-skewed

d.

left-skewed; left-skewed

ANSWER:

b

149. When describing a skewed distribution, it is particularly important to report the _____ as a measure of central tendency.

a.

mean

b.

median

c.

mode

d.

range

ANSWER:

b

150. Harvard scientist Stephen Jay Gould survived a terminal cancer diagnosis for 20 years. After being told that his type of cancer had a "median mortality rate of eight months after diagnosis," Gould learned that his chance of survival was greatly increased because the frequency distribution of deaths from this disease was:

a.

normally distributed.

b.

right-skewed.

c.

left-skewed.

d.

associated with a very small standard deviation.

ANSWER:

b

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