Test Bank Psychology From Inquiry to Understanding 4th Edition by Scott O. Lilienfeld A+

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology From Inquiry to Understanding 4th Edition by Scott O. Lilienfeld A+

Test Bank Psychology From Inquiry to Understanding 4th Edition by Scott O. Lilienfeld A+

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology From Inquiry to Understanding 4th Edition by Scott O. Lilienfeld A+

. When students begin to read through their introductory psychology textbook, they are often surprised to learn that __________.

A) commonsense explanations abound in the field of psychology

Incorrect. Commonsense explanations are frequently accurate, but they are not consistent with the science of psychology unless they have been appropriately researched.

B) many of their beliefs about the causes of thoughts and behaviors are incorrect

Correct. Popular psychology has led many people to have incorrect impressions about many psychological phenomena.

C) psychologists do not study people’s everyday behaviors

D) psychology is a unique field of study separate from philosophy and biology

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 1.1a Explain why psychology is more than just common sense.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

2. When you examine the research that has been conducted in psychology, you will find that much of the knowledge from popular, less-scientific psychology sources ___________.

A) is consistent with the results of psychological research

B) is contradicted by what psychological research has demonstrated

Correct. Many of the popular beliefs are demonstrated to be incorrect when they are appropriately researched.

C) is not able to be studied empirically

Incorrect. Most of the information that you will see in a psychology course is capable of being examined empirically in one form of research or another. Not all questions, however, can be explored experimentally. This means that cause-and-effect relationships cannot always be adequately demonstrated.

D) is of no or very little interest to psychologists

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 1.1a Explain why psychology is more than just common sense.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

3. According to the authors, psychology is a method for __________.

A) determining simple answers to complex questions

B) acquiring more insight into the hows and whys of human behavior

C) knowing how to turn people from maladaptive to adaptive actions, feelings, and thoughts

D) restating commonsense findings in a more convoluted manner

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1a Explain why psychology is more than just common sense.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

4. According to your authors, the discipline of psychology is best thought of as __________.

A) a field of self-help principles to eliminate mental problems

B) a mixture of anecdotes and personal intuition about human behavior and mental processes

C) a process for encouraging people to reach their ultimate potential

D) the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1a Explain why psychology is more than just common sense.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

5. A psychologist is often skeptical of claims suggesting that __________.

A) people are influenced by others’ thoughts and behaviors

B) a particular behavior is the result of a single causal variable

Correct. Most behaviors are the result of multiple factors. A single-variable explanation is very rarely accurate.

C) a person’s culture is a strong influence on his or her everyday thoughts and behaviors

Incorrect. Recent years have seen an enormous increase in psychology’s recognition that the impact of culture on behaviors must always be considered.

D) a person’s future behavior is often difficult to predict accurately

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 1.1a Explain why psychology is more than just common sense.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

6. What is the term used to explain why different people can respond to the same situation in a variety of manners?

A) idiosyncratic distracters

B) idiographic anomalies

C) individual differences

D) confounding variables

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1a Explain why psychology is more than just common sense.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

7. Michelle constantly tells her boyfriend Niccolai that he doesn’t pay attention to her, and that this is why she tends to nag him to pay attention. Her repeated criticisms cause Niccolai to tune her out, which causes her to nag him even more. This bidirectional pattern of influence is what Albert Bandura would have called __________.

A) reciprocal determinism

Correct. Reciprocal determinism suggests that various behaviors affect each other mutually, at the same time.

B) scientific skepticism

C) the premise of Occam’s Razor

Incorrect. Occam’s Razor suggests that the simplest explanation for a phenomenon is usually the most accurate explanation. It is not related to this question.
D) cyclical impingement

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1a Explain why psychology is more than just common sense.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

8. Entire subfields of psychology focus on the __________ that distinguish one person’s interaction with the world from another’s.

A) nomothetic applications

Incorrect. Your book does not reference something called nomothetic applications, but such a term would refer to commonalities between people, not individual differences.

B) individual differences

Correct. Such differences between our reactions to various encounters with the world around us are what underlie much of psychological research.

C) correlative traits

D) objective traits

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1a Explain why psychology is more than just common sense.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

9. A famous college football coach believes that if he bends down and eats a little of the grass every time his team is visiting another school's stadium, his team will have good luck in the game. He has done this for two years and has yet to lose an "away" game. His tendency to believe he sees the world correctly, and that the world exists precisely as he sees it, is called __________.

A) popular psychology

B) naive realism

Correct. Naive realism refers to a person’s belief that he or she accurately and objectively sees the world as it is.

C) common sense

Incorrect. It is an unfortunate truth that the way we want the world to be is infrequently the way the world is. Common sense would tell us not to expect things to come out just the way we want them to.

D) a single-variable explanation

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1a Explain why psychology is more than just common sense.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

10. __________ refers to the belief that we see the world precisely as it is.

A) Common sense

B) Confirmation bias

C) Single-variable explanation

D) Naive realism

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1a Explain why psychology is more than just common sense.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

11. A major problem with commonsense proverbs is that they often coexist with their complete opposite. This violates which principle of critical thinking?

A) extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence

B) falsifiability

Correct. Because the proverbs are true no matter which way you present them, they cannot be demonstrated to be wrong. This violates the critical thinking principle of falsifiability.

C) Occam’s Razor

Incorrect. Occam’s Razor is a concept that suggests that the simplest explanation for an event is usually the correct one.

D) replicability

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 1.3b Identify and explain the text’s six principles of scientific thinking.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

12. Which of the following is the best statement of your authors’ position regarding the use of intuition in decision-making situations?

A) Intuition is actually the foundation of analysis, and thus there is no true distinction between these two aspects of decision-making.

B) Intuition is more likely than not to lead to disastrous mistakes.
C) The existence of “intuition” is actually a myth, as decisions made without careful analysis are always wrong.

D) Intuition comes in handy in many situations and often guides people to the truth.

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 1.1a Explain why psychology is more than just common sense.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

13. Due to its reliance on proper research methods to help verify its claims, modern psychology is best considered to be a __________.

A) collection of pieces of folk wisdom

B) series of contradictions to be sorted out

C) science

Correct. The study of psychology is a science, which means that there are specific methods for asking questions, gathering data, and answering questions.

D) therapeutic process

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

14. A science is defined by __________.

A) knowledge

Incorrect. Science may be considered the quest for knowledge, but this is not how science is defined.

B) its concern with solving real-life practical problems

C) its popularity among the general public

D) its approach to dealing with evidence

Correct. Science is an approach to gathering and dealing with evidence that helps prevent us from fooling ourselves.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

15. The science of psychology is often founded on __________, which is the premise that knowledge should initially be acquired through observation.

A) pseudoscience

B) hypothesis-testing

Incorrect. A hypothesis is an educated guess regarding how variables will relate to each other which is followed by testing the variables after gathering data. A hypothesis is part of the scientific method. This is not the best answer, however.

C) theory

D) empiricism

Correct. This is the beginning of data collection within the science of psychology.

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

16. In science, a scientific theory is defined as a(n) __________.

A) educated opinion about the natural world

B) explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world

Correct. In order for a premise to be considered useful, it must provide an explanation for a large number of findings that occur in the natural world, including the psychological world.

C) personal understanding of natural laws

D) testable prediction about the natural world

Incorrect. A testable prediction about the natural world is a hypothesis, not a theory.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

17. When a psychologist mentions the term scientific theory, he or she is referring to something that __________.

A) explains a single event

B) explains a wide range of observations

C) is no better an explanation than another person’s opinion

D) refers to an educated guess

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

18. Dr. Rashad offers the class an explanation for an extensive group of research findings connecting emotionality and nonverbal communication. Her explanation for this group of findings is a(n) __________.

A) hypothesis

Incorrect. A hypothesis is a testable prediction—an educated guess—that is based on an existing theory.

B) empirical conclusion

C) operational definition

D) scientific theory

Correct. A scientific theory is an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

19. Professor Clark gives her students an assignment to develop hypotheses on global warming. To be consistent with a scientific method, students should develop their hypotheses based on __________.

A) their own existing beliefs about the issue

Incorrect. In fact, for research to be as “clean” and accurate as possible, researchers have to be very careful NOT to let their own beliefs or biases influence their research.

B) reports discussed on television

C) untestable predictions

D) a well-supported scientific theory

Correct. A hypothesis is a testable prediction derived from a scientific theory.

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

20. Dr. Richburg’s botany class gathers specimens outside of the classroom for further study. Dr. Richburg instructs his students to develop a scientific theory that helps explain the biodiversity of the plants. The resulting theory should __________.

A) provide an educated guess about the biodiversity of the plants

B) explain observations about the plants and predict new findings about plant biodiversity

Correct. A scientific theory is an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world that leads to testable predictions.

C) explain a few findings about the biodiversity of the plants

Incorrect. A theory is an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world.

D) interpret what has already been discovered about the biodiversity of the plants

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

21. Which of the following would be best described as an “educated guess”?

A) method

B) theory

Incorrect. A theory is actually generated as a result of past research, and is used to guide the educated guesses, or hypotheses, about future explorations.

C) hypothesis

Correct. A hypothesis is a testable prediction that is derived from an existing scientific theory. Therefore, it is a guess about a specific outcome that is informed by past knowledge.

D) design

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

22. A testable prediction derived from a scientific theory is called a ___________.

A) hypothesis

Correct. A hypothesis is a testable prediction that is derived from an existing scientific theory. Therefore, it is a guess about a specific outcome that is informed by past knowledge.

B) theory

Incorrect. A theory is actually generated as a result of past research and is used to guide educated guesses, or hypotheses, about future explorations.

C) method

D) design

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

23. The tendency to look for supportive evidence, rather than actively seeking out contradictory evidence, is known as __________.

A) the availability heuristic

B) belief perseverance

C) confirmation bias

D) the hindsight bias

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

24. “Seek and ye shall find” is a short and simple way to sum up ___________.

A) naive realism

Incorrect. This cliché suggests that we tend to find what we are looking for. That is the basis of confirmation bias.

B) belief perseverance

C) empiricism

D) confirmation bias

Correct. Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek out information that supports our point of view and ignore evidence that contradicts our point of view.

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

25. Gwen has posted a questionnaire on Facebook asking her friends to support her idea of cell phones in the classroom. She ignores anyone opposing her beliefs, which is an example of __________.

A) naïve realism

Incorrect. Naïve realism suggests that we believe that we see the world precisely as it is. The best answer to this question is confirmation bias.

B) conjunctive fallacy

C) confirmation bias

Correct. Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek out information that supports our point of view and ignore evidence that contradicts our point of view.

D) attribution bias

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

26. Dr. Andorski regularly looks at the Internet to see what his patients are saying about him. When a patient posts a positive, complimentary review, the doctor reads it intently and takes note of the comments. Dr. Andorski tends to ignore critical reviews and just assume that those patients don’t know what they are talking about. As a result of this __________, Dr. Andorski tends to miss good feedback that could make him a better physician.

A) naïve realism

Incorrect. Naïve realism suggests that we believe that we see the world precisely as it is. The best answer to this question is confirmation bias.

B) conjunctive fallacy

C) confirmation bias

Correct. Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek out information that supports our point of view and ignore evidence that contradicts our point of view.

D) attribution bias

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

27. Dr. Garonski is testing his hypothesis that people use hand gestures more in communication when emotionally aroused than when calm. When his results were reviewed, it was noted that Dr. Garonski sometimes missed seeing small gestures in the calm condition. This is an example of the __________.

A) conjunctive fallacy

B) confirmation bias

Correct. Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek out information that supports our point of view and ignore evidence that contradicts our point of view.

C) attribution error

D) single-variable explanation

Incorrect. The tendency to only consider information that is consistent with our views is called confirmation bias.

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

28. When people watch a debate, they often point out the internal contradictions, flaws in logic, and hypocrisy in positions they oppose while glossing over the same shortcomings for positions they support. This is an example of __________.

A) the availability heuristic

B) belief perseverance

Incorrect. Belief perseverance occurs when we cling to a belief even after we’ve been shown evidence that it is wrong.

C) confirmation bias

Correct. Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek out information that supports our point of view and ignore evidence that contradicts our point of view.

D) healthy skepticism

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

29. Because none of us wants to believe we are wrong, we are usually reluctant to give up cherished notions. This phenomenon is known as __________.

A) belief perseverance

Correct. Belief perseverance is the tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them.

B) confirmation bias

Incorrect. Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our preexisting beliefs and to neglect contradictory evidence.

C) the availability heuristic

D) the fundamental attribution

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

30. Rona believes that women make better elementary school teachers than men because women are more nurturing and less legalistic. When you present her with data that indicate male teachers perform just as well as women at the elementary level, she tries to discredit the information. She even goes as far as to say, "I don't care what those studies show. We all know that women are better teachers!" Rona is a victim of __________.

A) confirmation bias

Incorrect. Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our preexisting beliefs and to neglect contradictory evidence.

B) naive realism

C) belief perseverance

Correct. Belief perseverance is the tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them.

D) critical thinking

Answer: C

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

31. Recall from your text that researchers gave students false feedback about their abilities to distinguish between false and real suicide notes. At the conclusion of the study, the researchers informed the students that their feedback was in no way related to their actual performance. However, on a subsequent task where the students had to estimate their performance on a similar task, they used this false feedback to guide their estimates. This is an example of __________.

A) belief perseverance

B) confirmation bias

C) the hindsight bias

D) overconfidence

Answer: A

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

32. Chandra believes that her astrological sign, Libra, provides a guide for her daily and weekly actions. She reads her horoscope every morning without fail, and even has an astrology application on her cell phone that regularly gives her “advice” on what to do as the day goes on. She tells her friends that the advice is always right, and the only time it makes a mistake is when she fails to do as it says. When they say it doesn’t work for them, she says, “That is because you don’t really believe in astrology!” Because Chandra’s beliefs are not truly open to being tested, they would be an example of a(n) __________ claim.

A) metaphysical

Correct. Metaphysical claims are those that are not directly testable and, by extension, not disprovable.

B) psychophysiological
C) religious

D) “Occam’s”

Incorrect. This answer confuses metaphysics with the philosophical precept of Occam’s Razor. The latter suggests that the simplest explanation for an event is usually the correct explanation.

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

33. Which of the following categories involves claims that are always untestable?

A) metaphysics

B) pseudoscience

C) science

D) popular psychology

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

34. Metaphysical claims might involve assertions about the existence of all but which of the following?

A) God

B) love

C) an afterlife

D) the soul

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

35. Dr. Simmons teaches philosophy and discusses several topics in the course, including religion. Paulo, a student in the class, believes that when he dies, he will be resurrected. Paulo’s claim falls under the area of __________.

A) metaphysics

Correct. Metaphysical claims make assertions that are not testable and relate to subjects like the existence of God,

the soul, and the afterlife.

B) science

C) pseudoscience

Incorrect. Assertions or beliefs about topics like God or the afterlife are central to the topic of metaphysics, not pseudoscience.

D) rational thinking

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

36. Scientist Stephen Jay Gould made which of the following contentions about the relationship between science and religion?

A) Religion and science can coexist, but are generally antithetical to each other.
B) Religion and science are inextricably linked and can never be separated from each other.
C) Where religion exists, science cannot. Where science exists, religion cannot.
D) Religion and science are entirely different and nonoverlapping realms of understanding the world.
Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

37. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the notion that science should be a “prescription for humility”?

A) “My data are flawless.”

B) “But I might be wrong.”

Correct. The willingness to accept that one’s findings might be incorrect is key to the idea that science should be an exercise in humility.

C) “I’ve proven my hypothesis.”

Incorrect. As your authors state, the idea of proving a phenomenon is something to be avoided in a science.

D) “There is no need to research that question because the answer is already clear.”

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

38. According to Firestein (2015) and McFall (1997), science can be usefully described as a prescription for __________.

A) chaos

B) order

C) proof

D) humility

Answer: D

Diff: 2

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.1b Explain the importance of science as a set of safeguards against biases.

Topic: What Is Psychology? Science Versus Intuition

39. According to the text authors, __________ of the claims made by self-help proponents have been scientifically examined.

A) few

B) many

C) none

D) roughly half

Answer: A

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.2a Describe psychological pseudoscience and distinguish it from psychological science.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

40. Ginny and Latroya are at the bookstore together, and Ginny is browsing in the “Self-Help” section. Latroya tells her not to bother with the books there, because her psychology textbook pointed out that about __________ percent of those books have never been properly examined using appropriate scientific research methods.

A) 25

B) 40

C) 75

D) 95

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 1.2a Describe psychological pseudoscience and distinguish it from psychological science.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

41. Jan decides to read a self-help book that is designed to help her get control over her eating habits and experience rapid “perfectly healthy” weight loss. Though the advice is very useful, Jan should be cautious in believing the results of this inventory because the results __________.

A) are factual

B) are based on scientific methods

Incorrect. In fact, many self-help products of this type have no basis in science and should only be considered entertainment.

C) may be part of the misinformation explosion

Correct. Despite the growth and accessibility of popular psychology, the industry has succumbed to the misinformation explosion, with little control over the quality of untested products.

D) may lead to better decision making

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 1.2a Describe psychological pseudoscience and distinguish it from psychological science.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

42. The major difference between pseudoscience and science is that __________.

A) pseudoscience addresses different questions than science

B) pseudoscience is less similar to popular psychology than science is

C) pseudoscience lacks the safeguards against cognitive biases that characterize science

D) pseudoscience lacks the general level of public support that characterizes science

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.2a Describe psychological pseudoscience and distinguish it from psychological science.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

43. The term __________ refers to a claim or statement that superficially appears to be scientific but is not.

A) misinformation

B) anecdotal evidence

C) pseudoscience

D) common sense

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.2a Describe psychological pseudoscience and distinguish it from psychological science.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

44. Which of the following statements would your authors probably find the most worrisome?

A) Being open-minded about topics associated with pseudoscience is no big deal.

B) The majority of Americans do not believe in the existence of ghosts or witches.

C) Pseudoscience seems to be so much more popular and accepted than science.

Correct. If people believe that the untested claims found in pseudoscience are more interesting than regular science, they will be likely to follow unproven and untested courses of action.

D) Science cannot answer all of the questions I am interested in, such as “Why am I here?” or “What is my life’s purpose?”

Incorrect. The recognition that science is imperfect and cannot answer every question is part of the humility that is required to be a scientist.

Answer: C

Diff: 1

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.2b Identify reasons we are drawn to pseudoscience.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

45. Imagine that you see the textbook authors on television talking with Larry King about popular psychology. What point are you most likely to hear them make?

A) All information from popular psychology and/or self-help is useless.

B) Beware of exaggerated claims without supporting evidence.

Correct. Remember that exaggerated claims require extraordinary evidence. When such evidence is absent, there is something to be wary of!

C) Psychology and medicine often marginalize those with ideas that differ from conventional wisdom.

D) Self-help therapies are rigorously tested before people can write books about them.

Incorrect. While some self-help programs are probably effective, a majority of them have not been supported by scientific research.

Answer: B

Diff: 2

Skill: Applied

APA LO: 1.3

TEXT LO: 1.2a Describe psychological pseudoscience and distinguish it from psychological science.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

46. The __________ hypothesis refers to an escape hatch or a loophole that defenders of a theory or belief can use to insulate their belief from falsification.

A) confirmatory

B) ad hoc immunizing

C) availability heuristic

D) representativeness

Answer: B

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 1.1

TEXT LO: 1.2a Describe psychological pseudoscience and distinguish it from psychological science.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

47. Which sin of pseudoscience is synonymous with stating an unfalsifiable hypothesis or theory?

A) evasion of peer review

B) lack of self-correction

Incorrect. A lack of self-correction is a serious problem with pseudoscience, but it is not directly related to the requirement of falsifiability in a theory.

C) overreliance on anecdotal evidence

D) overuse of ad hoc immunizing hypotheses

Correct. The ad hoc immunizing hypothesis is one that insulates itself from being proven wrong. In order for a hypothesis or theory to be useful, it must be capable of being falsified.

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Conceptual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 1.2a Describe psychological pseudoscience and distinguish it from psychological science.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

48. Which of the following is one of the classic warning signs of a pseudoscience?

A) overuse of peer review

B) underreliance on anecdotal evidence

C) an abundance of self-correction

D) use of meaningless psychobabble

Answer: D

Diff: 1

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 1.2a Describe psychological pseudoscience and distinguish it from psychological science.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

49. A key characteristic of a pseudoscience is that incorrect theories are __________.

A) discarded

B) formulated and revised as needed

C) never corrected or changed

D) seldom believed by the general public

Answer: C

Diff: 2

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 1.2a Describe psychological pseudoscience and distinguish it from psychological science.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

50. Which of the following is found in science but NOT in pseudoscience?

A) amazing, counterintuitive claims

B) the presence of difficult-to-understand jargon or technical information

Incorrect. In fact, the more psychobabble jargon that is used, the more pseudoscientific a claim is.

C) reliance on anecdotal evidence to support one’s theory of human behavior

D) self-correction of incorrect hypotheses and theories

Correct. In pseudoscience, hypotheses that are not supported by the data are rarely adjusted. In a science, theories are adapted to the evidence that is gathered about them.

Answer: D

Diff: 3

Skill: Factual

APA LO: 2.1

TEXT LO: 1.2a Describe psychological pseudoscience and distinguish it from psychological science.

Topic: Psychological Pseudoscience: Imposters of Science

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