Test Bank Psychology in Modules 13th Edition by David G. Myers

$70.00
Test Bank Psychology in Modules 13th Edition by David G. Myers

Test Bank Psychology in Modules 13th Edition by David G. Myers

$70.00
Test Bank Psychology in Modules 13th Edition by David G. Myers

Test Bank Psychology in Modules 13th Edition by David G. Myers

1. Which of the following is an evidence-based method that draws on observation and experimentation?

a.

critical thinking

b.

structuralism

c.

empirical approach

d.

humanistic psychology

ANSWER:

c

2. Professor Thomas uses scientific procedures to test whether watching violent movies increases the frequency of emotionally upsetting dreams among participants. This best illustrates

a.

functionalism.

b.

Freudian psychology.

c.

an empirical approach.

d.

positive psychology.

ANSWER:

c

3. In a research study that asked 40,000 teens to identify math concepts they knew, males from advantaged backgrounds

a.

claimed to know nonexistent concepts.

b.

recalled fewer terms than females from advantaged backgrounds.

c.

recalled more terms than females from advantaged backgrounds.

d.

could not remember anything.

ANSWER:

a

4. One of psychology's early mottos was "The rat is always right." Which aspect of the scientific attitude did this represent?

a.

humility

b.

respect for animals

c.

curiosity

d.

skepticism

ANSWER:

a

5. Stephanie suffers from severe depression and is undergoing a treatment in which electric shocks are delivered to her brain. What type of therapy is she receiving?

a.

psychodynamic therapy

b.

electroconvulsive therapy

c.

behavioral therapy

d.

cognitive therapy

ANSWER:

b

6. Less helpfulness and lower academic confidence have been associated with

a.

enhanced critical thinking.

b.

a lack of curiosity.

c.

increased skepticism.

d.

a lack of humility.

ANSWER:

d

7. Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are

a.

pride, enthusiasm, and ingenuity.

b.

ingenuity, practicality, and certainty.

c.

certainty, creativity, and curiosity.

d.

curiosity, skepticism, and humility.

ANSWER:

d

8. A desire to be able to confirm predictions is related to

a.

overconfidence.

b.

curiosity.

c.

humility.

d.

skepticism.

ANSWER:

b

9. In conducting research, Douglas demonstrates a scientific attitude. Which of the following characteristics is part of that attitude?

a.

curiosity

b.

indifference

c.

certainty

d.

sureness

ANSWER:

a

10. Virginia insists that Dr. Chewning's theory regarding violent behavior be checked against observable evidence. She is demonstrating the scientific attitude of

a.

pride.

b.

skepticism.

c.

practicality.

d.

enthusiasm.

ANSWER:

b

11. The scientific attitude requires an open-minded humility because it involves a willingness to

a.

perceive order in random events.

b.

reject any ideas that can't be scientifically tested.

c.

recognize the errors in our own ideas.

d.

respect political beliefs that contradict our own.

ANSWER:

c

12. The statement that "the rat is always right" refers to which aspect of the scientific attitude?

a.

humility

b.

respect for animals

c.

curiosity

d.

skepticism

ANSWER:

a

13. Critical thinking involves all of the following EXCEPT

a.

appraising the source of information.

b.

automatic acceptance of information.

c.

evaluating provided evidence.

d.

assessing conclusions.

ANSWER:

b

14. Patricia recently read an online article about the meaning of horoscopes, which explained how the locations of the stars at one's birth determines one's personality and life course. Patricia is not convinced that this information is accurate and so she is quite skeptical. She has concluded that the assumptions and conclusions of this article are faulty, that the writer is biased and lacks credibility, and that the evidence to support this claim does not justify a cause-effect conclusion. Patricia has engaged in

a.

critical thinking.

b.

introspection.

c.

speculation.

d.

emergent thinking.

ANSWER:

a

15. Reasoning that does not blindly accept available arguments and conclusions illustrates

a.

introspection.

b.

critical thinking.

c.

the psychodynamic perspective.

d.

an empirical approach.

ANSWER:

b

16. Critical thinking most clearly involves

a.

a biopsychosocial approach.

b.

introspection.

c.

evaluating evidence.

d.

the psychodynamic perspective.

ANSWER:

c

17. A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates

a.

behaviorism.

b.

critical thinking.

c.

introspection.

d.

Freudian psychology.

ANSWER:

b

18. Jennifer was worried that the wording of the questions in a diet and exercise survey may have encouraged respondents to express unusually positive levels of health. Jennifer's concern best illustrates

a.

behavior genetics.

b.

skepticism.

c.

critical thinking.

d.

the neuroscience perspective.

ANSWER:

c

19. Questioning whether conclusions are warranted by the existing evidence best illustrates

a.

critical thinking.

b.

functionalism.

c.

a biopsychosocial approach.

d.

introspection.

ANSWER:

a

20. When you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are most clearly demonstrating

a.

functionalism.

b.

behaviorism.

c.

an empirical approach.

d.

critical thinking.

ANSWER:

d

21. Shane is discussing climate change with Brandon. Shane does not believe that climate change is real and is trying to convince Brandon that climate change is not real. Brandon believes that climate change is real but is open to the possibility that he could be wrong. Who would be most likely to engage in critical thinking?

a.

Shane

b.

Brandon

c.

both Shane and Brandon

d.

neither Shane nor Brandon

ANSWER:

b

22. Which of the following is NOT associated with critical thinking?

a.

debunking popular presumptions

b.

following hidden biases

c.

leading to surprising findings

d.

identifying effective policies

ANSWER:

b

23. Janice is concerned about pollution and its effects on the planet. She has read several news articles, paying careful attention to the content in the articles and the sources of the information. She has also reviewed information that seems contrary to her view. She is involved in

a.

critical thinking.

b.

skepticism.

c.

making assumptions.

d.

sharing false information.

ANSWER:

a

24. Who speculated that a meal makes us sleepy by causing gas and heat to collect around our heart?

a.

Aristotle

b.

Plato

c.

Descartes

d.

Locke

ANSWER:

a

25. Aristotle suggested that the source of our personality is the

a.

brain.

b.

throat.

c.

heart.

d.

stomach.

ANSWER:

c

26. Who developed the first psychological laboratory?

a.

Wundt

b.

Plato

c.

Freud

d.

James

ANSWER:

a

27. Wilhelm Wundt developed the first _______ used in psychology, which measured how long it took people to press a telegraph key after hearing a ball hit a platform.

a.

developmental study

b.

theoretical perspective

c.

experimental apparatus

d.

subfield

ANSWER:

c

28. Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of

a.

animal intelligence.

b.

personality development.

c.

social influence.

d.

mental processes.

ANSWER:

d

29. The birth of psychology is often attributed to Wilhelm Wundt because he pioneered the investigation of mental processes using

a.

a biopsychosocial perspective.

b.

an evolutionary perspective.

c.

positive psychology.

d.

scientific methods.

ANSWER:

d

30. Which early psychologist aimed to discover the mind's structure?

a.

Edward Bradford Titchener

b.

William James

c.

John Locke

d.

Wilhelm Wundt

ANSWER:

a

31. Which school of thought in psychology focused on the structure of the human mind?

a.

functionalism

b.

behaviorism

c.

structuralism

d.

humanism

ANSWER:

c

32. The early school of thought that used introspection to reveal the mind's makeup was called

a.

cognitive neuroscience.

b.

behaviorism.

c.

structuralism.

d.

evolutionary psychology.

ANSWER:

c

33. Introspection was the basic research tool used by _______ in order to study people's inner sensations and mental images.

a.

John B. Watson

b.

Charles Darwin

c.

Edward Titchener

d.

B. F. Skinner

ANSWER:

c

34. Looking inward and reporting your immediate sensations, images, and feelings is called

a.

cognitive neuroscience.

b.

introspection.

c.

behaviorism.

d.

humanistic psychology.

ANSWER:

b

35. Antonio and other research participants are asked to report elements of their experience as they looked at differently shaped objects. This research involves a technique known as

a.

behavior genetics.

b.

psychoanalysis.

c.

massed practice.

d.

introspection.

ANSWER:

d

36. The unreliability of _______ led to the waning popularity of structuralism.

a.

introspection

b.

spaced practice

c.

behaviorism

d.

humanistic psychology

ANSWER:

a

37. Which early school of thought in psychology focused on how the mind functions?

a.

behaviorism

b.

functionalism

c.

structuralism

d.

humanism

ANSWER:

b

38. William James was a prominent American

a.

psychoanalyst.

b.

behaviorist.

c.

functionalist.

d.

psychiatrist.

ANSWER:

c

39. Which early psychologist aimed to study the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings?

a.

Edward Bradford Titchener

b.

William James

c.

John Locke

d.

Wilhelm Wundt

ANSWER:

b

40. The work of philosopher-psychologist William James was heavily influenced by

a.

Sigmund Freud.

b.

Charles Darwin.

c.

Ivan Pavlov.

d.

Edward Titchener.

ANSWER:

b

41. Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the

a.

adaptive value of thoughts and behaviors.

b.

component elements of sensory experience.

c.

disruptive effects of unconscious motives.

d.

treatment of psychological disorders.

ANSWER:

a

42. Edward Titchener is to William James as structuralism is to

a.

behaviorism.

b.

humanistic psychology.

c.

functionalism.

d.

psychoanalytic psychology.

ANSWER:

c

43. Who was the American philosopher-psychologist who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?

a.

Wilhelm Wundt

b.

John B. Watson

c.

Sigmund Freud

d.

William James

ANSWER:

d

44. The psychology textbook that William James took 12 years to author was titled

a.

The New Science.

b.

Psychology.

c.

Principles of Psychology.

d.

The Abstract Mind.

ANSWER:

c

45. Which theorist most clearly influenced William James' efforts to understand the adaptive functions of thinking and consciousness?

a.

John B. Watson

b.

Sigmund Freud

c.

Carl Rogers

d.

Charles Darwin

ANSWER:

d

46. Edward Titchener is to structuralism as William James is to

a.

behaviorism.

b.

humanistic psychology.

c.

cognitive neuroscience.

d.

functionalism.

ANSWER:

d

47. Who was a student of William James and the first female president of the American Psychological Association?

a.

Jean Piaget

b.

Margaret Floy Washburn

c.

Rosalie Rayner

d.

Mary Whiton Calkins

ANSWER:

d

48. Which psychologist was the first woman to officially earn a doctorate degree and was the author of the influential book, The Animal Mind?

a.

Margaret Floy Washburn

b.

Mary Whiton Calkins

c.

Anna Freud

d.

Marla Wundt

ANSWER:

a

49. Between 1997 and 2019, more than _______ percent of the elected presidents of the Association for Psychological Science were women.

a.

10

b.

25

c.

50

d.

75

ANSWER:

c

50. Which of the following people is most likely to earn a doctorate degree in psychology today?

a.

Samantha, who is from the United States

b.

Nick, who is from Canada

c.

Margo, who is from Mexico

d.

Steven, who is from Europe

ANSWER:

a

51. Early psychologists such as Wilhelm Wundt and William James focused on the study of

a.

mental processes.

b.

clinical psychology.

c.

unconscious motives.

d.

conditioned responses.

ANSWER:

a

52. Beginning in the 1920s, American psychologists such as John B. Watson emphasized the study of

a.

genetic influences.

b.

self-esteem.

c.

conscious thoughts and feelings.

d.

observable behavior.

ANSWER:

d

53. The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as

a.

behaviorism.

b.

cognitive neuroscience.

c.

humanistic psychology.

d.

positive psychology.

ANSWER:

a

54. John B. Watson was an American

a.

psychiatrist.

b.

behaviorist.

c.

cognitive neuroscientist.

d.

structuralist.

ANSWER:

b

55. Behaviorists dismissed the value of

a.

science.

b.

introspection.

c.

spaced practice.

d.

applied research.

ANSWER:

b

56. Observing and recording people's behavior as they are conditioned was of most central interest to

a.

Freudian psychology.

b.

humanistic psychology.

c.

behaviorism.

d.

structuralism.

ANSWER:

c

57. Beverly is observing how children react to being pushed by other children while playing in the schoolyard. Which psychological perspective is she likely applying to her research?

a.

behaviorism

b.

Freudian psychology

c.

humanistic psychology

d.

cognitive psychology

ANSWER:

a

58. Which of the following is a conditioned behavior that can be observed?

a.

anxiety

b.

intelligence

c.

depression

d.

crying

ANSWER:

d

59. Early behaviorists such as John B. Watson would have considered the introspective study of self-esteem to be

a.

applied research.

b.

a positive psychology.

c.

an unscientific method.

d.

a biopsychosocial approach.

ANSWER:

c

60. John B. Watson is to Edward Titchener as _______ is to ________.

a.

biology; environment

b.

observable behavior; inner sensations

c.

mental illness; psychiatry

d.

cognitive perspective; psychodynamic perspective

ANSWER:

b

61. Which major force in psychology emphasized unconscious thought processes?

a.

evolutionary psychology

b.

Freudian psychology

c.

behavior genetics

d.

behaviorism

ANSWER:

b

62. Who developed psychoanalytic psychology?

a.

John B. Watson

b.

Sigmund Freud

c.

B. F. Skinner

d.

William James

ANSWER:

b

63. Elena is spends most of her time helping others. Her mother suggests that by keeping busy in this way Elena avoids confronting her own unconscious sexual conflicts. Her mother's suggestion illustrates the type of explanation that is most typical of

a.

evolutionary psychology.

b.

cognitive neuroscience.

c.

structuralism.

d.

Freudian psychology.

ANSWER:

d

64. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow promoted a historically significant approach known as

a.

behaviorism.

b.

humanistic psychology.

c.

cognitive neuroscience.

d.

behavior genetics.

ANSWER:

b

65. Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people's

a.

childhood memories.

b.

genetic predispositions.

c.

unconscious thought processes.

d.

growth potential.

ANSWER:

d

66. Dr. Anderson is a therapist who tends to focus on his clients' growth potential and their need for love and acceptance. Dr. Anderson's area of specialization is

a.

humanistic psychology.

b.

cognitive psychology.

c.

personality psychology.

d.

behaviorism.

ANSWER:

a

67. Beginning in the 1960s, psychological science returned to its earlier interest in mental processes. This movement was inspired by the

a.

emergence of community psychology.

b.

push for a positive psychology.

c.

cognitive revolution.

d.

free love movement.

ANSWER:

c

68. Cognitive psychology

a.

emphasized the effects of learning.

b.

focused on unconscious aspects of the mind.

c.

focused on the positive potential of people.

d.

emphasized the study of mental processes.

ANSWER:

d

69. Professor Istrati is examining the effect that the early death of a parent has on adult children's feelings of security. The attitude regarding feelings of security can be considered a(n)

a.

behavior.

b.

action.

c.

mental process.

d.

conclusion.

ANSWER:

c

70. In the 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of

a.

mental processes.

b.

hereditary influences.

c.

unconscious motives.

d.

learned behaviors.

ANSWER:

a

71. The scientific study of mental activities associated with perceiving, processing, and remembering information is most central to

a.

clinical psychology.

b.

humanistic psychology.

c.

evolutionary psychology.

d.

cognitive psychology.

ANSWER:

d

72. Professor Duncan studies how people learn new information and how additional stimuli affect coding and memory. Professor Duncan's area of specialization is

a.

humanistic psychology.

b.

cognitive psychology.

c.

personality psychology.

d.

behaviorism.

ANSWER:

b

73. The branch of psychology that can be considered a marriage between the science of the mind and the science of the brain is called

a.

behaviorism.

b.

Freudian psychology.

c.

neuroscience.

d.

cognitive neuroscience.

ANSWER:

d

74. The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity that underlies mental activity is

a.

behavior genetics.

b.

cognitive neuroscience.

c.

behaviorism.

d.

evolutionary psychology.

ANSWER:

b

75. Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between

a.

natural selection and genetic predispositions.

b.

childhood memories and psychological disorders.

c.

thought processes and brain functions.

d.

philosophy and physiology.

ANSWER:

c

76. Professor Thomas is investigating patterns of brain activity that accompany people's memories of the day they graduated from college. Professor Thomas is interested in

a.

behavior genetics.

b.

cognitive neuroscience.

c.

evolutionary psychology.

d.

functionalism.

ANSWER:

b

77. Psychology is currently best defined as the science of

a.

conscious and unconscious mental activity.

b.

observable responses to the environment.

c.

behavior and mental processes.

d.

maladaptive and adaptive behaviors.

ANSWER:

c

78. In the following definition of psychologythe science of behavior and mental processes—what is the key word?

a.

behavior

b.

science

c.

mental processes

d.

all words are key words

ANSWER:

b

79. Mark is defining psychology for a classmate who is thinking about taking a course. Which definition of psychology is most accurate?

a.

Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.

b.

Psychology is the study of mental processes.

c.

Psychology is a therapeutic perspective that emphasizes human growth potential.

d.

Psychology is the study of the structure of the human mind.

ANSWER:

a

80. Smiling is to feeling as _______ is to ________.

a.

evolution; natural selection

b.

behavior; mental process

c.

conscious; unconscious

d.

nurture; nature

ANSWER:

b

81. The young science of psychology developed from the more established fields of philosophy and

a.

economics.

b.

biology.

c.

geography.

d.

sociology.

ANSWER:

b

82. The personality theorist Sigmund Freud was an Austrian

a.

chemist.

b.

physician.

c.

theologian.

d.

politician.

ANSWER:

b

83. One of the last century's most influential observers of children was the Swiss biologist

a.

Edward Bradford Titchener.

b.

Margaret Floy Washburn.

c.

William James.

d.

Jean Piaget.

ANSWER:

d

84. The fact that the International Union of Psychological Science now has 82 member nations illustrates that psychology is

a.

a Western field of study.

b.

decreasing in popularity.

c.

viewed as a science.

d.

growing and globalizing.

ANSWER:

d

85. Today's psychology is best described as increasingly

a.

introspective in its methods.

b.

psychodynamic it its perspective.

c.

globalized in its influence.

d.

controversial in its application.

ANSWER:

c

86. The first university psychology department in China was established in

a.

1952.

b.

1978.

c.

2010.

d.

2016.

ANSWER:

b

87. The nature–nurture issue refers to the debate over the relative contributions that _______ make to the development of psychological traits.

a.

massed practice and spaced practice

b.

unconscious and conscious motives

c.

behavior and mental processes

d.

genes and experience

ANSWER:

d

88. Innate ability is to learned skill as _______ is to ________.

a.

observation; introspection

b.

psychology; psychiatry

c.

nature; nurture

d.

behavior; mental processes

ANSWER:

c

89. Efforts to learn whether children's personalities are more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environment are most directly relevant to the debate regarding

a.

structuralism and functionalism.

b.

conscious and unconscious thought.

c.

observation and introspection.

d.

nature and nurture.

ANSWER:

d

90. Veronica wonders whether differences in the sociability of her friends who recently moved from Rwanda and those who moved from the Philippines result primarily from biological influences or from cultural influences. In this instance, Veronica is primarily concerned with the relative contributions of

a.

neuroscience and cognition.

b.

nature and nurture.

c.

behavior and mental processes.

d.

conscious and unconscious thoughts.

ANSWER:

b

91. Plato's assumption that we inherit character traits and intelligence is most directly relevant to the controversy regarding

a.

conscious and unconscious thoughts.

b.

observation and introspection.

c.

nature and nurture.

d.

basic and applied research.

ANSWER:

c

92. In the context of debates over the origins of psychological traits, nature is to nurture as

a.

Plato is to Aristotle.

b.

Watson is to Skinner.

c.

Aristotle is to Plato.

d.

Skinner is to Watson.

ANSWER:

a

93. Professor Tebbeb believes that young children are frequently able to make morally correct decisions because humans are endowed with an inborn knowledge of basic ethical principles. The professor's belief is most consistent with the views of

a.

Aristotle.

b.

Plato.

c.

John Locke.

d.

B. F. Skinner.

ANSWER:

b

94. Who suggested that the mind at birth is a blank sheet upon which experience writes?

a.

Charles Darwin

b.

René Descartes

c.

John Locke

d.

Plato

ANSWER:

c

95. Which seventeenth-century European philosopher believed that some ideas are innate?

a.

John Locke

b.

Ivan Pavlov

c.

Edward Titchener

d.

René Descartes

ANSWER:

d

96. The English naturalist whose thinking about species variation led to evolutionary psychology was

a.

Ivan Pavlov.

b.

Charles Darwin.

c.

John B. Watson.

d.

Carl Rogers.

ANSWER:

b

97. Who highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits?

a.

Plato

b.

Aristotle

c.

John Locke

d.

Charles Darwin

ANSWER:

d

98. Charles Darwin attempted to explain the _______ that he encountered.

a.

unconscious thought processes

b.

species variation

c.

biopsychosocial approach

d.

SQ3R method

ANSWER:

b

99. The survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as

a.

functionalism.

b.

natural selection.

c.

behavior genetics.

d.

structuralism.

ANSWER:

b

100. Natural selection refers to the principle that variations in _______ that contribute to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

a.

learned habits

b.

inherited traits

c.

levels of analysis

d.

cultural practices

ANSWER:

b

101. Exploring how we humans are alike because of our common biology and evolutionary history is the focus of

a.

cognitive neuroscience.

b.

community psychology.

c.

behavior genetics.

d.

evolutionary psychology.

ANSWER:

d

102. Exploring how we individually differ because of our differing genes and environments is the focus of

a.

behavior genetics.

b.

cognitive psychology.

c.

evolutionary psychology.

d.

humanistic psychology.

ANSWER:

a

103. By suggesting that nurture works on what nature provides, psychologists highlight the fact that we are biologically endowed with

a.

inborn ideas.

b.

natural selection.

c.

introspection.

d.

brain plasticity.

ANSWER:

d

104. Zack has advanced in competitive gymnastics rather quickly because he is genetically predisposed to enjoy competition and is physically quite flexible. This best illustrates that

a.

nature outweighs the importance of nurture.

b.

nature limits our adaptive capacities.

c.

nurture works on what nature provides.

d.

nature selects traits that contribute to survival.

ANSWER:

c

105. The enduring traditions, values, attitudes, ideas, and behaviors shared by a group of people constitute their

a.

culture.

b.

levels of analysis.

c.

massed practice.

d.

community psychology.

ANSWER:

a

106. The transmission of customs for showing respect to those in positions of authority best illustrates the importance of

a.

functionalism.

b.

culture.

c.

introspection.

d.

behavior genetics.

ANSWER:

b

107. Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for

a.

promoting the testing effect.

b.

inhibiting introspection.

c.

discerning human similarities and differences.

d.

encouraging massed practice.

ANSWER:

c

108. Mandi's grandmother has taught Mandi how to cook and sew and has explained to Mandi that these are important skills for women in their country. This illustrates how

a.

grandparents can influence their families.

b.

grandparents have more influence on young people than parents do.

c.

gender stereotypes are formed.

d.

culture may influence views related to gender.

ANSWER:

d

109. The fact that people diagnosed with specific learning disorder exhibit the same brain malfunctions whether they are Italian, French, or British demonstrates that

a.

people are heavily influenced by their society and culture.

b.

genetics and biology are more influential on developmental outcomes than environment is.

c.

the same underlying processes guide people everywhere.

d.

there are cultural variations in the expression of developmental commonalities.

ANSWER:

c

110. People from around the world are able to communicate through facial expressions, such as a smile or a frown. This demonstrates that

a.

people are heavily influenced by their society and culture.

b.

genetics and biology are more influential on developmental outcomes than one's environment.

c.

the same underlying processes guide people everywhere.

d.

there are cultural variations in the expression of developmental commonalities.

ANSWER:

c

111. Across cultures, loneliness is magnified by shyness and low self-esteem. This demonstrates that

a.

people are heavily influenced by their society and culture.

b.

genetics and biology are more influential on developmental outcomes than one's environment.

c.

the same underlying processes guide people everywhere.

d.

there are cultural variations in the expression of developmental commonalities.

ANSWER:

c

112. Which of the following best compares gender identity and sex?

a.

Gender identity is biologically influenced, whereas sex is our sense of being male, female, neither, or some combination of male and female.

b.

Gender identity and sex are both biologically influenced, but only sex is our sense of being male, female, neither, or some combination of male and female.

c.

Sex is biologically influenced, whereas gender identity is our sense of being male, female, neither, or some combination of male and female.

d.

Gender identity and sex both refer to our sense of being male, female, neither, or some combination of male and female, but only gender identity is biologically influenced.

ANSWER:

c

113. The risk of being color deficient is greater for men than for women. This best illustrates an important

a.

conditioned response.

b.

psychodynamic perspective.

c.

empirical approach.

d.

gender difference.

ANSWER:

d

114. Psychological differences between the genders are

a.

of little interest to contemporary psychologists.

b.

simply reflections of biological differences between the sexes.

c.

no longer evident in contemporary Western societies.

d.

far outweighed by gender similarities.

ANSWER:

d

115. Which of the following is NOT a documented gender difference?

a.

what we dream

b.

emotional expression

c.

depression rates

d.

developmental milestones

ANSWER:

d

116. How are Jennifer and Daniel most likely to differ?

a.

memory storage of emotional events

b.

progression of developmental milestones

c.

overall intelligence

d.

emotional expression

ANSWER:

d

117. Martin Seligman calls for a positive psychology that focuses on such topics as

a.

prejudice.

b.

compassion.

c.

depression.

d.

poverty.

ANSWER:

b

118. Positive psychology uniquely focuses on the promotion of positive

a.

curiosity, skepticism, and humility.

b.

emotions, character traits, and institutions.

c.

descriptive, correlational, and experimental methods.

d.

classroom instruction, study techniques, and test grades.

ANSWER:

b

119. Discovering and promoting human strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive is the major focus of

a.

the psychodynamic perspective.

b.

positive psychology.

c.

evolutionary psychology.

d.

behavior genetics.

ANSWER:

b

120. Research on human flourishing is the major focus of

a.

the psychodynamic perspective.

b.

behavior genetics.

c.

naturalistic observation.

d.

positive psychology.

ANSWER:

d

121. Dr. Salvia is studying how happiness in late adulthood relates to a person's social network and social connectedness. Her approach is called

a.

cognitive psychology.

b.

positive psychology.

c.

evolutionary psychology.

d.

the biopsychosocial approach.

ANSWER:

b

122. Professor Kurtines is researching the psychological benefit of friendships during adolescence. His research is best aligned with which approach to psychology?

a.

cognitive psychology

b.

positive psychology

c.

evolutionary psychology

d.

the biopsychosocial approach

ANSWER:

b

123. Different accounts of the same behavior that together give us a more complete understanding represent different

a.

cognitive functions.

b.

unconscious motives.

c.

levels of analysis.

d.

natural selections.

ANSWER:

c

124. Clinical psychologists use the _____ to help people with mental disorders.

a.

biopsychosocial approach

b.

psychodynamic perspective

c.

behavioral approach

d.

social-cultural perspective

ANSWER:

a

125. Professor Andres is examining brain circuits that may cause people to be red in the face when angry. Which perspective is she using?

a.

neuroscience

b.

evolutionary

c.

behavior genetics

d.

psychodynamic

ANSWER:

a

126. Jeremy is interested in how anger facilitated the survival of our ancestor's genes. He is studying anger based on which perspective?

a.

neuroscience

b.

evolutionary

c.

behavior genetics

d.

psychodynamic

ANSWER:

b

127. We live in a family that resides in a community that is part of a larger society. This demonstrates that we are

a.

biological systems.

b.

impressionable systems.

c.

neurological systems.

d.

biopsychosocial systems.

ANSWER:

d

128. The biopsychosocial approach provides an understanding of social-cultural influences integrated within the larger framework of

a.

SQ3R.

b.

introspection.

c.

humanistic psychology.

d.

multiple levels of analysis.

ANSWER:

d

129. Janna has low self-esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. Appreciating the complexity of Janna's difficulties requires

a.

introspection.

b.

psychoanalysis.

c.

massed practice.

d.

a biopsychosocial approach.

ANSWER:

d

130. The biopsychosocial approach incorporates different levels of analysis, which

a.

have little value for applied research.

b.

typically contradict common sense.

c.

are generally impossible to test scientifically.

d.

complement one another.

ANSWER:

d

131. Which of the following is NOT a biological influence on behavior or mental processes, according to the biopsychosocial approach?

a.

cognitive processing

b.

genetic predispositions

c.

genetic mutations

d.

natural selection

ANSWER:

a

132. Dr. Gormley is studying how family expectations affect people's behavior. She is examining the _______ influence on behavior and mental processes, according to the biopsychosocial perspective.

a.

social-cultural

b.

biological

c.

psychological

d.

cognitive

ANSWER:

a

133. The neuroscience perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by

a.

environmental circumstances.

b.

blood chemistry.

c.

unconscious conflicts.

d.

subjective interpretations.

ANSWER:

b

134. Which perspective would help us to understand the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?

a.

evolutionary

b.

behavioral

c.

psychodynamic

d.

neuroscience

ANSWER:

d

135. Professor Kountouri believes that anxiety disorders result primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain circuitry. Professor Kountouri favors a _______ perspective on depression.

a.

neuroscience

b.

psychodynamic

c.

behavior genetics

d.

cognitive

ANSWER:

a

136. Which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits?

a.

evolutionary

b.

cognitive

c.

behavioral

d.

social-cultural

ANSWER:

a

137. Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions associated with the emotions of lust and rage are inherited?

a.

cognitive

b.

behavioral

c.

evolutionary

d.

social-cultural

ANSWER:

c

138. Professor Delos believes that most men prefer physically attractive and well-built partners because this preference promoted the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the _______ perspective.

a.

social-cultural

b.

cognitive

c.

evolutionary

d.

psychodynamic

ANSWER:

c

139. Which perspective studies the relative contributions of our genes and our environment on our individual differences?

a.

cognitive

b.

behavior genetics

c.

social-cultural

d.

psychodynamic

ANSWER:

b

140. Professor Thornton is studying experiences that influence genetic expression. He is most likely studying

a.

behavior genetics.

b.

gender psychology.

c.

cross-cultural psychology.

d.

positive psychology.

ANSWER:

a

141. Professor Benson attempts to measure the relative contributions of inborn traits and social influences on mating preferences. Her research efforts best illustrate the interests of the _______ perspective.

a.

behavior genetics

b.

psychodynamic

c.

behavioral

d.

cognitive

ANSWER:

a

142. The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on

a.

natural selection.

b.

brain chemistry.

c.

unconscious conflicts.

d.

learned behaviors.

ANSWER:

c

143. Mrs. Wescon believes that her husband's angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. Mrs. Wescon is looking at her husband's behavior from a(n) _______ perspective.

a.

evolutionary

b.

behavioral

c.

psychodynamic

d.

behavior genetics

ANSWER:

c

144. Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?

a.

evolutionary

b.

neuroscience

c.

behavioral

d.

behavior genetics

ANSWER:

c

145. Maria believes that her daughter has become a good student because she frequently praises her daughter's learning efforts. Her belief best illustrates a _______ perspective.

a.

behavior genetics

b.

neuroscience

c.

psychodynamic

d.

behavioral

ANSWER:

d

146. Professor James is studying how mice navigate a new maze. His research study is most consistent with the ________ perspective.

a.

humanistic

b.

cognitive

c.

cognitive neuroscience

d.

behavioral

ANSWER:

d

147. The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how

a.

feelings are influenced by blood chemistry.

b.

people try to understand their own unconscious motives.

c.

behavior is influenced by environmental conditions.

d.

people encode, process, store, and retrieve information.

ANSWER:

d

148. Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?

a.

behavioral

b.

cognitive

c.

neuroscience

d.

behavior genetics

ANSWER:

b

149. Which psychological perspective is most likely to be concerned with identifying the powers and the limits of human reasoning?

a.

cognitive

b.

behavioral

c.

neuroscience

d.

behavior genetics

ANSWER:

a

150. Professor Warburton is interested in memory processes and how retrieval of information is influenced by current schema activation. He is working from the _______ perspective.

a.

neuroscience

b.

evolutionary

c.

psychodynamic

d.

cognitive

ANSWER:

d

151. Dr. McAllister is studying anger as it relates to violent criminal offenders. He is particularly interested in how environmental circumstances relate to feelings of anger among these offenders, as well as how feelings of anger affect thought processes. He is working from a(n) _______ perspective.

a.

evolutionary

b.

behavioral

c.

cognitive

d.

psychodynamic

ANSWER:

c

152. Professor Alvarez is studying divided attention and its impact on memory. This research topic is consistent with the _______ perspective.

a.

humanistic

b.

cognitive

c.

cognitive neuroscience

d.

behavioral

ANSWER:

b

153. Memory processes are to the _______ perspective as cultures are to the _______ perspective.

a.

cognitive; social-cultural

b.

neuroscience; evolutionary

c.

behavior genetics; behavioral

d.

psychodynamic; neuroscience

ANSWER:

a

154. Which perspective in psychology is most likely to focus on how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures?

a.

evolutionary

b.

neuroscience

c.

cognitive

d.

social-cultural

ANSWER:

d

155. Which perspective in psychology would focus on the extent to which different parenting styles are encouraged among various ethnic groups?

a.

evolutionary

b.

developmental

c.

social cultural

d.

neuroscience

ANSWER:

c

156. Dr. Wertheim believes that many teens are members of a street gang because of the human need to belong. Her account best illustrates a(n) _______ perspective.

a.

behavior genetics

b.

social-cultural

c.

neuroscience

d.

evolutionary

ANSWER:

b

157. Studies conducted for the sake of building psychology's base of knowledge are most clearly examples of

a.

the testing effect.

b.

replication.

c.

basic research.

d.

positive psychology.

ANSWER:

c

158. ________ psychologists study the connection between the brain and the mind.

a.

Developmental

b.

Biological

c.

Cognitive

d.

Personality

ANSWER:

b

159. Dr. Rogers conducts research on the relationship between brain chemistry and intellectual functioning. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Rogers' research best represent?

a.

social psychology

b.

clinical psychology

c.

biological psychology

d.

industrial-organizational psychology

ANSWER:

c

160. Dr. Stembridge conducts research on how children's reasoning power changes as they grow older. It is most likely that Dr. Stembridge is a(n) ________ psychologist.

a.

social

b.

clinical

c.

developmental

d.

industrial-organizational

ANSWER:

c

161. Dr. Carson conducts research on the relationship between adults' language skills and their capacity to solve mathematical problems. Dr. Carson is most likely a ________ psychologist.

a.

cognitive

b.

biological

c.

clinical

d.

social

ANSWER:

a

162. Which subfield in psychology investigates persistent traits?

a.

developmental psychology

b.

biological psychology

c.

cognitive psychology

d.

personality psychology

ANSWER:

d

163. Dr. Michelin studies how best to assess gender similarities and differences in traits such as emotional expression and sociability. Which specialty area does her research best represent?

a.

social psychology

b.

biological psychology

c.

industrial-organizational psychology

d.

personality psychology

ANSWER:

d

164. Dr. Vescio conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent?

a.

cognitive psychology

b.

social psychology

c.

developmental psychology

d.

clinical psychology

ANSWER:

b

165. Which psychologists are MOST likely to be involved in applied research?

a.

industrial-organizational psychologists

b.

developmental psychologists

c.

personality psychologists

d.

biological psychologists

ANSWER:

a

166. Which subfield of psychology investigates workplace-related behaviors?

a.

cognitive psychology

b.

social psychology

c.

industrial-organizational psychology

d.

biological psychology

ANSWER:

c

167. Dr. Lipka focuses on ways to improve employee job satisfaction and productivity. Dr. Lipka is most likely a(n) _______ psychologist.

a.

clinical

b.

developmental

c.

personality

d.

industrial-organizational

ANSWER:

d

168. Dr. Vazquez helps people make career choices by assisting them in identifying their strengths and interests. Dr. Vazquez is most likely a

a.

biological psychologist.

b.

counseling psychologist.

c.

cognitive psychologist.

d.

social psychologist.

ANSWER:

b

169. Clinical psychologists specialize in

a.

constructing surveys.

b.

animal research.

c.

providing therapy to troubled people.

d.

providing drugs to treat behavioral disorders.

ANSWER:

c

170. Joshua has suddenly and unexpectedly begun to feel so depressed that he frequently stays home from school. It would be best for Joshua to contact a _______ psychologist.

a.

community

b.

clinical

c.

personality

d.

biological

ANSWER:

b

171. The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a

a.

clinical psychologist.

b.

personality psychologist.

c.

developmental psychologist.

d.

psychiatrist.

ANSWER:

d

172. Dr. Simpson has a medical license and so is licensed to prescribe drugs. She is most likely a

a.

personality psychologist.

b.

cognitive psychologist.

c.

clinical psychologist.

d.

psychiatrist.

ANSWER:

d

173. Rather than seeking to change people to fit their environment, _______ work to create social and physical environments that are healthy for all.

a.

counseling psychologists

b.

cognitive psychologists

c.

community psychologists

d.

clinical psychologists

ANSWER:

c

174. Dr. Bryson is working to decrease the prevalence of bullying in after-school programs in his city. He is most likely a

a.

community psychologist.

b.

behaviorist.

c.

cognitive psychologist.

d.

forensic psychologist.

ANSWER:

a

175. Which of the following is NOT a suggestion provided in the text for how to live a happier life?

a.

Get a full night's sleep.

b.

Set short-term goals.

c.

Exercise.

d.

Prioritize relationships.

ANSWER:

b

176. Psychological research indicates that regular aerobic exercise is an effective way to minimize

a.

critical thinking.

b.

mild depression.

c.

overconfidence.

d.

diabetes.

ANSWER:

b

177. Psychological research indicates that people who are both happier and healthier than average tend to be those who

a.

perceive their intellectual abilities as fixed by their heredity.

b.

live spontaneously without focusing on long-term goals.

c.

give priority to relationships with supportive friends.

d.

are more physically attractive than average.

ANSWER:

c

178. The testing effect refers to the _______ that accompanies repeated retrieval of learned information.

a.

introspection

b.

natural selection

c.

enhanced memory

d.

increasing boredom

ANSWER:

c

179. The testing effect is sometimes called

a.

the retrieval practice effect.

b.

test-enhanced learning.

c.

both the retrieval practice effect and test-enhanced learning.

d.

neither the retrieval practice effect nor test-enhanced learning.

ANSWER:

c

180. In one study, English-speaking students who had been tested repeatedly recalled the meaning of 20 previously learned Lithuanian words better than those who had spent the same time restudying the words. The results of this study demonstrate

a.

social learning.

b.

the benefits of heuristics.

c.

the testing effect.

d.

the SQ3R method.

ANSWER:

c

181. Students learn and remember course materials best when they

a.

practice introspection.

b.

engage in massed practice.

c.

process information actively.

d.

avoid multiple levels of analysis.

ANSWER:

c

182. One way to improve our understanding and retention of course material is to actively retrieve the information by

a.

self-testing.

b.

rehearsal.

c.

both self-testing and rehearsal.

d.

neither self-testing nor rehearsal.

ANSWER:

c

183. Miguel just opened his psychology textbook to read the module that is being covered this week. He turns to the learning objectives listed at the beginning of the module and tries to answer each one. He is currently using which part of the SQ3R method?

a.

read

b.

retrieve

c.

survey

d.

question

ANSWER:

d

184. SQ3R is a study method incorporating five steps: survey, question, read, ________, and review.

a.

revise

b.

reason

c.

retrieve

d.

research

ANSWER:

c

185. The SQ3R study method emphasizes the importance of

a.

massed practice.

b.

introspection.

c.

retrieving information.

d.

role modeling.

ANSWER:

c

186. Bria, who is taking her first psychology class, earned a C on her first exam. Although C is a passing grade, Bria would like to earn an A in this class. What can she do to help improve not only her grade but also her retention of the material?

a.

Set long-term goals.

b.

Break up with her boyfriend.

c.

Cram for the test the night before the exam.

d.

Use the SQ3R method when studying.

ANSWER:

d

187. Discerning the unstated assumptions and values that underlie conclusions best illustrates ________, which is an important learning tool.

a.

critical thinking

b.

the testing effect

c.

introspection

d.

SQ3R

ANSWER:

a

188. Carolyn is attending a class lecture. She listens for the main ideas and sub-ideas of the lecture and writes them down. She also asks questions during class as well as after class. Carolyn is

a.

thinking critically.

b.

using massed practice.

c.

processing the information actively.

d.

overlearning.

ANSWER:

c

189. Using note cards to test yourself on course material while studying aids

a.

critical thinking.

b.

using massed practice.

c.

processing the information actively.

d.

overlearning.

ANSWER:

d

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