Test Bank Psychology Themes and Variations 5th Canadian Edition By Weiten A+

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology Themes and Variations 5th Canadian Edition By Weiten A+

Test Bank Psychology Themes and Variations 5th Canadian Edition By Weiten A+

$35.00
Test Bank Psychology Themes and Variations 5th Canadian Edition By Weiten A+

The term “psychology” comes from the Greek words psyche and logos. What does logos mean?

a.

the study of a subject

b.

the soul

c.

logic

d.

discipline

ANSWER:

a

2. According to historians, when and where did the “birth” of psychology occur?

a.

1859 in England

b.

1879 in Germany

c.

1883 in the United States

d.

1909 in Austria

ANSWER:

b

3. According to Wilhelm Wundt, what was the focus of psychology?

a.

to understand functions of behaviour

b.

to understand unconscious motivation

c.

the scientific study of observable behaviour

d.

the scientific study of conscious experience

ANSWER:

d

4. What did Wilhelm Wundt believe the focus of psychology should be?

a.

studying stimulus-response associations

b.

questioning the nature of existence

c.

examining people’s awareness of their immediate experience

d.

determining people’s unconscious motivation for behaviour

ANSWER:

c

5. Who established the first psychological research laboratory in the United States at John’s Hopkins?

a.

William James

b.

G. Stanley Hall

c.

John Watson

d.

Edward Titchener

ANSWER:

b

6. In 1954, what movement did Abraham Maslow’s book Motivation and Personality help fuel?

a.

functionalism

b.

humanistic psychology

c.

individual psychology

d.

self-help

ANSWER:

b

7. What is the world’s largest organization devoted to the advancement of psychology in Canada?

a.

The Structuralists

b.

Western Psychological Society

c.

World Psychology Organization

d.

Canadian Psychological Association

ANSWER:

d

8. What were the first two major schools of psychology?

a.

functionalism and behaviourism

b.

behaviourism and psychoanalytic theory

c.

behaviourism and Gestalt psychology

d.

structuralism and functionalism

ANSWER:

d

9. Which school of psychology focused on identifying and examining the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images?

a.

humanism

b.

structuralism

c.

functionalism

d.

behaviourism

ANSWER:

b

10. Which type of psychologist was most likely to use the technique of introspection?

a.

structuralist

b.

behaviourist

c.

cognitive

d.

humanist

ANSWER:

a

11. Mariska is participating in a study in which she is asked to carefully observe and report her conscious reactions to several stimuli. Which type of psychologist is most likely to conduct a study like this?

a.

structuralist

b.

humanist

c.

behaviourist

d.

psychoanalytic

ANSWER:

a

12. Isabel is listening to a piece of classical music and recording all her feelings and impressions as she experiences them. Which school of psychology was most well-known for using this sort of technique?

a.

humanism

b.

structuralism

c.

functionalism

d.

behaviourism

ANSWER:

b

13. To learn something about his conscious experience, William looked at an abstract painting and wrote down all of his impressions as they came to him. What is the biggest limitation to this method?

a.

It relies on sensation and perception.

b.

It is overly objective and empirical.

c.

The experiences cannot be verified.

d.

There is no test-retest reliability.

ANSWER:

c

14. Dr. Asgaard believes that to fully understand complex processes, such as auditory processing, it is first necessary to understand all the separate component parts. Which psychologist would be most likely to share Dr. Asgaard’s views?

a.

Ivan Pavlov

b.

Carl Rogers

c.

William James

d.

Edward Titchener

ANSWER:

d

15. Which modern field in psychology is closest to the school of psychology known as structuralism?

a.

sensation and perception

b.

evolutionary psychology

c.

clinical psychology

d.

social psychology

ANSWER:

a

16. Which school of psychology focused on understanding the purpose of behaviour?

a.

structuralism

b.

functionalism

c.

neodynamism

d.

behaviourism

ANSWER:

b

17. Which statement is most likely to be made by a researcher who studies pain perception from a functionalist perspective?

a.

We can understand pain perception only if we understand the unconscious processes that initiate the sensation of pain.

b.

We can study pain only by observing the outward expression of pain in response to different stimuli.

c.

We can study pain only if all the component parts that make up the experience of pain are understood.

d.

We can understand pain perception only if we understand the role of pain in human survival and adaptation.

ANSWER:

d

18. Who most heavily influenced the functionalist pioneer William James?

a.

Charles Darwin

b.

Sigmund Freud

c.

B.F. Skinner

d.

John Watson

ANSWER:

a

19. Which school of psychology stressed that psychology should study the purpose of consciousness rather than the individual components of consciousness?

a.

psychoanalysis

b.

structuralism

c.

Gestalt psychology

d.

functionalism

ANSWER:

d

20. Dr. Smythe believes that to fully understand complex processes, such as taste, it is necessary to understand the role that taste plays in survival, not the elementary components that combine to produce taste sensations. With which school of thought are Dr. Smythe’s views most consistent?

a.

structuralist approach

b.

behaviourist approach

c.

functionalist approach

d.

psychoanalytic approach

ANSWER:

c

21. Dr. Ramos believes that it is not possible to fully understand emotions unless we understand the role that emotions play in survival and adaptation. With which theorist are Dr. Ramos’s views most consistent with?

a.

Ivan Pavlov

b.

Carl Rogers

c.

Edward Titchener

d.

William James

ANSWER:

d

22. What is the term used by William James to describe a continuous flow of thoughts?

a.

phenomenological flow

b.

stream of consciousness

c.

transcendental meditation

d.

existential awareness

ANSWER:

b

23. Who established the first experimental laboratory in Canada in 1891?

a.

Stanley Hall

b.

James Baldwin

c.

Brenda Milner

d.

Wilder Penfield

ANSWER:

b

24. Who was one of the founders of neuropsychology in Canada and was well known for her pioneering work with the patient known as H.M.?

a.

Mary Ainsworth

b.

Brenda Milner

c.

Mary Wright

d.

Doreen Kimura

ANSWER:

b

25. Which university offered the first psychology course offered at a Canadian university in 1838?

a.

McGill

b.

Dalhousie

c.

Concordia

d.

Simon Fraser

ANSWER:

b

26. What was an early approach in psychology that fostered the development of modern-day applied psychology and behaviourism?

a.

Gestalt psychology

b.

functionalism

c.

pragmatism

d.

structuralism

ANSWER:

b

27. In 1939, Canada’s largest organization for psychology was founded. What is it called?

a.

Association for Applied Psychologists in Canada

b.

American Psychological Association

c.

Association of Psychologists of Canada

d.

Canadian Psychological Association

ANSWER:

d

28. Who was the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology?

a.

Mary Calkins

b.

Anna Freud

c.

Margaret Washburn

d.

Leta Hollingworth

ANSWER:

c

29. What is Leta Hollingworth most well-known for?

a.

debunking theories that proposed that women are inferior to men

b.

founding one of the early psychology laboratories in America

c.

being the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology

d.

being the first woman president of the American Psychological Association

ANSWER:

a

30. Which psychologist proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behaviour?

a.

G. Stanley Hall

b.

John B. Watson

c.

Sigmund Freud

d.

Abraham Maslow

ANSWER:

b

31. Which theoretical orientation insisted that observations be verifiable?

a.

behaviourism

b.

functionalism

c.

psychoanalysis

d.

structuralism

ANSWER:

a

32. What did John B. Watson argue that psychologists should do?

a.

confine their work to people who are diagnosed as mentally ill

b.

use the method of introspection to establish the structural aspects of consciousness

c.

abandon the study of consciousness

d.

concern themselves with the intentionality of behaviour

ANSWER:

c

33. According to John Watson, what primarily governs behaviour?

a.

personal motives

b.

heredity

c.

environment

d.

unconscious desires

ANSWER:

c

34. Which statement would a strict behaviourist most likely agree with?

a.

The primary causes for human behaviour are unknown.

b.

Human behaviour is caused primarily by environmental factors.

c.

Human behaviour is caused primarily by inherited factors.

d.

Human behaviour is caused primarily by equal contributions of inherited and environmental factors.

ANSWER:

b

35. What did Watson state that psychologists should study?

a.

only the things that people or other animals do, because those are observable behaviours

b.

only the things that people do as a result of experience, because reflexes are not valid behaviours

c.

things that people do, think, and feel

d.

only the things that people think and feel, because those are psychological processes

ANSWER:

a

36. Ariadne believes that individuals learn to be either aggressive or non-aggressive as a result of the experiences they have. With which type of psychology are Ariadne’s views most consistent?

a.

functionalist

b.

structuralist

c.

psychoanalytic

d.

behaviourist

ANSWER:

d

37. Lynelle teases her brother and then he starts crying. If you describe the teasing as a stimulus, and the crying as a response to that stimulus, what type of analysis are you conducting?

a.

structuralist

b.

behaviourist

c.

psychoanalytic

d.

functionalist

ANSWER:

b

38. Which school of psychology was most responsible for the rise of animal research in psychology?

a.

structuralism

b.

psychoanalysis

c.

behaviourism

d.

Gestaltism

ANSWER:

c

39. If Dr. Scott chooses to conduct experiments with animals to exert more experimental control over the study, which type of researcher is Dr. Scott?

a.

psychoanalytic

b.

behaviourist

c.

structuralist

d.

Gestaltist

ANSWER:

b

40. Dr. Tsang is a psychologist who conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Which type of psychologist is Dr. Tsang?

a.

behaviourist

b.

structuralist

c.

Gestaltist

d.

psychoanalytic

ANSWER:

a

41. Which statement best reflects the main advantage of conducting psychological research with animals?

a.

With research on animals, there are no ethical issues to be concerned with.

b.

In their biological makeup, animals are fundamentally similar to humans.

c.

A researcher can exert more control over an animal than over a human subject.

d.

It is much cheaper to conduct research on animals than on humans.

ANSWER:

c

42. Sigmund Freud developed an innovative procedure for treating people with psychological problems. What did he call this procedure?

a.

rational-emotive therapy

b.

behaviour modification

c.

primal therapy

d.

psychoanalysis

ANSWER:

d

43. According to Sigmund Freud, what determines an individual’s personality?

a.

strivings for superiority

b.

forces in the unconscious

c.

self-actualizing tendencies

d.

forces in the environment

ANSWER:

b

44. You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states: “Many times people are unaware of the unconscious motivations that drive their overt actions.” Which theorist is this faculty member’s view most similar to?

a.

Wilhelm Wundt

b.

Carl Rogers

c.

Ivan Pavlov

d.

Sigmund Freud

ANSWER:

d

45. What did Freud conclude are the dominant causes of psychological disturbances?

a.

conflicts between conscious desires and environmental constraints

b.

personal conflicts existing at an unconscious level

c.

unrealistic demands from family and friends

d.

genetic predispositions to behave in a particular way

ANSWER:

b

46. How did Freud’s theories about human behaviour differ from prevailing viewpoints in the early 1900s?

a.

He proposed the existence of free will.

b.

He saw people as not fully aware of the forces that control their behaviour.

c.

He emphasized environmental forces on behaviour.

d.

He saw abnormal behaviour as resulting from biological causes.

ANSWER:

b

47. Why did many psychologists resist psychoanalysis?

a.

because of its use of introspection

b.

because of its emphasis on unconscious motivation

c.

because of its focus on the role of heredity

d.

because of its explanations in terms of stimulus-response associations

ANSWER:

b

48. Liserel is a graduate student who believes that the best approach to the study of psychology is to focus exclusively on the unconscious determinants of behaviour. Which perspective matches Liserel’s views toward the study of psychology?

a.

humanistic

b.

psychoanalytic

c.

structuralist

d.

cognitive

ANSWER:

b

49. What do behaviourism and psychoanalytic theory have in common?

a.

an emphasis on the role of sexuality in behaviour

b.

the implication that people are not necessarily in complete control of behaviour

c.

the notion that unconscious motives have a major influence on behaviour

d.

a resistance to the use of animal subjects in psychological research

ANSWER:

b

50. Much like Freud, Skinner’s views on human behaviour were controversial and often criticized. Which controversies were predominant for each of Freud and Skinner?

a.

Freud’s focus on sexual motivation and Skinner’s suggestion that free will was an illusion

b.

Freud’s focus on sexual motivation and Skinner’s belief that maladaptive behaviour was biological in origin

c.

Freud’s insensitive treatment of patients and Skinner’s violation of existing animal ethics rules

d.

Freud’s focus on conscious processes and Skinner’s focus on unconscious processes

ANSWER:

a

51. Which statement best reflects the current status of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory?

a.

Freud’s views exert a tremendous influence on other disciplines, but not on psychology.

b.

Freud’s views have been largely abandoned and they exert relatively little, if any, influence on current mainstream psychology.

c.

Many psychoanalytic concepts have filtered into the mainstream of psychology.

d.

Freud’s views exert a tremendous influence on developmental and abnormal psychology, but not on other areas of mainstream psychology.

ANSWER:

c

52. Who took the position that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes?

a.

Abraham Maslow

b.

Carl Rogers

c.

B F Skinner

d.

Sigmund Freud

ANSWER:

c

53. With which individual is B. F. Skinner most in agreement on the issue of internal mental events?

a.

Abraham Maslow

b.

Sigmund Freud

c.

John Watson

d.

Wilhelm Wundt

ANSWER:

c

54. Janet trained her dog to sit on command by rewarding the dog’s behaviour of sitting with a dog biscuit and praise. Which psychological perspective’s methods did Janet use?

a.

psychoanalysis

b.

humanism

c.

functionalism

d.

behaviourism

ANSWER:

d

55. A study determines that rats can be trained to press a lever if lever pressing is followed by the presentation of food. Of the following theorists, who would be most likely to have devised this study?

a.

Wilhelm Wundt
b. Abraham Maslow

b.

F. Skinner

c.

CHOICE BLANK

d.

William James

ANSWER:

c

56. You are interviewing a new member of the psychology department for the university newspaper. The faculty member states, “Sure, people have emotions and thoughts and dreams, but you don’t have to study those things in order to predict behaviour.” Which theorist’s views are most similar to the views held by this faculty member?

a.

Sigmund Freud
b.

b.

F. Skinner

c.

William James

d.

Carl Rogers

ANSWER:

b

57. What is most likely to be studied by a behaviourist?

a.

animal training methods

b.

emotional reactions to trauma

c.

reaction time in response to complex words

d.

how children develop humour

ANSWER:

a

58. Marissa wants to study people’s emotional reactions to increases in temperature. Her classmate, Bernard, tells her that her study should focus on observable behaviours, rather than thoughts or feelings. Which psychological perspective is consistent with Bernard’s advice?

a.

evolutionary

b.

psychodynamic

c.

humanist

d.

behavioural

ANSWER:

d

59. Caroline conducts research in which she systematically changes some aspect of the environment and then measures changes in observable behaviour. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with Caroline’s method?

a.

cognitive

b.

humanist

c.

behaviourist

d.

psychoanalytic

ANSWER:

c

60. Which statement best reflects Skinner’s view of behaviourism?

a.

It focused on the importance of free will.

b.

It focused on the study of behaviour and its consequences.

c.

It encouraged speculative statements about consciousness.

d.

It included hypotheses about motives and goals.

ANSWER:

b

61. Who would have been most likely to say, “You think that you’re in control of your own behaviour, but you’re not truly in control”?

a.

B. F. Skinner

b.

Abraham Maslow

c.

Wilhelm Wundt

d.

Carl Rogers

ANSWER:

a

62. What was the dominant school of thought in psychology during the 1950s and 1960s?

a.

behaviourism

b.

structuralism

c.

Gestaltism

d.

functionalism

ANSWER:

a

63. Which group would be most likely to suggest that people can have complete control over their own destinies?

a.

psychoanalysts

b.

humanists

c.

behaviourists

d.

Gestaltists

ANSWER:

b

64. Which school of psychology takes the most optimistic view of human nature?

a.

structuralism

b.

behaviourism

c.

humanism

d.

functionalism

ANSWER:

c

65. Which type of psychologist would NOT generalize from studies of animal subjects to human behaviour?

a.

evolutionary psychologist

b.

humanist

c.

cognitive psychologist

d.

behaviourist

ANSWER:

b

66. Oliver is studying motivation in chimpanzees. His roommate believes that Oliver’s research is only useful for understanding chimpanzees and cannot generalize to humans. Which perspective does Oliver’s roommate apparently take?

a.

cognitive

b.

biological

c.

humanistic

d.

evolutionary

ANSWER:

c

67. Which theoretical viewpoint is most closely associated with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow?

a.

cognitive approach

b.

humanism

c.

structuralism

d.

biological approach

ANSWER:

b

68. Which statement would NOT be made by a humanist?

a.

Research on animals has no relevance to understanding human behaviour.

b.

Humans have a basic need to fulfil their potential.

c.

The behaviour of humans tends to be dictated by environmental circumstances.

d.

Humans are unique.

ANSWER:

c

69. What do humanists believe governs people’s behaviour?

a.

unconscious sexual urges

b.

outcomes of an individual’s responses

c.

biochemical processes

d.

self-concepts

ANSWER:

d

70. Micha tends to be very passive and allows people to take advantage of him. What would a humanist most likely say about Micha?

a.

Micha simply needs to take an assertiveness training class in which he can learn and practise assertive behaviours.

b.

Micha should undergo analysis so that he can begin to resolve whatever unconscious conflict is at the root of his passivity.

c.

Micha will find it difficult to change because he probably has deep-seated feelings of inferiority.

d.

Micha can become more assertive once he begins to feel better about himself and recognizes that he has the ability to fulfil his potential.

ANSWER:

d

71. Who would be most likely to state that each person has a drive to grow and fulfil his or her potential?

a.

Sigmund Freud
b.

b.

F. Skinner

c.

G. Stanley Hall

d.

Abraham Maslow

ANSWER:

d

72. Imagine that the editor of your local newspaper writes a column supporting a reduction in government intervention with more rights for individual citizens. The editor bases this argument on the assumption that people are rational beings who will fulfill their maximum potential as long as others do not infringe on their basic human needs. Which psychological perspective do this editor’s views reflect?

a.

evolutionary

b.

humanistic

c.

behavioural

d.

psychodynamic

ANSWER:

b

73. According to humanists, why are animal studies of little relevance to understanding humans?

a.

Animals do not develop mental disorders.

b.

Animals do not have a self-concept.

c.

Animals have a much shorter period of development.

d.

Animals cannot communicate their thoughts to us.

ANSWER:

b

74. What has been humanism’s most important contribution to psychology?

a.

the concept of free will

b.

the method of introspection

c.

innovative treatments for psychological problems

d.

a focus on the measurable and verifiable aspects of behaviour

ANSWER:

c

75. Which organization was established in 1939 to advance psychology as a science in Canada, and continues to play a vital role in the field?

a.

APA–Canada

b.

Canadian Psychological Association (CPA)

c.

Association of Canadian Experimental Psychologists (ACEP)

d.

Canadian Society of Psychologists (CSP)

ANSWER:

b

76. What is NOT an area of specialization in applied psychology?

a.

industrial and organizational psychology

b.

counselling psychology

c.

educational psychology

d.

cognitive psychology

ANSWER:

d

77. Which type of psychology is the most prominent and widely practiced professional specialty in the field of applied psychology?

a.

school

b.

developmental

c.

cognitive

d.

clinical

ANSWER:

d

78. In addition to clinical psychologists, which other professionals also assess and treat psychological disorders?

a.

nurses

b.

occupational therapists

c.

teachers

d.

psychiatrists

ANSWER:

d

79. Who are two married African American psychologists who published work in 1947 on prejudice which was later cited in a landmark U.S., Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation?

a.

Marty Seligman and Elizabeth Loftus

b.

John and Mary Ainsworth

c.

Kenneth and Mamie Clark

d.

Clark and Regina Hull

ANSWER:

c

80. Which branch of psychology is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders?

a.

counselling psychology

b.

developmental psychology

c.

clinical psychology

d.

humanistic psychology

ANSWER:

c

81. Which type of psychologist would be the greatest help to you if you were having problems with depression?

a.

social psychologist

b.

motivational psychologist

c.

developmental psychologist

d.

clinical psychologist

ANSWER:

d

82. Michael is having problems relating to other people because he is very paranoid and experiences hallucinations. Which type of psychologist should Michael contact for help?

a.

physiological psychologist

b.

clinical psychologist

c.

developmental psychologist

d.

experimental psychologist

ANSWER:

b

83. Which type of applied psychology was most stimulated by World War II?

a.

industrial psychology

b.

clinical psychology

c.

educational psychology

d.

neurological psychology

ANSWER:

b

84. What was one of the first areas of clinical psychology to develop?

a.

personnel psychology

b.

counselling psychology

c.

psychological testing

d.

sports psychology

ANSWER:

c

85. What contributed most to the development of clinical psychology?

a.

the advent of high-speed computers

b.

an increase in the number of people earning advanced degrees in psychology

c.

high demand for the screening of military recruits and treatment of traumatized war veterans

d.

an increase in public awareness of the symptoms of psychological disorders, and the rise of behaviourism

ANSWER:

c

86. Which statement best describes clinical psychologists?

a.

Clinical psychologists have Ph.Ds.

b.

Clinical psychologists do research.

c.

Clinical psychologists are behaviourists.

d.

Clinical psychologists are licensed.

ANSWER:

d

87. Which of the following is NOT included under the umbrella of applied psychology?

a.

cognitive psychology

b.

school psychology

c.

counselling psychology

d.

industrial/organizational psychology

ANSWER:

a

88. Which term refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge?

a.

introspection

b.

application

c.

empiricism

d.

cognition

ANSWER:

d

89. What is a relatively recent movement in psychology that has revived the old interest in mental and conscious events?

a.

psychoanalysis

b.

cognitive psychology

c.

physiological psychology

d.

behavioural psychology

ANSWER:

b

90. Who is most closely associated with the cognitive perspective on language?

a.

Noam Chomsky
b.

b.

F. Skinner

c.

Abraham Maslow

d.

David Buss

ANSWER:

a

91. Which psychological approach contends that psychology must study internal mental events in order to fully understand behaviour?

a.

cognitive psychology

b.

clinical psychology

c.

developmental psychology

d.

behaviourism

ANSWER:

a

92. What is most likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist?

a.

factors that determine group cohesiveness

b.

whether a job incentive program is effective

c.

play behaviour in preschool children

d.

strategies used by students to solve puzzles

ANSWER:

d

93. Programmers who were working on a chess-playing supercomputer asked a psychologist from their university for some help in working out the problem-solving algorithms they would be using. Which type of psychologist would be most likely to help with this project?

a.

structural

b.

educational

c.

behavioural

d.

cognitive

ANSWER:

d

94. Darnell is working on a computer system that will have full language-recognition capabilities. Which type of psychologist could probably give Darnell the most help in developing this computer system?

a.

clinical

b.

cognitive

c.

humanistic

d.

behavioural

ANSWER:

b

95. When did the cognitive perspective surpass the behavioural perspective in influence, according to results from a recent study?

a.

1925

b.

1955

c.

1975

d.

1995

ANSWER:

c

96. Who demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the brain could evoke emotional responses such as pleasure and rage in animals?

a.

Roger Sperry

b.

James Olds

c.

B.F. Skinner

d.

Abraham Maslow

ANSWER:

b

97. Annabel wants to investigate differences in the way language is processed by the brain hemispheres. Whose research should Annabel read?

a.

Roger Sperry

b.

Carl Rogers

c.

Alfred Adler

d.

John B. Watson

ANSWER:

a

98. The Human Genome Project involves a large number of scientists who are trying to determine the biochemical nature of all the genes on each chromosome in the human body. These scientists come from a variety of areas, including psychology. Which type of psychologist is most likely to work on this project?

a.

behavioural

b.

biological

c.

clinical

d.

applied

ANSWER:

b

99. Which type of psychologist would be most likely to have a copy of Hebb’s The Organization of Behavior on her bookshelf?

a.

a psychoanalyst

b.

an industrial/organizational psychologist

c.

a humanistic psychologist

d.

a neuroscientist

ANSWER:

d

100. Which theoretical perspective is most likely to be associated with studies using animals?

a.

behavioural and biological

b.

psychoanalytic and cognitive

c.

clinical and psychoanalytic

d.

biological and clinical

ANSWER:

a

101. Professor Vasquez believes that nearly all psychological disorders can ultimately be traced to abnormalities in brain chemistry. With which perspective are Professor Vasquez’s beliefs most consistent?

a.

behavioural

b.

biological

c.

cognitive

d.

clinical

ANSWER:

b

102. According to Donald Hebb, what is the key to understanding the organization of behaviour?

a.

measurement of observable behaviour

b.

introspection

c.

analysis of unconscious conflicts

d.

activity at the neuronal level

ANSWER:

d

103. Research in neuroscience owes a great deal of its inspiration to Donald Hebb, who wrote the book The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory. What did Hebb theorize about?

a.

the importance of behaviourist models of learning for understanding how neurons work

b.

the concept of cell assemblies, and the importance of neuronal processes for behaviour

c.

the importance of unconscious experiences, and the role of cell assemblies for the execution of behaviour

d.

the role of social interaction for the organization of the cortex during childhood

ANSWER:

b

104. What was demonstrated by Hastorf and Cantril’s classic study (1954) on rule infraction in football games?

a.

the impact of gender-typed activities on self-esteem

b.

the onset of antisocial personality disorder

c.

the impact of concussion on the mental health of athletes

d.

the subjectivity of perception

ANSWER:

d

105. Differences have been observed between males and females in their performance on spatial tasks. Which statement does NOT explain such these observations?

a.

There are disparities in the everyday activities of males and females which may lead to the advantage seen by males in their performance on spatial tasks.

b.

Males and females differ in genetic makeup.

c.

Males and females are given and encouraged to play different types of toys.

d.

Males are smarter than females.

ANSWER:

d

106. Approximately what percentage of Canada’s population was born in another country?

a.

5%

b.

10%

c.

15%

d.

20%

ANSWER:

d

107. Several factors have contributed to the recent increased interest in research dealing with “cultural” variables in psychology. Which of the following is NOT one of these contributing factors?

a.

depersonalization of human beings by modern psychology

b.

various groups (such as civil rights groups and women’s groups) arguing that society has paid little attention to human diversity

c.

increased ethnic diversity in North America

d.

increased contact with non-Western cultures due to advances in communication and travel

ANSWER:

a

108. What is most likely a topic of study for a cultural psychologist?

a.

how travel affects openness to experience in children

b.

how cognitive errors lead to racism

c.

determining the genes associated with skin colour

d.

whether people in different cultures solve puzzles in the same way, or differently

ANSWER:

d

109. Which psychological approach examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species?

a.

physiological

b.

humanist

c.

clinical

d.

evolutionary

ANSWER:

d

110. Professor Immel conducts research that examines whether people with particular personality traits have greater success with dating and reproduction. What type of psychological research is Professor Immel conducting?

a.

humanistic

b.

evolutionary

c.

cognitive

d.

behavioural

ANSWER:

b

111. What is the most important aspect of natural selection?

a.

aggressive interactions with members of other species

b.

passing on genes to the next generation

c.

locating a source of food

d.

establishing a territory

ANSWER:

b

112. In which visual-spatial task do females tend to perform somewhat better than males, on average?

a.

map reading

b.

memory for locations

c.

maze learning

d.

mental rotation of images

ANSWER:

b

113. Which early psychologist would be most likely to endorse the tenets of evolutionary psychology?

a.

Edward Titchener

b.

John Watson

c.

William James

d.

Wilhelm Wundt

ANSWER:

c

114. When did evolutionary psychology emerge as a modern discipline?

a.

1960s

b.

1970s

c.

1980s

d.

1990s

ANSWER:

c

115. Damion wants to investigate whether specific dating patterns among young adults are the result of evolved predispositions. With whom would Damion most likely choose to work with if he could work with a psychologist who has made a significant contribution in this area of research?

a.

David Buss

b.

B.F. Skinner

c.

Herbert Simon

d.

Carl Jung

ANSWER:

a

116. If Dr. Laker is an evolutionary psychologist who studies nutrition and hunger, what is a likely topic of study for Dr. Laker?

a.

hunger in response to specific times of day when meals normally occur

b.

cravings associated with foods that are necessary for survival

c.

the relationship between eating and depression

d.

body image associated with exposure to TV and magazine advertisements

ANSWER:

b

117. Females tend to place more emphasis on potential mates’ economic resources than do males. What would an evolutionary psychologist suggest is the main reason for this preference among modern females?

a.

Ancestral females with this preference got a larger territory.

b.

Ancestral females with this preference could acquire more food.

c.

Ancestral females with this preference had more mates.

d.

Ancestral females with this preference had more offspring.

ANSWER:

d

118. If an evolutionary psychologist were studying sleep and dreams, what would be a likely topic?

a.

What is the symbolic meaning of dreams?

b.

Do sleep patterns change across the life span?

c.

Are sleep disorders controlled by environmental influences?

d.

Does sleep benefit health and survival?

ANSWER:

d

119. Which statement best reflects the current thinking about evolutionary psychology?

a.

It is a simplistic rehash of ideas proposed by Charles Darwin over 140 years ago.

b.

It is a widely accepted approach to the study of human behaviour.

c.

It is a radical perspective supported by a small group of fringe scientists.

d.

It is a thought-provoking, innovative perspective that is rapidly gaining influence.

ANSWER:

d

120. What is the basic goal for the approach of positive psychology?

a.

to have a positive impact on scientific fields outside psychology

b.

to create a more positive experience for psychologists’ patients

c.

to treat all patients with positive or progressive methods

d.

to study the positive aspects of human behaviour and experience

ANSWER:

d

121. What is one of the main areas of interest for positive psychologists?

a.

situations that facilitate health and well-being

b.

symptoms of common disorders

c.

acquisition of wealth and social status

d.

factors involved in making first impressions

ANSWER:

a

122. Seligman believed that psychology was too focused on negative aspects of human behaviour, including pathology, weakness, damage, and suffering. Which new perspective within psychology did this inspire him to initiate?

a.

Gestalt psychology

b.

positive psychology

c.

optimistic psychology

d.

humanistic psychology

ANSWER:

b

123. Which statement is a criticism of the recent positive psychology approach?

a.

Although it claims to be positive, it is actually focused on very damaging aspects of human behaviour.

b.

Dividing human experience into “positive” and “negative” is oversimplified.

c.

The approach is just a restatement of behaviourist principles from decades ago.

d.

Positive psychologists refuse to acknowledge that negative traits exist, and this is counterproductive to progress.

ANSWER:

b

124. Dr. Andrus studies the factors that predict good sleep habits and the ability to relax. She believes that both sleep and relaxation are key to living a balanced life, as well as being happy and productive. Which psychological approach does Dr. Andrus appear to take?

a.

positive

b.

psychoanalytic

c.

behaviourist

d.

cognitive

ANSWER:

a

125. According to your text, what is psychology?

a.

a school of thought and an occupation

b.

a science and a profession

c.

a theory and an academic discipline

d.

a cognitive process and a philosophy

ANSWER:

b

126. What is a key change that has occurred in psychology over the past few decades?

a.

Fewer psychologists now work in colleges and universities.

b.

Psychologists have gone from being specialists to being generalists.

c.

The number of clinicians is decreasing.

d.

Psychology has become less applied in its focus.

ANSWER:

a

127. Which area is considered an experimental area of psychology?

a.

clinical

b.

perception

c.

organizational

d.

education

ANSWER:

b

128. What kind of psychologist would focus on how aggressive behaviour changes as a function of age?

a.

social psychologist

b.

behavioural psychologist

c.

developmental psychologist

d.

physiological psychologist

ANSWER:

c

129. What is likely to be of most interest to a developmental psychologist?

a.

effects on children of being raised in a single-parent home

b.

dynamics of small-group decision making

c.

use of physical exercise as a means of combating depression

d.

effect of anxiety on problem-solving behaviour

ANSWER:

a

130. What area of psychology includes a specific focus on people who are elderly?

a.

developmental psychology

b.

psychometrics

c.

experimental psychology

d.

cognitive psychology

ANSWER:

a

131. Chiwe is a graduate student whose major area of interest is social psychology. In which of the following would you expect that Chiwe is most interested?

a.

how people relate to each other and influence each other

b.

the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations

c.

the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behaviour

d.

the ways in which behaviour and mental processes change over a lifetime

ANSWER:

a

132. Which question would a social psychologist be most likely to ask?

a.

How stable is personality over the life span?

b.

Why do we like some people and not others?

c.

What effect does anxiety have on test performance?

d.

Do people who are antisocial think differently than other people?

ANSWER:

b

133. Dr. Evoy does research that has examined the behaviour of individuals when they are in groups, as well as when they are alone. She has found that people tend to conform to the opinion of a dominant person within a group, and that this opinion tends to be much different than the opinion that would form if the individual were alone. Based on this information, which sort of psychologist do you think Dr. Evoy is?

a.

social psychologist

b.

developmental psychologist

c.

cognitive psychologist

d.

psychometrist

ANSWER:

a

134. Which of the following is NOT likely to conduct experiments?

a.

a social psychologist

b.

a psychometrist

c.

a psychiatrist

d.

a developmental psychologist

ANSWER:

c

135. Which area of research in psychology is concerned with understanding the role of the endocrine system in the regulation of behaviour?

a.

cognitive psychology

b.

physiological psychology

c.

developmental psychology

d.

psychometrics

ANSWER:

b

136. Phillip is a graduate student whose major area of interest is physiological psychology. What would Phillip be most interested in?

a.

the ways in which genetic factors influence and determine behaviour

b.

the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations

c.

how people relate to each other and influence each other

d.

the ways in which behaviour and mental processes change over a lifetime

ANSWER:

a

137. What would an experimental psychologist be most likely to ask?

a.

What effect does reward have on learning?

b.

How do hormones affect behaviour?

c.

What are the stages of problem solving?

d.

Why do we like some people and not others?

ANSWER:

a

138. What type of psychologist studies information processing and decision making?

a.

social

b.

psychometric

c.

cognitive

d.

educational

ANSWER:

c

139. What would be of greatest interest to a cognitive psychologist?

a.

information processing

b.

adolescent identity crisis

c.

behaviour in small groups

d.

interpersonal attraction

ANSWER:

a

140. Ramon is a graduate student whose major area of interest is cognitive psychology. What would Ramon be most interested in?

a.

short-term and long-term memory disruptions

b.

the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations

c.

brain regions associated with language

d.

how people relate to each other and influence each other

ANSWER:

a

141. Marie is a graduate student whose major area of interest is personality psychology. What would Marie be most interested in?

a.

the internal factors that lead people to act consistently across a variety of situations

b.

how people relate to each other and influence each other

c.

the ways in which behaviour and mental processes change over a lifetime

d.

the ways in which physical or genetic factors influence and determine behaviour

ANSWER:

a

142. Which type of psychologist would most likely be interested in developing a test that would allow him or her to predict how someone would respond across a variety of situations?

a.

cognitive psychologist

b.

developmental psychologist

c.

physiological psychologist

d.

personality psychologist


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