Test Bank Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design 4th Edition by John W. Creswell A+

Test Bank Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design 4th Edition by John W. Creswell A+

Test Bank Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design 4th Edition by John W. Creswell A+

Test Bank Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design 4th Edition by John W. Creswell A+

Chapter 2: Philosophical Assumptions and Interpretive Frameworks

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. According to Denzin and Lincoln (2011), which one of these activities is a focus of the first step of framing the research process?

a. Design

b. Interviewing

c. Conceptions of self and the other

d. Artifacts, design, and records

e. Computer-assisted analysis

Ans: C

2. An interpretive framework in a qualitative study will inform ____.

a. which phase of the research is used

b. criteria for judging its adequacy

c. the sample size used for the study

d. the importance of its findings

e. the participants’ conception of self and the other

Ans: B

3. Ontology relates to:

a. The nature of reality

b. The role of values

c. The process of research

d. The language of research

e. Knowledge claims

Ans: A

4. Epistemology relates most closely to:

a. The use of social constructivism

b. The methods to collect data

c. What counts as knowledge

d. The nature of reality

e. The manner of writing

Ans: C

5. Axiology answers this question:

a. What is the role of values?

b. What counts as knowledge?

c. What is the nature of reality?

d. What is the process of research?

e. How are knowledge claims justified?

Ans: A

6. Philosophical assumptions about methodology are basically concerned with:

a. Justification of knowledge claims

b. Acknowledging that research is value-laden

c. Multiple realities

d. The research process

e. Including his or her own interpretation

Ans: D

7. Postpositivist research has which of the following characteristics:

a. Multiple realities

b. Collaboration with participants

c. Focus on subjective meanings

d. Belief in multiple perspectives

e. Focus on cause and effect

Ans: E

8. Social constructivism has as its main focus:

a. Participant views of a situation

b. Determining proper research methods

c. Finding the truth

d. Cause and effect

e. Simplicity of concepts

Ans: A

9. In a social constructivist research project, the research focuses on broad and general questions so that:

a. The participants do not become confused

b. The true purpose of the study is disguised

c. To keep the participant from guessing the orientation of the researcher

d. So participants can construct their own meanings

e. To clarify philosophical points

Ans: D

10. One aim of transformative research is:

a. Helping individuals free themselves from constraints

b. Understanding the world view of a participant

c. Conducting objective data-gathering

d. Exploring and retelling the story of participants

e. Confirming a hypothesis

Ans: A

11. Which of the following is the most likely research goal for a postmodern researcher?

a. To examine cause and effect

b. To solve real-world problems

c. To employ multiple methods

d. To understand meaning

e. To change ways of thinking

Ans: E

12. As postmodernist researchers “deconstruct” texts, what kinds of structures do they look for:

a. Philosophical epistemologies

b. Concealed hierarchies

c. Action plans

d. Epistemological distance

e. Preexisting hypotheses

Ans: B

13. A transformative researcher would be interested in ensuring:

a. Co-created findings with participants

b. Researcher biases are controlled

c. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are used

d. A singularity reality is pursued

e. Complexities of identify are explored

Ans: A

14. What is meant by “metanarratives”?

a. They are the “restorying” of study participants.

b. They are an epistemological stance.

c. They are ways of conducting action research.

d. They are knowledge claims apart from context.

e. They are universal truths existing apart from social conditions.

Ans: E

15. This interpretive framework is methodologically agnostic:

a. Postmodernist

b. Positivist

c. Pragmatic

d. Transformative

e. Feminist

Ans: C

16. Pragmatism in qualitative research focuses on:

a. Outcomes

b. Hierarchies

c. Philosophical assumptions

d. Freeing oppressed groups

e. Examination of media biases

Ans: A

17. A leading writer of feminist qualitative studies is:

a. Creswell

b. Strauss

c. Lather

d. QuinnPatton

e. Schwandt

Ans: C

18. Critical theorists are concerned with:

a. Empowering human beings

b. Examining individual life stories

c. Methodology

d. Gender identity

e. Getting a study done most practically

Ans: A

19. Critical race theory is concerned with:

a. Eradication of racial subjugation

b. The explicit definition of “race”

c. Mainly the use of ethnography

d. The researcher’s racial background

e. The identification of indigenous groups

Ans: A

20. Queer theory is concerned with:

a. How mainstream heterosexuality is critiqued

b. How one becomes normal

c. What it means to be deviant

d. Centering of identity

e. Challenging the hetero/homosexual binary

Ans: E

21. Disability theory is principally concerned with:

a. Inclusion of special needs students

b. Identification of special needs students

c. Amelioration of disabilities

d. Axiological intentionality

e. Power relationships

Ans: A

22. According to the text, qualitative research using social justice frameworks typically contains all of these elements except:

a. Examination of unequal power relationships

b. Conditions that exclude individuals

c. Recognition of the researcher’s own subjectivity

d. A deductive approach to research

e. An individual rather than group approach

Ans: D

23. Which of the following is true of a pragmatic research approach?

a. The focus is on answering philosophical questions.

b. The focus is on establishing the emic vs. etic approach to research.

c. Sensitivity to individual power structures is paramount.

d. Truth values are limited to what works at the time.

e. Marxist theories are often the focus.

Ans: D


1. Philosophical assumptions are sometimes hidden in qualitative studies.

Ans: T

2. It is not important for the researcher to focus on multiple constructions of reality in the study.

Ans: F

3. A researcher addresses axiological concerns by spending time in the field doing research.

Ans: F

4. Transformative researchers must remain neutral while conducting a study.

Ans: F

5. Transformative research has emancipation and self-development as major foci.

Ans: T

6. Metanarratives are not linked to social conditions.

Ans: T

7. Postmodernism is not concerned with power differences.

Ans: F

8. Pragmatism holds that asking epistemological questions is counterproductive to producing data.

Ans: T

9. Feminist theory uses a single theoretical orientation.

Ans: F

10. In critical race theory research, it is not important to understand the background of the researcher.

Ans: F


1. Think of a topic you are interested in knowing more about using qualitative methods. In thinking about how to study the topic, explain how you answer a research committee wanting to know your philosophical assumptions. Using Creswell’s four philosophical assumptions, address how you might answer questions about how who you are affects your study.

Ans: Answers should include reference to ontological, epistemological, axiological, and methodological concerns. Answers should show understanding of these terms as well as their application. For example, a student might write about doing a school study where different perspectives are studied than his or her own (ontological), the researcher spends an extended period of time with the students at the school and uses their quotations as evidence in the write up (epistemological), what values might be examined and held by researcher (axiological), and how the process of research might use data to produce findings and conclusions based on the research subjects (methodological).

2. You have decided to study a small but diverse cohort of nurses going through training, showing a clear knowledge of how frameworks provide the researcher with lenses of understanding, and discuss how feminist, critical race theory, disability, and queer theories might provide you with structures to understand their experiences.

Ans: Students should demonstrate knowledge of the four frameworks involved. Students should emphasize possible power differentials of students, women, traditional roles, and attendant identity issues. Students should be able to identify areas of study focusing on gender roles, sexual orientation, possible prejudice surrounding disabilities, race, or sexuality. Students should discuss methods they would use to collect data in such a study.

3. Examine the use of transformative frameworks for research. Discuss the positives and negatives of such an approach, and discuss what criticism more positivistic-oriented researchers might level.

Ans: Students should show knowledge of transformative frameworks and discuss the idea of “action research.” Students should examine the epistemological elements of reducing the distance between the thing being studied and the researcher. Students should address possible criticisms that such a research agenda might lead to criticism about their changing and impacting the object of their research. Students should mention researchers who are important writers in this area. Students might also mention capacity building, and member checking as part of their answer.

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