Test Bank Race and Ethnicity in the United States 9th Edition by Richard T. Schaefer

$30.00
Test Bank Race and Ethnicity in the United States 9th Edition by Richard T. Schaefer

Test Bank Race and Ethnicity in the United States 9th Edition by Richard T. Schaefer

$30.00
Test Bank Race and Ethnicity in the United States 9th Edition by Richard T. Schaefer

Test Bank Race and Ethnicity in the United States 9th Edition by Richard T. Schaefer

Chapter 1 – Exploring Race and Ethnicity

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Members of a minority or subordinate group generally tend to .
    1. marry outside their group
    2. become a part of the group voluntarily and experience unequal treatment
    3. be political equals of the majority group
    4. share physical or cultural characteristics that differ from the majority group

Answer: d

Learning Objective: Explain how people are placed in groups. Topic: How are we Grouped?

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: Moderate

  1. Members of a minority or subordinate group generally marry within their group because .
    1. members of the dominant group are often unwilling to marry them
    2. they have a weak sense of group solidarity
    3. it is illegal for subordinate group members to marry any of the dominant group members
    4. subordinate group members who marry outsiders are considered as outcasts by their group

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain how people are placed in groups. Topic: How are we Grouped?

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: Moderate

  1. Which of the following terms refers to minorities and the corresponding majorities that are socially set apart because of obvious physical differences?
    1. melting pot
    2. ethnic group
    3. racial group
    4. segmented assimilation

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain how people are placed in groups. Topic: How are we Grouped?

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Which of the following terms refers to a group that is set apart from others primarily because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns?
    1. privileged group
    2. ethnic group
    3. racial group
    4. formal group Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain how people are placed in groups. Topic: How are we Grouped?

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Ethnicity, a criterion for classifying minority groups, refers to .
    1. racial differences
    2. differences in physical and mental characteristics
    3. cultural differences
    4. genetic variations

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain how people are placed in groups Topic: How are we Grouped?

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Robert is a non-Hispanic White American. He is heterosexual, has good educational qualifications, and is a Roman Catholic. Robert also belongs to a minority group. Which of the following is a reason for his minority-group status?
    1. race
    2. sexual orientation
    3. gender
    4. religious affiliation

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain how people are placed in groups. Topic: How are we Grouped?

Skill Level: Apply What You Know Difficulty: Moderate

  1. Sociologists consider Jewish Americans as an ethnic group rather than as members of a religious faith because .
    1. their culture is yet to be studied in theology
    2. culture is an important defining trait for them
    3. of the exercise of segregation in U.S. cities
    4. they do not have any unique physical features that distinguish them from other groups

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain how people are placed in groups. Topic: How are we Grouped?

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: Moderate

  1. Women differ from other minority groups in that .
    1. there is little in-group marriage among women
    2. there is no sense of solidarity between women
    3. they are the only minority group that is treated equal to the dominant group
    4. they voluntarily become members of a subordinate group Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain how people are placed in groups. Topic: How are we grouped?

Skill Level: Analyze It Difficulty: Difficult

  1. Which of the following is true of races?
    1. They are determined by blood
    2. They can be pure and distinct when certain characteristics are
    3. They are groupings based on scientific
    4. They are socially

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.2: Explain the social construction of race. Topic: The Social Construction of Race

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: Moderate

  1. Research shows that differences in intelligence scores between Blacks and Whites are almost eliminated when .
  2. they take the exam in a familiar environment
  3. adjustments are made for social and economic characteristics
  4. spelling and grammar are not counted for
  5. Blacks are given more time than Whites to complete the test

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.2: Explain The Social Construction of Race Topic: The Social Construction of Race

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

  1. Studies by researchers Herrnstein and Murray on IQ showed that .
  2. a larger part of IQ is inheritable
  3. welfare should be raised to encourage births among low-IQ poor women
  4. Blacks are inherently more intelligent than Whites
  5. racial groups cannot be used as a means to generalize about any differences in intelligence

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain The Social Construction of Race Topic: The Social Construction of Race

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Rhea claims that the concept of race is socially constructed and does not actually contribute to the economic and social success that one attains. Which of the following statements supports her claim?
  2. All research shows that the alleged differences between group averages are much greater than the differences within a
  3. It is not possible to generalize about absolute differences between groups in terms of intelligence because intermarriages have made such generalizations
  4. Similar to the fact that people differ in temperament, potential to learn, and sense of humor, among other characteristics, people who differ physically also bear distinctive emotional and mental abilities or

  1. The existence of races is simultaneously functional and dysfunctional to a

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain The Social Construction of Race. Topic: The Social Construction of Race

Skill Level: Analyze It Difficulty: Difficult

  1. When belief in the inheritance of behavior patterns and in an association between physical and cultural traits is coupled with the feeling that certain groups are inherently superior to others, it is called

.

  1. racism
  2. marginality
  3. pluralism
  4. racial formation

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain The Social Construction of Race. Topic: The Social Construction of Race

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Racial formation refers to .
  2. the biological merging of two races
  3. the inheritance of behavior patterns corresponding to one's physical and cultural traits
  4. a sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created and manipulated
  5. the defining of new racial categories by the media

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain The Social Construction of Race Topic: The Social Construction of Race

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. The country of Izwe consists of various minorities belonging to many racial and ethnic groups. These groups joined together to rebel against the continued suppression of minorities by the dominant groups in Izwe. Due to their collective effort, the minorities were able to reduce the level of discrimination against them. The minorities were able to achieve this result due to the emergence of among
  2. panethnicity
  3. stratification
  4. segmented assimilation
  5. ethnic cleansing

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain The Social Construction of Race. Topic: The Social Construction of Race

Skill Level: Apply What You Know Difficulty: Difficult

  1. The status of being between two cultures at the same time is called .
  2. panethnicity

  1. exigency
  2. marginality
  3. amalgamation Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4: Define biracial and multiracial identity. Topic: Biracial and Multiracial Identity: Who Am I?

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Neema belongs to a foreign country and has been living in the United States for several years. Despite having adopted the dominant culture, she feels that she is not being completely accepted into the American society. Which of the following terms best describes Neema?
  2. marginalized individual
  3. Afrocentric individual
  4. member of a dominant group
  5. racist

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.2: Explain The Social Construction of Race Topic: The Social Construction of Race

Skill Level: Apply What You Know Difficulty: Difficult

  1. People in the country of Azuri are grouped and ranked according to their income levels. This establishes a system of hierarchy in which groups are allocated resources based on their ranking. Due to this, wealth and power accumulates in the hands of few groups, while others are often deprived of basic necessities. This system followed in Azuri is an example of .
  2. amalgamation
  3. stratification
  4. pluralism
  5. marginality Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe how sociology helps us understand race and ethnicity. Topic: Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know Difficulty: Difficult

  1. Which of the following is a function that racial beliefs have for dominant groups?
  2. They encourage social changes that assist subordinate
  3. They free dominant groups from the burden of reducing social problems such as poverty, delinquency, and
  4. They help dominant groups extend the search for talent and leadership to all groups of a
  5. They justify existing practices and serve as a rallying point for social

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe how sociology helps us understand race and ethnicity. Topic: Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Emma claims that racial discrimination is beneficial to some groups in a society. Her friend, James, argues that racial behaviors are dysfunctional to all the people of a society. Whose argument is correct and why? Examine the following options and select the correct
  2. Emma is correct because racial discriminations facilitate the use of resources by all people in a
  3. Emma is correct because racial beliefs encourage subordinate people to question their lowly status in society.
  4. James is correct because discrimination aggravates social problems such as poverty, delinquency, and crime.
  5. James is correct because racial beliefs encourage social change that benefits subordinate

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe how sociology helps us understand race and ethnicity. Topic: Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity

Skill Level: Analyze It Difficulty: Difficult

  1. Molly is a conflict theorist studying different aspects of societies. She is most likely to argue that

.

  1. only the aspects of a society that are beneficial will be passed from one generation to the next
  2. a society can be viewed as constituting many parts, each of which helps to maintain its stability
  3. societies are in a struggle between the privileged and the exploited groups
  4. underprivileged people are solely responsible for their plight in a society

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe how sociology helps us understand race and ethnicity. Topic: Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity

Skill Level: Analyze It Difficulty: 3 – Difficult

  1. Which of the following ideas is emphasized by the conflict perspective?
  2. Societies should focus on blaming the racial and ethnic minorities for their
  3. An aspect of social life that does not contribute to a society's stability or survival will not be passed on from one generation to the
  4. Social change and redistribution of resources should be avoided to maintain stability in a
  5. Competition takes place between groups with unequal amounts of economic and political

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe how sociology helps us understand race and ethnicity. Topic: Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: Moderate

  1. Which of the following is a difference between the functionalist perspective and the conflict perspective?
  2. The functionalist perspective emphasizes the stability of a society, while the conflict perspective emphasizes the tension between competing
  3. The functionalist perspective explains the physical violence between groups competing for their share of resources, while the conflict perspective explains how immigration restrictions and real estate practices

result in competition between groups.

  1. The functionalist perspective is more appropriate today in the study of race and ethnicity, while the conflict perspective best helps to understand the behaviors that are passed on from one generation to the next.
  2. The functionalist perspective focuses on the difficulties of the subordinate groups, while the conflict perspective focuses on the benefits of racial discrimination to dominant

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe how sociology helps us understand race and ethnicity. Topic: Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity

Skill Level: Analyze It Difficulty: Difficult

  1. The phrase “blaming the victim” refers to the .
  2. victimization of dominant groups for not being able to help subordinate groups
  3. portrayal of subordinate groups as being responsible for the problems faced by them
  4. process of creating laws that continue to subordinate minorities
  5. conflict between the dominant and subordinate groups

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe how sociology helps us understand race and ethnicity. Topic: Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Derek believes that all immigrants belong to underdeveloped countries and migrate to his country in search of jobs and better standards of living. He believes that such people are suitable for physically demanding jobs and not for intellectually demanding jobs. Derek’s opinions about immigrants are an example of .
  2. stereotypes
  3. pluralities
  4. marginalities
  5. ethnophaulisms

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe how sociology helps us understand race and ethnicity. Topic: Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity

Skill Level: Apply What You Know Difficulty: Difficult

  1. In the self-fulfilling prophecy, an individual .
  2. has beliefs about a situation that are irrelevant to his or her behavior
  3. makes a correct definition of the situation and thereby creates conditions in which the definition is realized
  4. characterized as having a particular trait begins to display that trait
  5. tries to break the stereotypes attached to a subordinate group

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.3: Describe how sociology helps us understand race and ethnicity. Topic: Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: Moderate

  1. The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural domination over people by a foreign power for an extended period of time is known as .
  2. fascism
  3. pluralism
  4. communism
  5. colonialism

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: The Creation of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. The world systems theory addresses the conflict between .
  2. nations that control wealth and nations who provide natural resources and labor
  3. subordinate and dominant groups
  4. the various theoretical perspectives on racial beliefs
  5. countries that allow pluralism and countries that oppose mixing of cultures and religion

Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: The Creation of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Based on the spectrum of intergroup relations, which of the following is the most acceptable type of relationship for racial and ethnic minorities?
  2. secession
  3. partitioning
  4. fusion
  5. extermination

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: Spectrum of Intergroup Status

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. The dominant group in the country of Tilipo believes that its members are the original natives of the country. They force the minority groups to leave the country and introduce several laws that severely punish minorities who refuse to leave. As a result, most of the minorities in Tilipo fled to neighboring countries. Which of the following terms best describes the dominant group’s actions?
  2. fusion
  3. blaming the victim
  4. ethnic cleansing
  5. marginality Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created.. Topic: The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Apply What You Know Difficulty: Moderate

  1. Extermination differs from expulsion in that extermination is .
  2. more violent as it uses killing and violence as a means to remove subordinate groups from an area
  3. more beneficial in that it results in the domination of an exterminated group in another country
  4. less dangerous as it focuses on segregation of subordinate people in residence, workplace, social functions, and so on
  5. a less extreme way to deal with minorities Answer: a

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Analyze It Difficulty: Difficult

  1. Tsodirins, the minority group in the country of Renada, faced hardship and subordination because of the dominant group in that country. Unable to fight the dominant group, they began to migrate to a nearby country that mostly had people belonging to their ethnicity. This resulted in Tsodirins becoming a majority group. In this case, the Tsodirins changed from a minority group to a majority group through

.

  1. pluralism
  2. secession
  3. fusion
  4. assimilation

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.8: Restate the consequences of subordinate groups. Topic: The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Apply What You Know Difficulty: Difficult

  1. Which of the following terms refers to the physical separation of two groups of people in terms of residence, workplace, and social functions?
  2. ethnic cleansing
  3. amalgamation
  4. marginality
  5. segregation

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Which of the following is a similarity between fusion and amalgamation?
  2. Both conform to the concept of a human melting

  1. Both involve the mixing of people from different ethnic or racial
  2. Both encourage the harmonious coexistence of different cultural
  3. Both result in the coexistence of various cultural

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Analyze It Difficulty: Difficult

  1. The process by which a dominant group and a subordinate group combine through intermarriage into a new people is called .
  2. resegregation
  3. amalgamation
  4. assimilation
  5. ethnic cleansing

Answer: b

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Which of the following terms refers to the process in which diverse racial or ethnic groups form a new creation, a new cultural entity?
  2. apartheid
  3. panethnicity
  4. stratification
  5. melting pot

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. is the consequence of subordinate-group status represented by the equation A + B + C à
  2. Pluralism
  3. Amalgamation
  4. Assimilation
  5. Segregation

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. is the process by which a subordinate individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant group and is eventually accepted as part of that
  2. Amalgamation

  1. Pluralism
  2. Assimilation
  3. Genocide

Answer: c

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. The ethnic and racial groups in the country of Azuria live in harmony with each other. The people of this country understand and respect the culture and practices of other groups. This attitude of the people of Azuria shows that the society favors .
  2. fusion
  3. assimilation
  4. amalgamation
  5. pluralism

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.4: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Apply What You Know Difficulty: Difficult

  1. Opponents of the Afrocentric perspective argue that it .
  2. does not allow for a separatist view on history
  3. emphasizes too much on European values and culture
  4. promotes the idea of a human melting pot
  5. distorts both past and present

Answer: d

Learning Objective: 1.6: Describe how resistance and change occur in racial and ethnic relations. Topic: Resistance and Change

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

Essay Questions

  1. Delineate and give examples of the five characteristics of a minority or subordinate

Answer: A minority or subordinate group has five characteristics: unequal treatment, distinguishing physical or cultural traits, involuntary membership, awareness of subordination, and in-group marriage:

  1. Members of a minority experience unequal treatment and have less power over their lives than members of a dominant group have over theirs. Prejudice, discrimination, segregation, and even extermination create this social
  2. Members of a minority group share physical or cultural characteristics such as skin color or language that distinguish them from the dominant group. Each society has its own arbitrary standard for determining which characteristics are most important in defining dominant and minority
  3. Membership in a dominant or minority group is not voluntary: People are born into the group. A person does not choose to be African American or
  4. Minority-group members have a strong sense of group solidarity. William Graham Sumner, writing in

1906, noted that people make distinctions between members of their own group (the in-group) and everyone else (the out-group). When a group is the object of long-term prejudice and discrimination, the feeling of “us versus them” often becomes intense.

  1. Members of a minority generally marry others from the same group. A member of a dominant group often is unwilling to join a supposedly inferior minority by marrying one of its members. In addition, the minority group’s sense of solidarity encourages marriage within the group and discourages marriage to outsiders.

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain how people are placed in groups. Topic: How are we Grouped?

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Explain how race, ethnicity, religion, and gender constitute the basis for minority group status. What are other factors that are used to subordinate groups of people?

Answer: The term racial group is reserved for minorities and the corresponding majorities that are socially set apart because of obvious physical differences. In the United States, skin color is one obvious difference. Other societies use skin color as a standard but may have a more elaborate system of classification. The designation of a racial group emphasizes physical differences as opposed to cultural distinctions. In the United States, minority races include Blacks, Native Americans (or American Indians), Japanese Americans, Chinese Americans, Arab Americans, Filipinos, Hawaiians, and other Asian peoples.

Ethnic minority groups are differentiated from the dominant group on the basis of cultural differences such as language, attitudes toward marriage and parenting, and food habits. Ethnic groups are groups set apart from others because of their national origin or distinctive cultural patterns. Ethnic groups in the United States include a grouping that we call Hispanics or Latinos, which, in turn, include Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and other Latin American residents of the United States.

Association with a religion other than the dominant faith is the third basis for minority-group status. In the United States, Protestants, as a group, outnumber members of all other religions. Roman Catholics form the largest minority religion. Religious minorities include groups such as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (the Mormons), Jehovah’s Witnesses, Amish, Muslims, and Buddhists. Cults or sects associated with practices such as animal sacrifice, doomsday prophecy, demon worship, or the use of snakes in a ritualistic fashion also constitute religious minorities.

Gender is another attribute that creates dominant and subordinate groups. Males are the social majority; females, although numerous, are relegated to the position of the social minority. Women encounter prejudice and discrimination and are physically distinguishable. Women who are members of racial and ethnic minorities face special challenges to achieving equality. They suffer from greater inequality because they belong to two separate minority groups: a racial or ethnic group plus a subordinate gender group.

Age, disability status, physical appearance, and sexual orientation are among the factors that are used to subordinate groups of people.

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain how people are placed in groups Topic: How are we Grouped?

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. Explain the dilemma of being both African American and female in a society where both are subordinate

Answer: Women are considered a minority even though they do not exhibit all the characteristics of a minority group. Women encounter prejudice and discrimination and are physically distinguishable. Group membership is involuntary, and many women have developed a sense of sisterhood.

Women who are members of racial and ethnic minorities face special challenges to achieving equality. They suffer from greater inequality because they belong to two separate minority groups: a racial or ethnic group plus a subordinate gender group.

Women do not receive treatment that equals that received by men. Whether the issue is jobs or poverty, education or crime, women typically have more difficult experiences. In addition, the situations women face in areas such as health care and welfare raise different concerns than they do for men. Just as we need to consider the role of social class to understand race and ethnicity better, we also need to consider the role of gender.

Learning Objective: 1.1: Explain how people are placed in groups. Topic: How are Groups Formed?

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: Moderate

  1. What are intelligence tests and what are their criticisms?

Answer: Typically, intelligence is measured as an intelligence quotient (IQ), which is the ratio of a person’s mental age to his or her chronological age, multiplied by 100, with 100 representing average intelligence and higher scores representing greater intelligence. A great deal of debate continues over the accuracy of IQ tests. People argue that they are biased toward people who come to the tests with knowledge similar to that of the test writers. Skeptics argue that questions in IQ tests do not truly measure intellectual potential. The question of cultural bias in tests remains a concern. The most recent research shows that differences in intelligence scores between Blacks and Whites are almost eliminated when adjustments are made for social and economic characteristics. The debate about what is intelligence and what constitutes racial groups still continues. Despite these shortcomings, the IO research reemerges

because the argument that “we” are superior to “them” is appealing to the dominant group. It justifies receiving opportunities that are denied to others.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain The Social Construction of Race. Topic: The Social Construction of Race

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

  1. Why is race considered to be important in a society though it does not differentiate between humans biologically?

Answer: Race is important because of the social meaning people have attached to it. Race is a social construction, and this process benefits the oppressor, who defines which groups of people are privileged and which groups are not. The acceptance of race in a society as a legitimate category allows racial

hierarchies to emerge to the benefit of the dominant “races.” For example, inner-city drive-by shootings are now seen as a race-specific problem worthy of local officials cleaning up troubled neighborhoods. Yet school shootings are viewed as a societal concern and placed on the national agenda. People could speculate that if human groups have obvious physical differences, then they could have corresponding mental or personality differences. In its social sense, race implies that groups that differ physically also bear distinctive emotional and mental abilities or disabilities. These beliefs are based on the notion that humankind can be divided into distinct groups.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain The Social Construction of Race.

Topic: The Social Construction of Race Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: Moderate

  1. Why is it becoming difficult for people in the United States to place themselves on racial and ethnic landscapes? How does this relate to the concept of marginality?

Answer: Increasing numbers of people are identifying themselves as biracial or multiracial or, at the very least, explicitly viewing themselves as reflecting a diverse racial and ethnic identity. The diversity of the United States today has made it more difficult for many people to place themselves on the racial and ethnic landscape. The number of people whose ancestry is mixed by anyone's definition is increasing.

Marginality refers to the status of being between two cultures, as in the case of a person whose mother is a Jew and father a Christian. A century ago, Du Bois (1903) spoke eloquently of the “double

consciousness” that Black Americans feel—caught between being a citizen of the United States but viewed as something quite apart from the dominant social forces of society. Although a Filipino woman migrating to the United States may take on the characteristics of her new host society, she may not be fully accepted and may, therefore, feel neither Filipino nor American. Marginalized individuals often encounter social situations in which their identities are sources of tension, especially when the expression of multiple identities is not accepted, and they find themselves being perceived differently in different environments, with varying expectations. Such cases become an additional challenge to identity.

Learning Objective: 1.3: Explain The Social Construction of Race. Topic: The Social Construction of Race

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: Moderate

  1. According to the functionalist perspective, what dysfunctions to society are caused by prejudice and discrimination?

Answer: According to the functionalist perspective, prejudice and discrimination cause definite dysfunctions. Dysfunctions are elements of society that may disrupt a social system or decrease its stability. Racism is dysfunctional to a society, including to its dominant group, in six ways:

  1. A society that practices discrimination fails to use the resources of all Discrimination limits the search for talent and leadership to the dominant group.
  2. Discrimination aggravates social problems such as poverty, delinquency, and crime and places the financial burden of alleviating these problems on the dominant
  3. Society must invest a good deal of time and money to defend the barriers that prevent the full participation of all
  4. Racial prejudice and discrimination undercut goodwill and friendly diplomatic •relations between nations. They also negatively affect efforts to increase global
  5. Social change is inhibited because change may assist a subordinate
  6. Discrimination promotes disrespect for law enforcement and for the peaceful settlement of

Learning Objective: 1.5: Describe how sociology helps us understand race and ethnicity. Topic: Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. How does colonization benefit the colonizing nation?

Answer: Societies gain power over a foreign land through military strength, sophisticated political

organization, and investment capital. The extent of power may also vary according to the dominant group’s scope of settlement in the colonial land. Relations between the colonizing nation and the colonized people are similar to those between a dominant group and exploited subordinate groups. Colonial subjects generally are limited to menial jobs and the wages from their labor. The natural resources of their land benefit the members of the ruling class.

Learning Objective: 1.6: Explain how subordinate groups are created. Topic: The Creation of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: Moderate

  1. What is assimilation? Why is it considered to be difficult?

Answer: Assimilation is the process by which a subordinate individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant group and is eventually accepted as part of that group. Assimilation is a majority ideology in which A + B + C à A. The majority (A) dominates in such a way that the minorities (B and C) become indistinguishable from the dominant group. Assimilation dictates conformity to the dominant group, regardless of how many racial, ethnic, or religious groups are involved. To be complete, assimilation must entail an active effort by the minority-group individual to shed all distinguishing actions and beliefs and the unqualified acceptance of that individual by the dominant society. The assimilation perspective tends to devalue alien culture and to treasure the dominant. Assimilation is very difficult. The person being assimilated must forsake his or her cultural tradition to become part of a different, often antagonistic culture. Assimilation tends to take longer under the following conditions:

  1. The differences between the minority and the majority are
  2. The majority is not receptive, or the minority retains its own
  3. The minority group arrives over a short period of
  4. The minority-group residents are concentrated rather than
  5. The arrival is recent, and the homeland is

Learning Objective: 1.5: Summarize the consequences of subordinate-group status Topic: The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status

Skill Level: Remember the Facts Difficulty: Easy

  1. How have subordinate groups challenged subordination?

Answer: Subordinate groups do not merely accept the definitions and ideology proposed by the dominant group. A continuing theme in dominant–subordinate relations is the minority group’s challenge to its subordination. Resistance by subordinate groups is well documented as they seek to promote change that will bring them more rights and privileges, if not true equality. Often, traditional notions of racial formation are overcome not only through panethnicity but also because Black people, along with Latinos and sympathetic Whites, join in the resistance to subordination.

Resistance can be seen in efforts by racial and ethnic groups to maintain heir identity through newspapers and organizations and in today’s technological age through cable television stations, blogs, and Internet sites. Resistance manifests itself in social movements such as the civil rights movement, the feminist movement, and gay rights efforts. The passage of such legislation as the Age Discrimination Act or the Americans with Disabilities Act marks the success of oppressed groups in lobbying on their own behalf.

Learning Objective: 1.5: Summarize the consequences of subordinate-group status. Topic: Resistance and Change

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts Difficulty: 2 – Moderate

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