Test Bank Race, Gender, Sexuality and Social Class Dimensions of Inequality and Identity 3rd Edition Susan J. Ferguson A+

Test Bank Race, Gender, Sexuality and Social Class Dimensions of Inequality and Identity 3rd Edition Susan J. Ferguson A+

Test Bank Race, Gender, Sexuality and Social Class Dimensions of Inequality and Identity 3rd Edition Susan J. Ferguson A+

Test Bank Race, Gender, Sexuality and Social Class Dimensions of Inequality and Identity 3rd Edition Susan J. Ferguson A+

1. According to Lynn Weber, ______ exists when one group exploits another group to control resources and maintain power.

A. oppression

B. pluralism

C. acculturation

D. assimilation

Ans: A

2. Lynn Weber defines ______ as a power relationship resulting from and reinforcing the unequal distribution of productive assets in society.

A. stereotyping

B. exploitation

C. accommodation

D. domination

Ans: B

3. According to Desmond and Emirbayer, ______ is a symbolic category that varies by specific social and historical contexts and that is misrecognized as a natural category.

A. ethnicity

B. minority

C. race

D. social class

Ans: C

4. According to Desmond and Emirbayer, someone who asks, “Has racism become better over time?” is falling into which fallacy?

A. individualistic

B. legalistic

C. tokenistic

D. fixed

Ans: D

5. According to Desmond and Emirbayer, ______ refers to a shared lifestyle informed by cultural, historical, religious, and/or national affiliations.

A. race

B. class

C. phenotype

D. ethnicity

Ans: D

6. According to Crawley, Foley, and Shehan, ______ is the belief that there are enduring biological differences between genders.

A. essentialism

B. feminism

C. constructionism

D. gynocentrism

Ans: A

7. According to Crawley, Foley, and Shehan, one problem with dualistic thinking is that this approach ______.

A. uses essentialist beliefs

B. hides the complexities of the world

C. relies on stereotypes

D. takes exceptions seriously

Ans: B

8. According to Crawley, Foley, and Shehan, embodied knowledge refers to ______.

A. expectations for doing gender

B. the social construction of gender

C. how we experience gender

D. natural gender differences

Ans: C

9. According to Wendell, life and work have been organized around which group of people?

A. young, able-bodied, and healthy men and women

B. young, able-bodied, and healthy men

C. able-bodied and healthy men and women of all ages

D. able-bodied and healthy men of all ages

Ans: B

10. According to Wendell, what must happen before more people will recognize disability as a social problem?

A. More charities must be created to support people with disabilities.

B. Families must take on more responsibility for children with disabilities.

C. Buildings must be redesigned to accommodate all people.

D. People must challenge cultural images of disability.

Ans: D

11. According to Lerner, which of the following contributed to the formation and maintenance of social classes?

A. gendered marriage and inheritance practices

B. commodification of men’s and women’s sexual capacities

C. equal access to education

D. the putting-out system of production

Ans: A

12. According to Lerner, ______ is the practice of restricting marriages to people within the same propertied group.

A. exogamy

B. polygamy

C. homogamy

D. polygyny

Ans: C

13. According to Zuberi, slavery existed from the beginning of humanity, but ______ was new.

A. European participation

B. the racialization of slavery

C. political manipulation

D. the economic motivation

Ans: B

14. According to Zuberi, what happened after emancipation in most countries?

A. New forms of social and economic marginalization developed.

B. The formerly enslaved created their own independent nation.

C. New religious ideologies developed to support emancipation.

D. The formerly enslaved moved into nonagriculture jobs.

Ans: A

15. According to FitzGerald and Cook-Martin, which of the following often motivated government officials to impose fewer immigration restrictions?

A. annexation of new states

B. concerns about military strength

C. humanitarian crises abroad

D. new understandings of race

Ans: B

16. According to FitzGerald and Cook-Martin, why were Chinese immigrants initially wanted in the United States?

A. New studies showed Chinese men were hard workers.

B. People wanted to show they were no longer racist.

C. The United States wanted to weaken China’s army.

D. Employers could pay them less than White workers.

Ans: D

17. Which of the following best reflects the main argument made by FitzGerald and Cook-Martin?

A. Lawmakers focus more on ethnicity than race.

B. The average citizen was less racist than politicians.

C. Racism was a primary factor shaping immigration laws.

D. Immigration was necessary for economic growth.

Ans: C

18. Katz argues that heterosexuality is a(n) ______ concept.

A. ancient

B. ahistorical

C. modern

D. essential

Ans: C

19. According to Katz, before the concept of heterosexuality emerged, most sexual acts were understood in terms of ______.

A. eroticism

B. hermaphroditism

C. procreation

D. purity

Ans: C

20. According to Wright, ______ refers to the positions occupied by individuals within a society’s economic system.

A. class relations

B. social relations

C. class locations

D. social locations

Ans: C

21. According to Wright, what makes a Marxist analysis distinct?

A. This approach argues that exploited workers are completely powerless.

B. Marxist theorists emphasize the importance of values in analyzing class.

C. This approach focuses on the specific mechanisms that explain why people get what they do.

D. Marxist analysis theorizes the role of life chances in shaping labor outcomes.

Ans: C

22. According to Acker, what is a consequence of gendered and racialized capitalism?

A. Both men and women take on paid and unpaid labor.

B. Gender becomes more important than race.

C. A single hegemonic masculinity reinforces power.

D. Job segregation leads to unequal pay.

Ans: D

23. According to Acker, who benefits the most from industrial capitalism?

A. White females

B. Black males

C. White males

D. Black females

Ans: C

24. According to Glenn, ______ refers to the ways that race and gender are institutionalized and embedded in society.

A. relationality

B. power

C. cultural representations

D. social structural arrangements

Ans: D

25. What theory does Glenn suggest best explains the intersection of gender and race?

A. structural functionalism

B. conflict theory

C. social constructionism

D. social behaviorism

Ans: C

26. Dill and Zambrana propose a(n) ______ approach to think about inequality.

A. transitional

B. interactionist

C. intersectional

D. institutional

Ans: C

27. According to Dill and Zambrana, the ______ domain refers to ways that bureaucratic processes reinforce inequalities in society.

A. structural

B. disciplinary

C. hegemonic

D. interpersonal

Ans: B

28. According to Rahman, realizing the existence of gay Muslims challenges which major discourse?

A. intersectionality

B. oppositional cultures

C. social constructionism

D. feminism

Ans: B

29. According to Rahman, which of the following is an overlooked effect of industrialization and modernization in Europe?

A. People advocated for gender equality.

B. Gender became more hierarchical and exploitative.

C. People advocated for LGBT rights.

D. Governments cracked down on the LGBT community.

Ans: B

30. According to Annamma, Connor, and Ferri, a student of color is more likely to ______ compared to a White student with the same dis/ability label.

A. receive specialized instruction in a general education classroom

B. receive inferior instruction in a general education classroom

C. be removed from the classroom to receive intensive, personalized instruction

D. be placed in a separate, segregated classroom

Ans: D

31. According to Annamma, Connor, and Ferri, what is a consequence of seeing Whiteness and ability as property?

A. People come to see protests as the only viable form of activism.

B. Oppressed groups gain rights only when dominant groups would also benefit.

C. Separate hierarchies of race and of ability are maintained.

D. Western ideas of normalcy go unchallenged.

Ans: B


1. According to Weber, people who benefit from unfair practices easily recognize those practices as unfair.

Ans: F

2. According to Weber, individual exceptions to oppression tend to reinforce the beliefs of the dominant group.

Ans: T

3. As stated by Desmond and Emirbayer, you are born with your race, the same as you are born with fingers, eyes, and hair.

Ans: F

4. Desmond and Emirbayer define a person’s phenotype as their physical appearance and constitution.

Ans: T

5. Crawley, Foley, and Shehan argue that our gender roles are mainly determined by our biological differences.

Ans: F

6. According to Crawley, Foley, and Shehan, gender expectations have changed over time in the United States.

Ans: T

7. Wendell argues that disability can be defined in biomedical terms.

Ans: F

8. According to Wendell, lack of access to basic resources contributes to disability in a society.

Ans: T

9. Lerner asserts that other theorists have focused too much on social class when writing about gender inequality.

Ans: F

10. Lerner argues that classes were formed and maintained by gendered marriage arrangements and inheritance practices.

Ans: T

11. According to Zuberi, Europeans primarily enslaved Africans by invading African kingdoms.

Ans: F

12. According to Zuberi, the Chain of Being asserted that God created some humans to be superior to other humans.

Ans: T

13. According to FitzGerald and Cook-Martin, literacy tests were an effective way to limit immigration.

Ans: F

14. One can infer from FitzGerald and Cook-Martin’s reading that understandings of race have remained the same over time.

Ans: F

15. According to Katz, the new heterosexual norm that developed in the 1900s portrayed sexuality negatively.

Ans: F

16. Wright defines a capitalist as anyone who owns the machines used for production.

Ans: F

17. Acker posits that capitalism places value on reproduction.

Ans: F

18. According to Glenn, race and gender must be viewed as linked within a particular historical context.

Ans: T

19. Dill and Zambrana suggest that race and gender should be studied as separate, independent constructs.

Ans: F

20. According to Rahman, Western gay identities can be readily transposed to Eastern gay identities.

Ans: F

21. According to Annamma, Connor, and Ferri, dis/ability should be understood as a biological phenomenon.

Ans: F


1. Based on Weber’s essay, explain why race, class, gender, and sexuality are systems of oppression. Give examples.

Ans: Varies.

2. According to Crawley, Foley, and Shehan, gender is socially constructed. Explain both the biological determinist concept of gender and the constructionist view, and explain why this article argues for the constructionist view.

Ans: Varies.

3. According to Lerner, we cannot understand social class without a gendered lens. Explain why this is true and give examples.

Ans: Varies.

4. Explain Zuberi’s assertion that the social construction of race was used by scientists and others to support political constructions of race.

Ans: Varies.

5. Drawing on FitzGerald and Cook-Martin, explain why some laws use explicitly racist language while others use coded language to restrict immigration to the United States.

Ans: Varies.

6. Describe how the concept of heterosexuality is a modern invention, according to Katz.

Ans: Varies.

7. Glenn argues that there are important convergences between the concepts of racial formation and the social construction of gender that allow for the development of a more integrative framework in the study of race and gender. Describe and explain the basics of Glenn’s argument.

Ans: Varies.

8. Explain Dill and Zambrana’s concept of intersectionality and how it ties together race, gender, class, sexuality, nationality, and physical ability.

Ans: Varies.

9. Drawing on Rahman, explain how gay Muslims challenge both our categories of Muslim and of gay, using queer and intersectional theory.

Ans: Varies.

10. According to Annamma, Connor, and Ferri, why is DisCrit necessary? What do scholars gain by combining these theoretical perspectives?

Ans: Varies.

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