Test Bank Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology 1st Edition by Callie Marie Rennison

$35.00
Test Bank Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology 1st Edition by Callie Marie Rennison

Test Bank Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology 1st Edition by Callie Marie Rennison

$35.00
Test Bank Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology 1st Edition by Callie Marie Rennison

Test Bank Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology 1st Edition by Callie Marie Rennison

Chapter 1: Why Study Research Methods?

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

  1. Information believed to be true and reliable is referred to as ______.
  2. knowledge
  3. science
  4. data
  5. research

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define knowledge, social science, research, and research methods.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Introduction: What Is Research Methods?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Research that focuses on society and human relationships within societies is known as ______.
  2. biological research
  3. social science research
  4. natural science research
  5. medical research

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define knowledge, social science, research, and research methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction: What Is Research Methods?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The following disciplines fall within the category of social science EXCEPT ______.
  2. criminal justice
  3. sociology
  4. criminology
  5. natural science

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define knowledge, social science, research, and research methods.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Introduction: What Is Research Methods?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Systematic processes, frameworks, and steps or procedures that are used to conduct social science research are referred to as ______.
  2. data
  3. research methods
  4. knowledge
  5. definitions

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define knowledge, social science, research, and research methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction: What Is Research Methods?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Research methods include all of the following with the exception of ______.
  2. asking a research question
  3. establishing steps used to gather data
  4. analyzing data that is gathered
  5. using findings to reach a conclusion

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define knowledge, social science, research, and research methods.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Introduction: What Is Research Methods?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The evidence or information collected and analyzed in order to answer a research question is referred to as ______.
  2. definition
  3. measurement
  4. data
  5. sample

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define knowledge, social science, research, and research methods.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Introduction: What Is Research Methods?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The branch of knowledge derived from observable and falsifiable information, data, or evidence gathered in a systematic fashion is known as ______.
  2. data
  3. science
  4. knowledge
  5. research methods

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define knowledge, social science, research, and research methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction: What Is Research Methods?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. You can be confident that knowledge gathered is based on well-executed processes if it is derived from which of the following sources?
  2. information that you have been told by someone you trust
  3. legitimate peer reviewed journals
  4. personal observations
  5. information from social media

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Conducting a non-critical assessment means that knowledge was accepted without considering ______ knowledge was created.
  2. why
  3. where
  4. how
  5. when

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A subset of a population of interest, such as the 18- to 25-year-olds studied in the Campus Sexual Assault survey, is considered a ______.
  2. definition
  3. measurement
  4. method
  5. sample

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A ______ is the clarification of the precise meaning of a particular concept as used in a research study.
  2. measurement
  3. definition
  4. sample
  5. research method

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In order to assess a study’s findings, researchers must examine which of the following?
  2. measurements, sample size, and definitions used
  3. systematic process, framework, and procedures used
  4. measurements, framework, and procedures used
  5. systematic process, sample size, and definitions used

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Passing on knowledge or beliefs from person to person over time is an example of which of the following common sources of nonscientific knowledge?
  2. traditions, customs, and norms
  3. personal experience
  4. authoritative sources
  5. intuition

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A subset of men ranging from ages 25–35 who work in the private sector is an example of a ______.
  2. method
  3. sample
  4. definition
  5. measurement

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Report utilized data from which of the following sources?
  2. authoritative sources
  3. legitimate peer reviewed journals
  4. victims
  5. administrative sources

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Utilizing information obtained from a professor is an example of which of the following nonscientific sources?
  2. personal experience
  3. traditions and customs
  4. authoritative sources
  5. intuition

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Why is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following is a limitation of using traditions, customs and norms as sources of knowledge?
  2. This knowledge is thought to be true.
  3. This knowledge is subjective and non-research based.
  4. This knowledge is often based on initial perceptions of situations.
  5. This knowledge is often reproducible.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following sources of knowledge was identified as being a powerful source of non-scientific and non-research based knowledge?
  2. traditions, customs, norms
  3. authoritative sources
  4. intuition
  5. personal experience

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. An individual’s personal experience ______.
  2. is objective
  3. accurately reflects the larger truth
  4. is falsifiable
  5. is not reproducible

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. All of the following are examples of authoritative sources EXCEPT ______.
  2. self
  3. clergy
  4. professors
  5. parents

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following nonscientific sources of knowledge includes feelings, senses, and gut instincts?
  2. social media
  3. intuition
  4. personal experiences
  5. traditions, customs, and norms

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A ______ guides research designed to increase understanding and generate knowledge about a topic.
  2. research question
  3. research method
  4. definition
  5. measurement

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. All of the following statements regarding a literature reviews purpose are true EXCEPT ______.
  2. A literature review summarizes and synthesizes existing understanding on the topic of interest.
  3. A literature review offers justification for the proposed study.
  4. A literature review guides research designed to generate knowledge and also guides the research endeavor.
  5. A literature review identifies limitations and gaps in existing research.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Identifying the precise steps that will be used to answer the research question is a part of which of the following?
  2. asking the research question
  3. designing the research
  4. collecting the data
  5. conducting the literature review

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Conducting in-person interviews and holding focus groups is a component of ______.
  2. developing a research question
  3. collecting data
  4. designing the research
  5. conducting a literature review

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. All of the following are examples of research questions with the exception of ______.
  2. Is violence against women more likely to occur in dark and secluded areas?
  3. What are the rates of dating violence by Latino victim gender?
  4. Do you believe that minorities are disproportionately represented in jails and prisons?
  5. What impact do radar guns have on traffic violation rates?

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Develop research questions that would describe, associate, and predict variables. Compare the different types of research questions.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Norms for behavior distinguishing what is and is not acceptable moral behavior in society are known as ______.
  2. methods
  3. data
  4. ethics
  5. measurements

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess what makes ethics an important consideration during research by summarizing examples from the classic cases of unethical research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following is an ethical principle outlined in the Nuremberg Code?
  2. Participation is voluntary, and participants understand there can be instances in which they are not well informed.
  3. The experiment should aim to achieve positive results for society that cannot be procured in another way.
  4. The staff conducting, or taking part in the experiment requires some training, although being scientifically qualified is not mandatory.
  5. Previous knowledge of potential benefits of the experiment is not required for the justification of an experiment.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The cohort of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was ______ men.
  2. Caucasian
  3. African American
  4. Asian
  5. Hispanic/Latino

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess what makes ethics an important consideration during research by summarizing examples from the classic cases of unethical research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The following experiments included human subjects with the expectation of the ______.
  2. Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
  3. Stanley Milgram’s Experiment
  4. Sheridan and King’s Experiment
  5. Stanford Prison Experiment

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess what makes ethics an important consideration during research by summarizing examples from the classic cases of unethical research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The following principles are identified as elements of the Belmont Report with the exception of ______.
  2. beneficence
  3. informed consent
  4. justice
  5. respect for persons

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The following guidelines are requirements of the Belmont Report with the exception of ______.
  2. informed consent
  3. assessment of risk and benefits
  4. respect for persons
  5. selection of subjects

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The Belmont Report’s ______ principle states that researchers are obligated to do no harm, to maximize possible benefits and to minimize possible harms to all participants in a study.
  2. beneficence
  3. justice
  4. respect for persons
  5. informed consent

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. ______ is a requirement for subjects who voluntarily participate in a study after receiving sufficient information about the experiment, and expectations.
  2. Assessment of risks and benefits
  3. Justice
  4. Selection of subjects
  5. Informed consent

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Institutional Review Boards are tasked with all of the following with the exception of ______ involving humans in the United States.
  2. reviewing health and social science research.
  3. monitoring health and social science research
  4. approving health and social science research
  5. creating health and social science research

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess what makes ethics an important consideration during research by summarizing examples from the classic cases of unethical research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following lists the correct order of the stages of research?
  2. Research question, literature review, research design, collect data, choose best data analysis methodology and analyze data, generate findings, conclusions, and policy implications.
  3. Research question, research design, literature review, collect data, generate findings, choose best data analysis methodology and analyze data, conclusions, and policy implications.
  4. Literature review, research question, collect data, research design, generate findings, choose best data analysis methodology and analyze data, conclusions, and policy implications.
  5. Research design, literature review, collect data, choose best data analysis methodology and analyze data, research question, generate findings, conclusions, and policy implications.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. After identifying a research question, researchers should proceed to which of the following stages?
  2. collect data
  3. generate findings, conclusions, and policy implications
  4. literature review
  5. research design

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. If you discover that existing studies have been done pertaining to your research questions, what is your next step?
  2. Choose a new research question.
  3. Craft your research in such a way that it adds to what has already been published.
  4. Be sure to use the same research methods mentioned in published studies.
  5. Obtain approval by authors of published studies before proceeding.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. According to Rennison, documenting methodology is important for which of the following reasons?
  2. Consumers are able to critically assess your work, and replicate your study.
  3. The methodology can be utilized to further research in your field.
  4. Proper documentation prevents others from receiving credit for your findings.
  5. Other researchers will be able to improve your research design.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following should be a top consideration when choosing an appropriate analytics technique?
  2. What is the easiest and most affordable way to collect data on this topic?
  3. What is the best way to answer the research question?
  4. How has this topic been studied in the past?
  5. With which type of analysis am I most comfortable?

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. What has history revealed for consideration in regards to ethics and research studies?
  2. Humans need guidelines and oversight in order to ensure that research is done ethically.
  3. Common sense and a researcher’s basic sense of what is right and wrong are reliable guides to ethical research.
  4. Unethical research has been common in totalitarian societies, but unreported in the United States.
  5. Those studies now identified as unethical have been quickly stopped by supervisors and government bodies.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess what makes ethics an important consideration during research by summarizing examples from the classic cases of unethical research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. The men of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment were informed of all of the following with the exception of being told that ______.
  2. they were infected with syphilis
  3. they would receive various medical incentives
  4. they would be treated for bad blood
  5. their families would receive burial stipends

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess what makes ethics an important consideration during research by summarizing examples from the classic cases of unethical research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What was Peter Buxtun’s role in the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment?
  2. Buxtun was a member of the U.S. Public Health Service, a sponsor of the experiment.
  3. Buxtun was on the team that identified the cure for syphilis.
  4. Buxtun was a whistleblower that leaked information regarding the experiment to journalists.
  5. Buxtun was one of the remaining survivors of the experiment.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess what makes ethics an important consideration during research by summarizing examples from the classic cases of unethical research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which of the following historical events prompted the creation of the Nuremberg Code?
  2. World War I
  3. the Holocaust
  4. the Armenian Genocide
  5. the Congo Free State

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess what makes ethics an important consideration during research by summarizing examples from the classic cases of unethical research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Why did Dr. Philip Zimbardo, the principal investigator of the Stanford Prison Experiment, stop the experiment before its conclusion?
  2. His colleagues asked him to stop the experiment.
  3. The participants refused to continue.
  4. A student recognized that the study was unethical.
  5. He realized that he was treating subjects inhumanely.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess what makes ethics an important consideration during research by summarizing examples from the classic cases of unethical research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

True/False

  1. There are three standard definitions of knowledge.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define knowledge, social science, research, and research methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction: What is Research Methods?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Criminal justice does not fall within the social sciences.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define knowledge, social science, research, and research methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction: What is Research Methods?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Research in criminal justice and criminology is guided by the goal of answering a specific research question.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define knowledge, social science, research, and research methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction: What is Research Methods?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Research methods can be viewed as a how-to guide, or a basic recipe for conducting research.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Define knowledge, social science, research, and research methods.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction: What is Research Methods?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Knowledge generated in scientific ways includes information you have been told by people you trust, things you have personally observed, intuition, and/or information gleaned from social and mass media.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A strong understanding of research methods is an academic skill, with few practical applications.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Accessing the original research, and learning about the research methodology used to conduct that research is the appropriate method of assessing the validity of a study’s finding.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Survey research is one example of how data can be collected for a study.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The purpose of answering a research question is to increase our knowledge and understanding of a topic.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The purpose of collecting data are to identify the limitations and gaps in existing research.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Report includes crimes that are not reported to the police.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Treatment of the American flag is an example of a tradition, custom, or norm.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. An individual’s personal experience is objective and accurately reflects the larger truth.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Research always begins with the collection of data.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. A component of designing research is making the concepts measurable, or operationalization.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Document analysis and quasi-experiments can be utilized to collect data.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Ethics are not necessarily what feelings or laws direct us to do, but rather what the common norms of moral behavior in society dictate.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess what makes ethics an important consideration during research by summarizing examples from the classic cases of unethical research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Documenting the methodology used in a study occurs during the literature review stage of research.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The Nuremberg Code allowed researchers to govern themselves, a method that has proven to be effective under most experiments’ conditions.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-5: Assess what makes ethics an important consideration during research by summarizing examples from the classic cases of unethical research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The Belmont Report’s ethical principles and guidelines apply to both human and animal subjects.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. With few exceptions, all research that is supported by the U.S. federal government requires Institutional Review Board oversight.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The Institutional Review Board has been compared to the Internal Revenue Service in regard to its necessity.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Conducting research on normal educational practices in established or traditional educational settings is an example of an exception to the Institutional Review Board requirement for oversight.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The justice principle of the Belmont Report stipulates that research subjects must be treated reasonably and fairly.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. According to the Belmont Report’s principles, persons with diminished autonomy are not entitled to protection.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

Short Answer

  1. Identify and explain the typical stages of research mentioned in the text.

Ans: A strong answer will include the following stages:

  • Developing a research question
  • Conducting a literature review
  • Designing the research
  • Collecting data
  • Selecting an analytic approach and developing findings
  • Generating findings, conclusions, and policy implications

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Discuss the importance of defining (operationalizing) terms within a study. Are definitions uniform across studies? Why or why not? What is the impact of not having pre-defined, and uniform terms? Use an example.

Ans: A strong answer will note that not all definitions are the same and not all entities (e.g. the Federal Bureau Investigation vs. the National Crime Victimization Survey) utilize the same definition for a term.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Identify and describe the various sources of knowledge mentioned throughout Chapter 1, “Why Study Research Methods?”, and their advantages and disadvantages as applied to research.

Ans: A strong answer will identify academic books, legitimate peer reviewed articles, information from substantive experts, in addition to other sources of knowledge, such as traditions, customs, and norms, intuition, authoritative sources, and personal experiences.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is a research question and why are they important to social science research and other areas of research in academia? Provide an example of a research question.

Ans: A strong answer will include the research questions purpose, which is to guide research, add to the body of research that encourages new ideas, knowledge, and growth.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Identify the various ways in which data can be collected. How do resources affect the type of data collection method used?

Ans: A strong answer can include examples, such as in-person interviews, focus groups, surveys, etc. In addition, students should also discuss how affordability of resources could impact the type of data collection method used.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Identify the Nuremberg Code’s foundational ethical research principles and guidelines.

Ans: A strong answer will include the following principles and guidelines as outline by the code:

  • Required is the voluntary, well-informed, understanding consent of the human subject in a full legal capacity.
  • The experiment should aim at positive results for society that cannot be procured in some other way.
  • It should be based on previous knowledge (like, an expectation derived from animal experiments) that justifies the experiment.
  • The experiment should be set up in a way that avoids unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injuries.
  • It should not be conducted when there is any reason to believe that it implies a risk of death or disabling injury.
  • The risks of the experiment should be in proportion to (that is, not exceed) the expected humanitarian benefits.
  • Preparations and facilities must be provided that adequately protect the subjects against the experiment’s risks.
  • The staff that conduct or take part in the experiment must be fully trained and scientifically qualified.
  • The human subjects must be free to immediately quit the experiment at any point when they feel physically or mentally unable to go on.
  • Likewise, the medical staff must stop the experiment at any point when they observe that continuation would be dangerous.

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Identify and describe the three principles associated with the Belmont Report’s Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects and Research.

Ans: A strong answer will include the following three principles:

  • Respect for persons: Individuals should be treated as autonomous agents, and that autonomy must be acknowledged. Persons with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection, and protection is required of those with diminished autonomy.
  • Beneficence: Researchers are obligated to do no harm, to maximize possible benefits and to minimize possible harms to all participants in a study. Study participants include respondents, researchers, and bystanders.
  • Justice: Research subjects must be treated reasonably and fairly. Selection of participants should not be conducted in which some due to their easy availability, their compromised position, or their manipulability are taken advantage of, or shoulder the bulk of the costs of the research. Selection of subjects in research should be related directly to the problem being studied. Costs and benefits of the research should be shouldered fairly.

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Identify and describe the three requirements associated with the Belmont Report’s Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects and Research.

Ans: A strong answer will include the following three requirements:

  • Informed consent: Participants in research can choose what shall or shall not be done to them. In order to provide informed consent, participants must voluntarily choose to engage in the study after having been given sufficient information about the study. In addition, information about the research must be provided in a way that is comprehensible to the participant.
  • Assessment of risk and benefits: It is required that all parties engaged in research examine whether the benefits outweigh the risks. It is the researcher’s responsibility to properly design a study, and to ensure there is fair and just in the selection of subjects. It is a review committee’s responsibility to identify if risks, if any, to the participants are justified. Participants must assess whether they will or will not participate.
  • Selection of subjects: This requirement calls for the fair selection of, and fair distribution of outcomes associated with, the selection of research subjects for research conducted

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is an Institutional Review Board and what is its purpose?

Ans: A strong answer will include the following:

Institutional Review Boards review, approve, and monitor health and social science research involving human subjects in the United States. They are committees that are required to ensure that the requirements and obligations outlined in the Belmont Report are followed, and that the rights of humans participating in research are honored

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Identify a limitation of the Nuremberg Code. Have there been any improvements in ethical guidelines and practices that have improved on this limitation?

Ans: A strong answer will include the following:

  • A limitation of the Nuremberg Code is that it offered no mechanism for compliance or enforcement. The Code relied on the researchers themselves to govern themselves, which as history shows, is not effective.
  • An example that could be utilized to show that there has been some improvement is that of the Institutional Review Boards.

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

Essay

  1. Why are research methods important in social science research and other fields of research? You may use examples of studies to illustrate the importance of research methods.

Ans: A strong answer will incorporate the author’s claim that research methods influences what a person knows by offering a systematic way to assess and gain knowledge. In addition, students can also mention the skills that are acquired when utilizing research methods.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Describe a sample population. You make use one of the studies in the text or another study that you are familiar with. Why does the sample size significantly alter the validity of a study?

Ans: A strong answer will argue that larger sample sizes are more generalizable to the national population, than a smaller sample size.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Summarize why understanding research methods is important.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Why Is Research Methods Important?

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. According to the text, ethics are what the common norms of moral behavior in society dictate. How can oversight prevent unethical research? You may use a study from the text or one that you are familiar with.

Ans: A strong answer will include the examples of unethical studies mentioned in the text (students can utilize other studies that they are familiar with to illustrate their point).

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Identify various ethical guidelines and principles that are in place to protect individuals from unethical practices. Why are they so important to social science research and other disciplines today?

Ans: A strong answer will include the Belmont Report, the Nuremberg Code, and the Institutional Review Boards that provide oversight.

Learning Objective: 1-6: Describe the impetus and purpose of the Nuremberg Code, and the Belmont Report. Evaluate the guidelines and requirements of ethical research according to these foundational documents.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Essential Role of Ethics in Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Using the information that you learned in the text regarding the typical stages of research, create your own research question and proceed with outlining the stages of your research. What types of literature and journals will you include in your review? What size sample would you use to accurately create a representation of those being studied posed by your research question? Who would you sample? How will you collect your data? How would you analyze your data? How would you interpret the results? You may use one of the studies in the text as a guide.

Ans: A strong answer will be sure to include all of the stages of research that were mentioned in the text.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate and describe each of the major steps taken to conduct research, as well as the importance of each step.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Typical Stages of Research

Difficulty Level: Hard

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