Test Bank Social Problems, 8th Edition John J. Macionis

$35.00
Test Bank Social Problems, 8th Edition John J. Macionis

Test Bank Social Problems, 8th Edition John J. Macionis

$35.00
Test Bank Social Problems, 8th Edition John J. Macionis

Test Bank Social Problems, 8th Edition John J. Macionis

Chapter 1 Test Bank, Sociology: Studying Social Problems

In this revision of the test bank, I have updated the questions to reflect changes in Social Problems, 8th edition. This chapter test bank provides fifty multiple-choice questions and five essay questions. The multiple-choice questions are coded for level of difficulty (easy, moderate, or difficult). The multiple-choice questions are also coded for the level of reasoning involved. The four levels of reasoning are Remember the Facts (recalling factual material), Understand the Concepts (understanding key concepts), Apply What You Know (applying sociological knowledge to a situation), and Analyze the Issue (identifying the interrelationship among variables).

Types of Questions

Easy to Difficult Level of Difficulty

Mult Choice

Essay

Total Qs

Remember the Facts

16 (32%)

0

16

Understand the Concepts

18 (36%)

0

18

Apply What You Know

11 (22%)

2 (40%)

13

Analyze the Issue

5 (10%)

3 (60%)

8

50 (100%)

5 (100%)

55

Multiple-Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following terms refers to a point of view that shows us how society affects the experiences and choices of individuals?
  2. social patterns
  3. sociological imagination
  4. comparative perspective
  5. social problems approach

Answer: b

Consider This: Understanding that issues affect not only us but also other people like us helps to put sociological problems into a broader perspective. L.O.1.1 Explain the benefits of learning about sociology and using the sociological imagination.

Learning Objective: 1.1 Explain the benefits of learning about sociology and using the sociological imagination.

Topic: Seeing Patterns: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. We tend to assume people are responsible for their own troubles because our way of life in the United States emphasizes __________.
  2. collective goals
  3. individualism
  4. tradition
  5. relying on luck

Answer: b

Consider This: Cultural patterns in the United States are diverse, but one widely shared value is the idea that for better or worse, people are responsible for their own lives. L.O.1.1 Explain the benefits of learning about sociology and using the sociological imagination.

Learning Objective: 1.1 Explain the benefits of learning about sociology and using the sociological imagination.

Topic: Seeing Patterns: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze the Issue

  1. Thinking sociologically about a problem such as unemployment, we understand that this issue is __________.
  2. the result of bad choices by individuals
  3. inevitable
  4. a personal problem
  5. a social issue involving the operation of society

Answer: d

Consider This: The first of the eight assertions of sociology is that social problems result from the ways in which society operates. L.O.1.1 Explain the benefits of learning about sociology and using the sociological imagination.

Learning Objective: 1.1 Explain the benefits of learning about sociology and using the sociological imagination.

Topic: Seeing Patterns: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. A social problem is defined as a condition that __________.
  2. harms everyone in a society
  3. harms only the poorest people in a society
  4. harms only the most powerful people in a society
  5. harms some or all members of a society and is usually controversial

Answer: d

Consider This: Social problems undermine people’s well-being but not everyone agrees about why or what should be done. Because any issue affects various segments of our population differently, a particular social problem is rarely harmful to everyone. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. In 2017, a survey asked people what they considered to be serious social problems. All but one of the following appeared on the list of serious problems. Which one was not on the list?
  2. the economy
  3. terrorism
  4. unifying the country
  5. global warming

Answer: d

Consider This: After a year of Trump’s leadership and continued gridlock in Washington, D.C., poor leadership topped the list in 2017, but terrorism, health care, and immigration also concern many people. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. C. Wright Mills explained that by using the sociological perspective, people transform “personal troubles” into __________.
  2. social issues
  3. psychological concerns
  4. economic issues
  5. political concerns

Answer: a

Consider This: When people see their problems as personal, all they can do is try to deal with their troubles as one individual, preventing them from seeing the bigger picture of how society operates. Mills taught that a more accurate and more effective approach is to understand that it is society that shapes our lives. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. The social-constructionist approach asserts that __________.
  2. society keeps facing the same problems year after year
  3. social problems are those that are the most harmful to any population
  4. problems arise as people define conditions as undesirable and in need of change
  5. the government decides what the serious problems are

Answer: c

Consider This: Social problems have a subjective foundation, reflecting people’s judgments about their world. People at different times define different issues as social problems. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. An example of a pattern that is very harmful but not generally defined as a social problem is __________.
  2. terrorism, which includes events that have resulted in thousands of deaths
  3. school shootings, which have resulted in several dozen deaths
  4. the use of automobiles, which results in some 32,000 deaths each year
  1. homicide, which involves more than 16,000 deaths each year

Answer: c

Consider This: When we think of something as necessary to our way of life, it can be easy to overlook the problems associated with it. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Although there is less gender inequality today than there was a century ago, people today are more likely to view gender inequality as a social problem than people were likely to do so back then. This pattern reflects the fact that __________.
  2. what we subjectively perceive always reflects what is objectively true
  3. we now expect men and women to be socially unequal
  4. we now expect men and women to be socially equal
  5. people simply don’t agree on what important social problems are

Answer: c

Consider This: Recognizing that the subjective and objective importance of social issues may be quite different opens the door for a deeper understanding of social change. When our cultural standards change, we perceive even small instances of inequality as a problem. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze the Issue

  1. The process of convincing the public and important public officials that a particular issue should be defined as a social problem is a process that sociologists call ___________.
  2. subjective assessment
  3. claims making
  4. objective assessment
  5. factual analysis

Answer: b

Consider This: When people reject the status quo, the first step is to create controversy, beginning the process of change by convincing others that the existing situation is not acceptable. People explain exactly what changes are needed and why they are needed. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Claims and counterclaims about what should and should not be defined as a social problem is a good way of describing __________.
  2. politics
  3. societal consensus
  4. coalescence
  5. philosophy

Answer: a

Consider This: Success in claims making is often marked by the passing of a law. This act is a clear statement that some behavior is wrong, and it also enlists the power of government to oppose it. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. An organized effort to encourage or discourage social change is called a __________.
  2. social movement
  3. sociological theory
  4. social-constructionist approach
  5. subculture

Answer: a

Consider This: The process of claims making almost always involves the deliberate efforts of many people working together in an organized effort that tries to shape the way people think about an issue in order to encourage or discourage social change. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. In which stage of a social movement do the people involved come together to share their concerns and make claims about the need for change?
  2. coalescence
  3. formalization
  4. decline
  5. emergence

Answer: d

Consider This: Movements begin when a few people come together to share their concern about the status quo and begin to make claims about the need for change. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Because social problems result from the ways in which society operates, __________.
  2. these problems cannot ever be solved
  3. people must solve their issues on their own
  4. solving social problems requires change to society itself
  5. all social problems can easily be solved

Answer: c

Consider This: A sociological perspective shows us that social problems are caused less by personal failings than by the operation of society itself. L.O.1.1 Explain the benefits of learning about sociology and using the sociological imagination.

Learning Objective: 1.1 Explain the benefits of learning about sociology and using the sociological imagination.

Topic: Seeing Patterns: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. Because many social problems are related, __________.
  2. no social problem can be solved
  3. every social problem can be solved
  4. solving one social problem may create a new problem
  5. solving one social problem will solve all social problems

Answer: c

Consider This: Because social problems are rooted in the operation of society, many social problems are related to one another, so addressing one problem can affect others. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Which of the following has played a part in more than 6 million accidents a year in the United States?
  2. school shootings
  3. poverty
  4. cell phone use while driving
  5. flu virus

Answer: c

Consider This: The number of annual deaths caused by this practice continues to rise. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Adopting a global perspective shows us which of the following patterns?
  2. Women in poor nations typically have fewer children than women in the United States.
  3. People in poor nations have as much schooling as people in the United States.
  4. The problems we face in the United States are exactly the same in other countries.
  5. Poverty is even more serious in much of the world than it is in the United States.

Answer: d

Consider This: A global perspective shows that many dimensions of life—and many of life’s challenges—may be quite different elsewhere. Many troubling issues such as health, illiteracy, and poverty are much worse elsewhere in the world than in a rich nation such as the United States. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Sociologists use which of the following concepts to refer to a statement of how and why specific facts are related?
  2. model
  3. correlation
  4. theory
  5. societal subsystem

Answer: c

Consider This: Sociologists weave various facts into meaning using a statement of how and why specific facts are related. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Which of the following concepts refers to a basic image of society that guides theory and research?
  2. hypothesis
  3. theoretical approach
  4. correlation
  5. societal subsystem

Answer: b

Consider This: Building a theory depends on a basic image of society that guides research. Using a particular way of looking at the theory leads sociologists to ask certain questions. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Which theoretical approach sees society as a system of many interrelated parts that operate together?
  2. structural-functional approach
  3. feminist approach
  4. social-conflict approach
  5. symbolic-interaction approach

Answer: a

Consider This: This approach might explore how the family is a system to ensure the care and raising of children, how schools provide young people with the skills they need for adult life, how the economy produces and distributes material goods, how the political system sets national goals and priorities, and how religion gives our lives purpose and meaning. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Major spheres of social life, or societal subsystems, are organized to meet a basic human need. Sociologists call these subsystems __________.
  2. theoretical paradigms
  3. functional prerequisites
  4. social institutions
  5. subcultures

Answer: c

Consider This: Examples include family and religion from the conservative perspective and the economy and politics from the liberal perspective. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Which early English sociologist made the statement that poverty and related problems were largely caused by some people lacking ability and personal discipline?
  2. Herbert Spencer
  3. Emile Durkheim
  4. Max Weber
  5. Karl Marx

Answer: a

Consider This: He used the term “social Darwinism” because he believed his ideas were based on Darwin’s theory of evolution. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Which theory would you be using if you studied how social problems arise when rapid change overwhelms society’s institutions?
  2. social-conflict theory
  3. social disorganization theory
  4. symbolic-interaction theory
  5. social Darwinist theory

Answer: b

Consider This: The Chicago School linked problems in society to upheaval and change rather than to deficient people. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. Which of the following concepts refers to the consequences of a social pattern that are intended and widely recognized?
  2. manifest functions
  3. latent functions
  4. dysfunctions
  5. eufunctions

Answer: a

Consider This: These consequences are easy to observe. Sports, for instance, can be seen to improve physical fitness. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Which of the following concepts refers to the negative consequences of social patterns?
  2. manifest functions
  3. latent functions
  4. dysfunctions
  5. eufunctions

Answer: c

Consider This: These consequences are a sign that something is not working in the way that was intended. For instance, college athletes often have little time to study. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. If you were studying how society is divided by gender inequality, which theoretical approach would you be using?
  2. the structural-functional approach
  3. the feminist approach
  4. the symbolic-interaction approach
  5. the social Darwinist approach

Answer: b

Consider This: Also called the gender-conflict approach, it explains social problems in terms of men’s dominance over women. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. Class-conflict theory is an explanation of social problems guided by the thinking of __________.
  2. Herbert Spencer
  3. the Chicago School
  4. Emile Durkheim
  5. Karl Marx

Answer: d

Consider This: This German-born thinker criticized society for concentrating most of the new wealth from industrial factories in the hands of a few. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. According to Marxist theory, social problems such as poverty result from __________.
  2. an evil human nature
  3. advanced technology
  4. the operation of a capitalist economy
  5. the high rate of immigration

Answer: c

Consider This: Marx criticized this system because while modern society has the productive capacity to end human suffering, its bounty is distributed to only a few. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze the Issue

  1. Marx predicted that, over time, capitalism would __________.
  2. steadily raise living standards for everyone
  3. bring about its own destruction
  4. become less and less productive
  5. meet all human needs

Answer: b

Consider This: In the long term, Marx was certain that workers, holding little hope for the future, would join together, rise up, and end this oppressive system. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze the Issue

  1. Karl Marx referred to industrial workers as __________.
  2. the bourgeoisie
  3. proletarians
  4. the cause of most problems
  5. middle class

Answer: b

Consider This: This category is also sometimes called “blue collar” or “working class.” L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. If you understand social problems as caused largely by racial and ethnic inequality, you are probably using which of the following theories ?
  2. social disorganization theory
  3. class-conflict theory
  4. multicultural theory
  5. feminist theory

Answer: c

Consider This: Sociologists see conflict based not only on class but also on color and culture. Societies attach importance to skin color and cultural background, which leads to ranking people in a hierarchy based on race and ethnicity. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. People who actively seek social equality for women and men would closely identify with which of the following?
  2. feminism
  3. multiculturalism
  4. social pathology theory
  5. social disorganization theory

Answer: a

Consider This: This approach has gained attention in recent months along with the increasing national focus on sexual harassment. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. If a group of friends stops thinking of one of their members as a “social drinker” and begins thinking of the person as a “problem drinker,” this process would probably be of greatest interest to someone using which theoretical approach?
  2. symbolic-interaction approach
  3. structural-functional approach
  4. social-conflict approach
  5. social disorganization approach

Answer: a

Consider This: This theoretical framework sees society as the product of individuals interacting with one another and highlights how people socially define a given situation. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze the Issue

  1. Which research method involves gaining greater breadth of opinion by emailing many people to ask them a large number of questions?
  2. questionnaire
  3. interview
  4. secondary analysis
  5. experiment

Answer: a

Consider This: Which of the research methods allows gathering data from many people over large distances? L.O.1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Topic: Finding the Facts: Sociological Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. If a researcher wishes to present a series of written items to subjects for their response, which of the following methods would the researcher select?
  2. experiment
  3. interview
  4. questionnaire
  5. secondary analysis

Answer: c

Consider This: Problems with this method involve locating or gaining access to the people who could give the most relevant responses. L.O.1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Topic: Finding the Facts: Sociological Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. Compared to questionnaires, interviews offer a researcher the chance to gain greater __________.
  2. depth of understanding
  3. breadth of opinion
  4. representativeness
  5. impersonality

Answer: a

Consider This: This method can take longer than other methods but allows the investigator to probe people’s opinions with follow-up questions. L.O.1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Topic: Finding the Facts: Sociological Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Using which of the following methods does a researcher observe people while joining in their everyday activities?
  2. survey
  3. experiment
  4. participant observation
  5. secondary analysis

Answer: c

Consider This: Also called “field research,” researchers using this method must balance the demands of active engagement in the setting with the more detached role required for objectivity. L.O.1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Topic: Finding the Facts: Sociological Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. What research method did Elijah Anderson use to study families and life on the streets in some of Philadelphia’s poor African American neighborhoods?
  2. the experiment
  3. the survey
  4. field research
  5. secondary analysis

Answer: c

Consider This: By conducting his research directly in the neighborhoods, Anderson discovered that although most people there had “decent” values, some had come to accept what Anderson calls the “code of the streets.” L.O.1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Topic: Finding the Facts: Sociological Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Which method has researchers investigate cause-and-effect relationships under highly controlled conditions?
  2. the experiment
  3. the survey
  4. participant observation
  5. secondary analysis

Answer: a

Consider This: This type of research is usually carried out in a specially designed laboratory where researchers change one variable while keeping others the same. L.O.1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Topic: Finding the Facts: Sociological Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. A research project that uses data already compiled by the U.S. Census Bureau is an example of which of the following research methods?
  2. survey analysis
  3. field research
  4. secondary analysis
  5. experimental research

Answer: c

Consider This: This is a research method that makes use of existing data originally collected by others. But just because data are easy to find does not mean they are accurate or well suited to your research project. L.O.1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Topic: Finding the Facts: Sociological Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. For German sociologist Max Weber, the main goal of sociology was to __________.
  2. discover truth
  3. engage in political debate
  4. promote social change
  5. avoid the illusion of objectivity

Answer: a

Consider This: Weber urged his colleagues to focus on the facts in an effort to make research value-free. Social scientists should keep a professional objectivity in their work, meaning that as much as possible researchers should hold their personal politics in check to avoid distorting the results. L.O.1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Topic: Finding the Facts: Sociological Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. In evaluating any social policy, it is important to remember that __________.
  2. there is no way to measure a policy’s level of “success”
  3. there is more than one way to measure a policy’s level of “success”
  4. policies have little or nothing to do with people’s politics
  5. the public generally does not care if programs work or not

Answer: b

Consider This: In the example of a rehabilitation program for young people who abuse drugs, what result would constitute success and how is that determined? L.O.1.5 Identify factors that shape how societies devise policy to respond to social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.5 Identify factors that shape how societies devise policy to respond to social problems.

Topic: Responding to Social Problems: Social Policy

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. The continuum representing a range of political attitudes of a population is called __________.
  2. a global perspective
  3. a research agenda
  4. the political spectrum
  5. the social-constructionist approach

Answer: c

Consider This: Some people hold views that are very conservative, others very liberal, with the majority of people somewhere in between. L.O.1.5 Identify factors that shape how societies devise policy to respond to social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.5 Identify factors that shape how societies devise policy to respond to social problems.

Topic: Responding to Social Problems: Social Policy

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Liberal is derived from the Latin word for __________.
  2. “library”
  3. “literate”
  4. “radical”
  5. “free”

Answer: d

Consider This: A good society, from a liberal point of view, is one in which people are able to make choices for themselves. L.O.1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Learning Objective: 1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Topic: Constructing Problems and Defining Solutions

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. If you were a conservative, you would look for guidance about how to live by keeping in mind the lessons of __________.
  2. science
  3. the past
  4. the latest thinking on the issue
  5. sociology

Answer: b

Consider This: A “good” society, from the conservative point of view, is respectful of traditions and tries to conserve what earlier generations have learned. L.O.1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Learning Objective: 1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Topic: Constructing Problems and Defining Solutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. The term “radical” is derived from the Latin, meaning __________.
  2. “change”
  3. “breaking down”
  4. “of the root”
  5. “follower”

Answer: c

Consider This: Radicals point to some basic flaw in society that is responsible for any number of social problems. L.O.1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Learning Objective: 1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Topic: Constructing Problems and Defining Solutions

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. According to national surveys carried out in 2016, about what percentage of people consider themselves to be slightly liberal, liberal, or extremely liberal?
  2. 8 percent
  3. 28 percent
  4. 48 percent
  5. 68 percent

Answer: b

Consider This: The category selected by the largest share of people is “middle of the road.” L.O.1.5 Identify factors that shape how societies devise policy to respond to social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.5 Identify factors that shape how societies devise policy to respond to social problems.

Topic: Responding to Social Problems: Social Policy

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Which of the following positions would have the support of social liberals?
  2. “pro-life” side of the abortion controversy
  3. closing our country’s borders to immigrants
  4. use of the death penalty
  5. expanding rights for transgender people

Answer: d

Consider This: A “good” society, from a liberal point of view, is one in which people are able to make choices for themselves. This requires that the society be both tolerant and respectful of individual rights. L.O.1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Learning Objective: 1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Topic: Constructing Problems and Defining Solutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. Which of the following would have the support of social conservatives?
  2. “pro-choice” side of the abortion controversy
  3. use of the death penalty to punish the most serious crimes
  4. various “alternative lifestyles”
  5. encouragement of immigration across our borders

Answer: b

Consider This: Conservatives criticize what they see as too much tolerance in today’s society, which amounts to moral decline. L.O.1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Learning Objective: 1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Topic: Constructing Problems and Defining Solutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. In general, economic liberals favor __________.
  2. government having a small role in the economy
  3. a lower minimum wage
  4. keeping taxes low
  5. government policies that will reduce economic inequality

Answer: d

Consider This: Liberals believe that a free-market system too often works to the advantage of a select few and harms everyone else. L.O.1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Learning Objective: 1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Topic: Constructing Problems and Defining Solutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  • Essay Questions

  1. What is the sociological imagination? Explain the statement by C. Wright Mills that the sociological imagination transforms personal troubles into social issues.
  • The sociological imagination is a point of view that highlights how society affects the experiences we have and the choices we make.
  • Sociology’s key insight is that many of the personal troubles people face are really social issues with their roots in the operation of the larger society.
  • U.S. sociologist C. Wright Mills explained that using the sociological imagination helps see how society shapes our personal lives; by helping us to see the world in a new way, the sociological imagination gives us power to bring about change.

Consider This: Sociologist C. Wright Mills coined the expression “the sociological imagination” to encourage people to view their own personal problems as connected to the workings of society. L.O.1.1 Explain the benefits of learning about sociology and using the sociological imagination.

Learning Objective: 1.1 Explain the benefits of learning about sociology and using the sociological imagination.

Topic: Seeing Patterns: The Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. What is a social problem? What does it mean to say that social problems are constructed? How does politics guide the process of constructing problems and defining solutions?
  • Social problems come into being as people define an issue as harmful and in need of change.
  • Most of today’s problems differ from those that concerned the public several generations ago.
  • Politics is usually a matter of claims and counterclaims about what should and should not be defined as social problems and how to address the problems.

Consider This: People define a condition as harmful and in need of change. Whatever the objective facts are of any situation, people must come to see the condition as a serious social problem. Claims making is the process of defining a condition as a social problem. L.O.1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.2 Define the concept “social problem” and explain how societies come to define some issues—and not others—as social problems.

Topic: Social Problems: The Basics

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze the Issue

  1. What are sociology’s three major theoretical approaches? Describe each one. Apply each approach to a problem of your choice and show the type of insights each approach provides.
  • The structural-functional approach is a theoretical framework that sees society as a system of many interrelated parts known as social institutions.
  • The social-conflict and feminist approaches use a theoretical framework that sees society as divided by inequality and conflict based on class and gender.
  • The symbolic-interaction approach is a theoretical framework that sees society as the product of individuals interacting with one another and focuses on how individuals experience their world.

Consider This: Sociologists use theoretical approaches to guide their research and theory building. The major theoretical approaches all provide insights into various social problems. L.O.1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.3 Apply sociological theory to the study of social problems.

Topic: Analyzing Social Problems: Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. Review the major research methods employed by sociologists in studying social problems. Explain why a researcher would choose one method over another.
  • Sociologists use four major research methods in their investigation of social problems: surveys, field research, experimental research, and secondary analysis.
  • Questionnaires and interviews are forms of surveying that allow for breadth or depth of understanding, while field research allows observation of people in their everyday activities.
  • Experimental research uses controlled conditions to investigate cause-and-effect relationships.
  • Secondary analysis draws on data originally collected by others and may not be accurate.

Consider This: The different research methods address the topics in question in different ways that are appropriate in different situations. Each way has both pros and cons. L.O.1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Learning Objective: 1.4 Discuss the methods sociologists use to study social problems.

Topic: Finding the Facts: Sociological Research

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze the Issue

  1. What is the political spectrum? Describe how public attitudes fall on the political spectrum. What defines conservative, liberal, and left-radical positions? How do social issues differ from economic issues? Finally, what types of people tend to be on the left and right of each type of issue?
  • Attitudes on the political spectrum range from the far left at one extreme through “middle of the road” views at the center to the far right at the other extreme.
  • Social issues are political debates involving moral judgments about how people should live, while economic issues are political debates about how a society should produce and distribute material resources.
  • In general, economic liberals favor government regulation of the economy in order to reduce inequality, while economic conservatives call for a smaller role for government in the economy.
  • In general, social liberals think that people should be free to shape their lifestyles for themselves, while social conservatives are respectful of traditional values and want to conserve them, criticizing what they see as too much tolerance in today’s society.

Consider This: Over time, political attitudes may shift to the left or the right, but at any time there is always wide variation in people’s political thinking. L.O.1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Learning Objective: 1.6 Analyze how political attitudes shape how people define social problems and solutions.

Topic: Constructing Problems and Defining Solutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Analyze the Issue

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