Test Bank Sociological Theory 11th Edition by George Ritzer A+

$45.00
Test Bank Sociological Theory 11th Edition by George Ritzer A+

Test Bank Sociological Theory 11th Edition by George Ritzer A+

$45.00
Test Bank Sociological Theory 11th Edition by George Ritzer A+

Chapter 1: A Historical Sketch of Sociological Theory: The Early Years

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. To what does the term “modernity” refer?

a. changes during the Renaissance toward a modern understanding of the biological world

b. the social, economic, and political developments that unfolded in Europe and North America from the 18th to mid-20th century

c. the transition from a nomadic to an agricultural form of social organization

d. upheaval from the proletariat in reaction to capitalist exploitation

Ans: B

Answer Location: Premodern Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Which of the following distinguishes Khaldun’s unique contribution to premodern theory from classical European theory?

a. Khaldun focused on urban life

b. Khaldun analyzed rural life

c. Khaldun analyzed the relationship between rural and urban life

d. Khaldun was not interested in the relationship between rural and urban life

Ans: C

Answer Location: Premodern Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

3. Who wrote, “Capitalism is based on the exploitation of the workers by the capitalists?”

a. Alexis de Tocqueville

b. Herbert Spencer

c. Karl Marx

d. Emile Durkheim

Ans: C

Answer Location: Political Economy

Difficulty Level: Easy

4. Durkheim conceived of social facts as forces and structures that are external to, and coercive of, the individual. Which of the following does the text cite as a social fact that impacts suicide rates?

a. economic depression

b. election fraud

c. climate change

d. family illness

Ans: A

Answer Location: Social Facts

Difficulty Level: Medium

5. Who likened the modern world to an inescapable “iron cage” of rational systems?”

a. Alexis de Tocqueville

b. Emile Durkheim

c. Karl Marx

d. Max Weber

Ans: D

Answer Location: A Historical Sketch of Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

6. Which of the following was a central theme of Georg Simmel’s social theory?

a. social physics

b. systems of authority

c. social interaction in dyads and triads

d. social facts

Ans: C

Answer Location: Simmel’s Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

7. Who wrote, “Gender inequality explains most of individual experience, the ills in society, and history?”

a. Charlotte Perkins Gilman

b. Emile Durkheim

c. W. E. B. DuBois

d. Alexis de Tocqueville

Ans: A

Answer Location: A Historical Sketch of Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

8. Which of the following is an example of a rational-legal system of authority, according to Weber’s theory of bureaucracy?

a. monarchy in the United Kingdom

b. democracy in the United States

c. religious worship of Jesus

d. socialism in Cuba

Ans: B

Answer Location: Weber’s Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

9. August Comte’s ‘sociology’ was focused primarily on which of the following?

a. social Facts

b. social Dynamics

c. social Stasis

d. social Revolution

Ans: B

Answer Location: Auguste Comte (1798–1857)

Difficulty Level: Medium

10. Georg Simmel can be distinguished from earlier social theorists because he examined ______.

a. the impact of the economy on revolution

b. large-scale social phenomena

c. small-scale social phenomena

d. how institutions function

Ans: C

Answer Location: Simmel’s Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

11. According to Positivism, the study of social phenomena should employ which of the following?

a. the same scientific techniques as those used in the natural sciences

b. scientific techniques that differ from those used in the social sciences

c. the social scientist’s direct interaction with the social phenomenon under study

d. subjective interpretations of the social world

Ans: A

Answer Location: Auguste Comte (1798–1857)

Difficulty Level: Medium

12. Karl Marx’s labor theory of value was shaped by which school of social thought?

a. charismatic leaders

b. positivists

c. social Darwinists

d. political economists

Ans: D

Answer Location: Political Economy

Difficulty Level: Easy

13. Of the following theorists, who was a Social Darwinist that supported the idea of survival of the fittest?

a. Karl Marx

b. Charlotte Perkins Gilman

c. Max Weber

d. Herbert Spencer

Ans: D

Answer Location: Spencer and Comte

Difficulty Level: Medium

14. According to the text, a sociological theory can be considered a classic if it ______.

a. has a wide range of application

b. deals with individual social issues

c. applies to a specific point in history

d. makes conjectures about the natural world

Ans: A

Answer Location: Introduction

Difficulty Level: Medium

15. Sociologists (as opposed to social thinkers) first appeared during the ______.

a. Roman Empire

b. Middle-Ages

c. Renaissance (1400s)

d. mid-1800s

Ans: D

Answer Location: Social Forces in the Development of Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

16. Which of the following social forces most heavily influenced the rise of a new era of sociology during the late 1800s?

a. Political Revolutions

b. The Agricultural Revolution

c. Slavery

d. Colonialism

Ans: A

Answer Location: Political Revolution

Difficulty Level: Medium

17. Which social force refers to the incorporation of production technology into market driving economies?

a. Political Revolution

b. The Rise of Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution

c. The Rise of Socialism

d. Colonialism

Ans: B

Answer Location: The Industrial Revolution and the Rise of Capitalism

Difficulty Level: Medium

18. Which of the following concepts refers to the spread of western political, social, cultural, and economic domination across the globe?

a. Political Revolution

b. Capitalism and the Industrial Revolution

c. Socialism

d. Colonialism

Ans: D

Answer Location: Colonialism

Difficulty Level: Medium

19. Which social force refers to a questioning of patriarchy that grew out of mobilizations against slavery and the political oppression of the middle class?

a. Political Revolution

b. Urbanization

c. Religion

d. Feminism

Ans: D

Answer Location: Feminism

Difficulty Level: Easy

20. The mass migration of people away from agricultural areas and toward industrial cities is defined as ______.

a. Political Revolution

b. Urbanization

c. Colonialization

d. The Rise of Capitalism

Ans: B

Answer Location: Urbanization

Difficulty Level: Easy

21. What makes Muslim scholar Ibn Khaldun important to modern sociology?

a. Khaldun emphasized the importance of surface descriptions of social events.

b. Khaldun demonstrated that sedentary and nomadic societies operate similarly.

c. Khaldun was the first to develop a systematic approach to the study of social organization.

d. Khaldun was the first to analyze modern European societies.

Ans: C

Answer Location: Premodern Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

22. Alexis de Tocqueville argued that ______.

a. mediocrity was common among aristocrats in past eras

b. equality was the key to freedom

c. centralization of government was the key to liberty and justice

d. equality produced mediocrity during the era of his life

Ans: D

Answer Location: Alexis de Tocqueville (1805–1859)

Difficulty Level: Hard

23. Karl Marx’s theories were most highly influenced by which of the following philosophers?

a. Friedrich Engels

b. Karl Kautsky

c. G.W.F. Hegel

d. Martin Jay

Ans: C

Answer Location: The Roots and Nature of the Theories of Karl Marx (1818–1883)

Difficulty Level: Medium

24. Which French sociologist centered his positivist analysis on the French Revolution and its aftermath?

a. Alexis de Tocqueville

b. Claude Henri Saint-Simon

c. Auguste Comte

d. Emile Durkheim

Ans: C

Answer Location: The Development of French Sociology

Difficulty Level: Medium

25. Which French sociologist outlined how sociology should be a study of morality and social facts?

a. Alexis de Tocqueville

b. Claude Henri Saint-Simon

c. Auguste Comte

d. Emile Durkheim

Ans: D

Answer Location: The Development of French Sociology

Difficulty Level: Medium

26. Which early French sociologist had the most influence on contemporary sociology?

a. Alexis de Tocqueville

b. Claude Henri Saint-Simon

c. Auguste Comte

d. Emile Durkheim

Ans: D

Answer Location: The Development of French Sociology

Difficulty Level: Medium

27. Which of the following statements defines G.W.F. Hegel’s understanding of dialectics?

a. Dialectics are based on idealism.

b. Dialectics are based on dynamic aspects of society.

c. Dialectics are based on rational systems of authority.

d. Dialectics are based on positivism.

Ans: A

Answer Location: Hegel

Difficulty Level: Medium

28. Which German thinker developed a materialist philosophy he then applied toward understanding religion?

a. G. W. F. Hegel

b. Ludwig Feuerbach

c. Karl Marx

d. Max Weber

Ans: B

Answer Location: Feuerbach

Difficulty Level: Hard

29. Which of the following modern social developments can be used to demonstrate Marx’s concept of “alienation”?

a. abolishment of slavery

b. passing the Civil Rights Act

c. raising the minimum wage

d. automobile manufacturing using the assembly line

Ans: D

Answer Location: Marx’s Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

30. What type of authority is seen in the United States?

a. Charismatic

b. Rational-Legal

c. Traditional

d. Revolutionary

Ans: B

Answer Location: Weber’s Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

31. Which of the following intellectual currents was embraced by early British sociologists?

a. Colonialism

b. Political Economy

c. Socialism

d. Social Interactionism

Ans: B

Answer Location: Political Economy

Difficulty Level: Medium

32. Explanations that “blame the victim” originate from what school of British sociological thought?

a. Ameliorism

b. Political Economy

c. Socialism

d. Protestantism

Ans: A

Answer Location: Ameliorism

Difficulty Level: Easy

33. How did Harriet Martineau distinguish herself from other social theorists?

a. Martineau wrote short novels on social thought that were accessible to the public.

b. Martineau circulated her writings among elite political circles.

c. Martineau was a private educator first and foremost.

d. Martineau was uninfluenced by her social environment.

Ans: A

Answer Location: Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)

Difficulty Level: Medium

34. What intellectual current of early British sociology focused on how social structures emerge and operate?

a. Ameliorism

b. Political Economy

c. Structural Functionalism

d. Social Evolution

Ans: D

Answer Location: Social Evolution

Difficulty Level: Hard

35. To which modern social development can modern racism be attributed to?

a. Agricultural Revolution

b. Colonialism

c. Socialism

d. Political Revolution

Ans: B

Answer Location: Colonialism

Difficulty Level: Easy

True/False

1. Ibn Khaldun is one of the most influential modern sociological theorists.

Ans: F

Answer Location: Premodern Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Most classic sociologists rejected religion, instead drawing on secular ideas of scientific rationalism.

Ans: F

Answer Location: Religion

Difficulty Level: Medium

3. There was a debate among early sociologists about how much social science should mirror the natural sciences.

Ans: T

Answer Location: The Growth of Science

Difficulty Level: Easy

4. The majority of early sociologists favored socialism over capitalism.

Ans: F

Answer Location: The Rise of Socialism

Difficulty Level: Easy

5. Most Enlightenment thinkers embraced traditional forms of authority.

Ans: F

Answer Location: The Enlightenment

Difficulty Level: Easy

6. British sociologists saw the market as a positive force in the social world.

Ans: T

Answer Location: Political Economy

Difficulty Level: Easy

7. Claude Henri Saint-Simon sought to reverse social changes from the Enlightenment and return society to previous forms of social organization.

Ans: F

Answer Location: Claude Henri Saint-Simon (1760–1825)

Difficulty Level: Easy

8. August Comte argued that intellectual disorder is the cause of social disorder.

Ans: T

Answer Location: Auguste Comte (1798–1857)

Difficulty Level: Medium

9. Like most German sociologists, George Simmel worked predominately at the macro-level.

Ans: F

Answer Location: The Development of German Sociology

Difficulty Level: Easy

10. Vilfredo Pareto characterized society as being comprised of interdependent parts in which a change in one part results in change to another part so that equilibrium is maintained.

Ans: T

Answer Location: The Key Figure in Early Italian Sociology

Difficulty Level: Medium

Essay

1. Identify two historical social forces that were influential to the rise of sociology. Identify which social thinkers analyzed these changes, and what theories they are associated with.

Ans: May discuss any two of the following:

  • Political revolutions (Comte, Durkheim, Parsons)
  • The industrial revolution and the rise of capitalism (Marx, Hegel, Feuerbach)
  • Feminism Martineau, Perkins Gilman, Addams, Wells-Barnett, etc.)
  • Urbanization (Weber and Simmel)
    • Religion (Durkheim, Weber, Parsons, Spencer)

Answer Location: Intellectual Forces and the Rise of Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

2. Explain how Enlightenment philosophy and counter-Enlightenment thought influenced the development of sociology.

Ans:

  • Sociology embraced the rational empiricism espoused as part of the Enlightenment
  • Sociology did not embrace the emphasis on the individual that was central to the Enlightenment

Answer Location: Intellectual Forces and the Rise of Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Hard

3. Explain how the unique social contexts in France, Germany, and Britain led to the development of their respective schools of thought.

Ans:

  • The sociology in France was primarily a reaction to the French Revolution and the Enlightenment.
  • The sociology in Germany was first a reaction to Hegel, and then a reaction to Karl Marx.
  • In not experiencing much of the upheaval that plagued continental Europe, British sociology generally applauded industrial capitalism while looking to reform individuals, not society.

Answer Location: The Development of French Sociology, The Development of German Sociology, and The Origins of British Sociology

Difficulty Level: Hard

4. Identify and explain Weber’s three types of authorities. According to his theory, what form of authority do we have in the United States, and what are its characteristics?

Ans:

  • Traditional: Long-lasting system of beliefs (Monarchy)
  • Charismatic: Leadership from extraordinary abilities or characteristics (Jesus, Obama)
  • Rational-Legal: Authority from rules legally and rationally enacted (US President)

Rational-legal authority, seen in the United States, is established through universally applied rules, regulations and laws, particularly as seen in large-scale structures (Bureaucracies and the economy)

Answer Location: Weber’s Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

5. Discuss Ibn Khaldun’s contributions to sociology. Who was he, and what are two reasons why he is considered a precursor to modern sociology?

Ans:

  • Muslim scholar, Mediterranean region, 1300s
  • First systematic approach to the study of social organization
  • Theory of his own social world: Mediterranean region and North Africa
  • Relationship between tribal/nomadic societies and urban/sedentary societies

Answer Location: Premodern Sociological Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

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