Test Bank Sociology Evidence and Insights 1st Edition by Tim Curry

$35.00
Test Bank Sociology Evidence and Insights 1st Edition by Tim Curry

Test Bank Sociology Evidence and Insights 1st Edition by Tim Curry

$35.00
Test Bank Sociology Evidence and Insights 1st Edition by Tim Curry

Test Bank Sociology Evidence and Insights 1st Edition by Tim Curry

Chapter 1: The Sociological Mindset

Multiple Choice:

  1. Sociologists evaluate assertions with __________.
    1. “common sense” ideas
    2. hearsay
    3. anecdotes
    4. objective evidence

Answer: d
Learning Objective: 1.2.1 Define the term sociology.
Topic: Definition of Sociology
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Which of the following is the best definition of sociology?
  2. the scientific study of social structure and social interaction
  3. the scientific study of American society
  4. the objective science of common sense
  5. the objective science of societies

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.2.1 Define the term sociology.
Topic: Definition of Sociology
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. According to the text, the definition of sociology contains three key phrases that make sociology a unique discipline. Which of the following are those three key elements?
    1. systematic observation, social interaction, social insight
    2. sociological evidence, systematic observation, social structure
    3. science, social structure, social interaction
    4. social insight, science, sociological evidence

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.2.1 Define the term sociology.
Topic: Definition of Sociology
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Which of the following is true regarding Harriet Martineau?
    1. She wrote Society in America, which has ideas consistent with modern sociology.
    2. She translated from French the works of John Stuart Mill.
    3. She was an American social theorist.
    4. She believed women were supposed to fulfill domestic roles and rear children.

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.2.1 Define the term sociology.
Topic: Definition of Sociology
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. When did sociology become a formal academic discipline?
    1. during the eighteenth century
    2. during the early part of the nineteenth century
    3. during the latter part of the nineteenth century
    4. not until the early 1900s

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.2.1 Define the term sociology.
Topic: Definition of Sociology
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Which of the following best describes the global outlook of sociology?
    1. People all over the world study sociology in college classes.
    2. Sociology focuses on individual cultures and therefore is not impacted by what transpires throughout the world.
    3. What transpires in one part of the world affects our lives where we are.
    4. All people are basically the same and can be catalogued through sociology.

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.2.2 Describe the global outlook of sociology.
Topic: Global Outlook of Sociology
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. The relatively permanent components of our social environment that influence our behavior, often without our being consciously aware of it, are known as __________.
    1. social interaction
    2. social structure
    3. personal milieu
    4. sociology

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.3.1 Define social structure.
Topic: Definition of Social Structure
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. According to C. Wright Mills, the sociological imagination is made up of __________ and __________.
    1. common sense; social forces
    2. social milieu; objective evidence
    3. personal milieu; structural characteristics
    4. structural characteristics; common sense

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.3.2 Explain what C. Wright Mills meant by the sociological imagination.
Topic: Social Forces and Personal Milieu
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Christine recently graduated from college with a degree in journalism, but despite several interviews with local newspapers, she has not yet been offered a job. According to C. Wright Mills, which of the following describes a factor in her personal milieu that might be contributing to her problems finding employment?
    1. The newspaper industry is struggling and there are fewer jobs to be filled.
    2. Christine’s clips from the school paper reveal that she is not a talented writer, and she has an abrasive personality that is apparent in interviews.
    3. Many writing jobs have been outsourced to other countries.
    4. With many journalists out of work, there is fierce competition for the reporting jobs Christine is seeking.

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.3.2 Explain what C. Wright Mills meant by the sociological imagination.
Topic: Social Forces and Personal Milieu
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. A consistent way of looking at some aspect of the social world is known as a(n) __________.
    1. perspective
    2. opinion
    3. ideology
    4. hypothesis

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.4.1 Recognize what is meant by a sociological perspective.
Topic: What Is a Sociological Perspective?
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. The key to the conflict perspective is __________.
    1. social interaction
    2. social power
    3. sociological imagination
    4. social cohesion

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.4.2 Describe the conflict perspective.
Topic: Conflict Perspective
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Which of the following statements best explains how the conflict perspective addresses social change?
    1. Social change is impossible. Marx argued that change would never happen in capitalistic societies.
    2. According to Marx, social change is built into society because people with fewer privileges will attempt to change their status.
    3. Social change is unlikely because the subordinate group lacks the willpower to change their status.
    4. Marx claimed that social change was possible, but it was only through the avenue of capitalism.

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.4.2 Describe the conflict perspective.
Topic: Conflict Perspective
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. __________, a central feature of the conflict perspective, is a realm of cultural ideas and values that support the ruling class and became part of the society’s cultural belief system.
    1. Ideological illusion
    2. Social institutions
    3. Sociological imagination
    4. Social power

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.4.2 Describe the conflict perspective.
Topic: Conflict Perspective
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Rich politicians who favor tax cuts for the wealthy and other entitlements often are able to convince poor citizens that these policies will actually benefit them, even though they typically do not. Which theoretical perspective offers the best explanation for this type of cultural domination?
    1. conflict perspective
    2. functional perspective
    3. symbolic interaction perspective
    4. sociological imagination

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.4.2 Describe the conflict perspective.
Topic: Conflict Perspective
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. __________ functions have unintended and often unrecognized consequences, whereas __________ functions are intended, recognized consequences.
    1. Manifest; latent
    2. Mechanical; organic
    3. Latent; manifest
    4. Organic; mechanical

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.4.3 Describe the functional perspective.
Topic: Functional Perspective
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. According to the functional perspective, which of the following is considered important for a society to operate efficiently?
    1. conflict
    2. interactions
    3. equilibrium
    4. power

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.4.3 Describe the functional perspective.
Topic: Functional Perspective
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Durkheim claimed that people in small, traditional societies are socially integrated when everyone is socially much the same. What did he call this type of social cohesion?
    1. organic solidarity
    2. mechanical solidarity
    3. manifest functions
    4. latent functions

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.4.3 Describe the functional perspective.
Topic: Functional Perspective
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. __________ refers to social integration achieved through interdependence derived from differences among people.
    1. Organic solidarity
    2. Mechanical solidarity
    3. Manifest functions
    4. Latent functions

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.4.3 Describe the functional perspective.
Topic: Functional Perspective
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. In a large company, there are many different jobs that all must be performed in order for the company to function successfully. Which term would Durkheim use to describe this type of interdependence?
    1. organic solidarity
    2. mechanical solidarity
    3. manifest functions
    4. latent functions

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.4.3 Describe the functional perspective.
Topic: Functional Perspective
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. Village X is a small, homogeneous society where there is only one church for everyone to attend, there is one school for all the children, and everyone in the community knows everyone else. Which term would Durkheim use to describe this type of social cohesion?
    1. organic solidarity
    2. mechanical solidarity
    3. manifest functions
    4. latent functions

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.4.3 Describe the functional perspective.
Topic: Functional Perspective
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. The __________ perspective is based on the idea that individuals construct the nature of their social world through everyday encounters with one another.
    1. conflict
    2. functional
    3. symbolic interaction
    4. sociological imagination

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.4.4 Describe the symbolic interaction perspective.
Topic: Symbolic Interaction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. The process by which people learn the skills, knowledge, norms, and values of their society and by which they develop their social identity is known as __________.
    1. manifest functions
    2. defining a situation
    3. functionalism
    4. socialization

Answer: d
Learning Objective: 1.4.4 Describe the symbolic interaction perspective.
Topic: Symbolic Interaction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. A nation’s flag is simply cloth; however, because it is used to represent ideas about patriotism, national pride, and a country’s history, it also is a(n) __________ that has complex meanings.
    1. symbol
    2. manifest function
    3. ideological illusion
    4. latent function

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.4.4 Describe the symbolic interaction perspective.
Topic: Symbolic Interaction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. Sarah is pregnant and has announced to friends and family that the ultrasound revealed the sex of her baby to be a boy. For her baby shower, everyone bought blue clothes and infant toys that were “for boys.” Which of the following is the best sociological explanation for this?
    1. It is a result of intersectionality.
    2. It can be explained by the conflict perspective because it involves social power.
    3. It is about functionalism because it reflects organic solidarity.
    4. It can be explained by the social interaction perspective and the definition of the situation.

Answer: d
Learning Objective: 1.4.4 Describe the symbolic interaction perspective.
Topic: Symbolic Interaction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. Which sociological perspective involves the key concepts of dominance and inequality?
    1. structural functionalism
    2. conflict perspective
    3. symbolic interaction perspective
    4. sociological imagination

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.4.2 Describe the conflict perspective.
Topic: Conflict Perspective
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Which sociological perspective involves the key concepts of symbols, socialization, and significant others?
    1. structural functionalism
    2. conflict perspective
    3. symbolic interaction perspective
    4. sociological imagination

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.4.4 Describe the symbolic interaction perspective.
Topic: Symbolic Interaction Perspective
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Which of the following shows the correct order of the stages in the research process?
    1. gathering evidence; getting information from past studies; developing an explanation; becoming curious; coming to a conclusion
    2. gathering evidence; becoming curious; coming to a conclusion; developing an explanation; getting information from past studies
    3. becoming curious; getting information from past studies; developing an explanation; gathering evidence; coming to a conclusion
    4. becoming curious; gathering evidence; getting information from past studies; developing an explanation; coming to a conclusion

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.5.1 Identify the initial stage of research.
Topic: Stage One: Becoming Curious
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Which stage of the research process involves gathering information by reviewing the academic literature?
    1. becoming curious
    2. getting it together
    3. developing an explanation
    4. gathering evidence

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.5.2 Explain how researchers discover and review relevant literature.
Topic: Stage Two: Getting It Together
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. You are conducting research on police presence and neighborhood safety. If your hypothesis is that “the more police presence, the safer the neighborhood,” then what is your independent variable?
    1. police presence
    2. a safer neighborhood
    3. number of neighborhood residents
    4. methods of police training

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.5.3 State the relationship between a theory, a hypothesis, and independent and dependent variables.
Topic: Developing an Explanation: Theory Construction
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. You are conducting research on police presence and neighborhood safety. If your hypothesis is that “the more police presence, the safer the neighborhood,” then what is your dependent variable?
    1. police presence
    2. a safer neighborhood
    3. number of neighborhood residents
    4. methods of police training

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.5.3 State the relationship between a theory, a hypothesis, and independent and dependent variables.
Topic: Developing an Explanation: Theory Construction
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. If a researcher wants to study how tutoring improves grades, which of the following would be the best operational definition for “grade”?
    1. good grades
    2. average grades
    3. any improvement from previous grades
    4. a grade of B or better

Answer: d
Learning Objective: 1.5.3 State the relationship between a theory, a hypothesis, and independent and dependent variables.
Topic: Developing an Explanation: Theory Construction
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. What is the difference between nominal and operational definitions?
    1. A nominal definition explains a concept in words; an operational definition explains the same concept in terms of measurement.
    2. A nominal definition explains a concept in terms of measurement; an operational definition explains the same concept in words.
    3. A nominal definition explains a concept as the variable that will be observed for change; an operational definition explains a concept that leads to or changes another concept.
    4. A nominal definition explains a concept that leads to or changes another concept; an operational definition explains a concept that will be observed for change.

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.5.3 State the relationship between a theory, a hypothesis, and independent and dependent variables.
Topic: Developing an Explanation: Theory Construction
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. A(n) __________ is the total collection of entities or “things” being studied.
    1. census
    2. unit of analysis
    3. population
    4. sample

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.5.4 Identify the major sources of sociological evidence—censuses, sample surveys, and observation.
Topic: Gathering Evidence
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. If a researcher wanted to study international students, particularly international students at a specific university, what would be the population?
    1. students
    2. international students in general
    3. international students at the specific university
    4. the total number of all students

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.5.4 Identify the major sources of sociological evidence—censuses, sample surveys, and observation.
Topic: Gathering Evidence
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. In which of the following does each member of the entire population have an equal chance of being selected?
    1. sample
    2. universe
    3. random sample
    4. census

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.5.4 Identify the major sources of sociological evidence—censuses, sample surveys, and observation.
Topic: Gathering Evidence
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. The goal of a __________ is to obtain in-depth understanding from a highly detailed and sometimes intimate knowledge of the people being studied.
    1. census
    2. survey
    3. random sample
    4. participant observation study

Answer: d
Learning Objective: 1.5.4 Identify the major sources of sociological evidence—censuses, sample surveys, and observation.
Topic: Gathering Evidence
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Which of the following is the method least used by sociologists?
    1. laboratory experiment
    2. census
    3. participant observation
    4. natural experiment

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.5.4 Identify the major sources of sociological evidence—censuses, sample surveys, and observation.
Topic: Gathering Evidence
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. A professor wants to try a new teaching technique and she designs an experiment to see if the new technique is effective. Without alerting any of her students, she changes her teaching style in one of her classes. The class that receives the new treatment is the __________.
    1. control group
    2. experimental group
    3. random sample
    4. participant observation group

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.5.4 Identify the major sources of sociological evidence—censuses, sample surveys, and observation.
Topic: Gathering Evidence
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. A researcher decides to study attitudes about mothers by analyzing their depiction in popular music and assigning them numerical codes. This is an example of __________.
    1. survey research
    2. experiments
    3. content analysis
    4. observation

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.5.4 Identify the major sources of sociological evidence—censuses, sample surveys, and observation.
Topic: Gathering Evidence
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. If a researcher wants to gain a subjective understanding of why people behave as they do, which of the following is the best method?
    1. census
    2. survey
    3. experiment
    4. open-ended interview

Answer: d
Learning Objective: 1.5.4 Identify the major sources of sociological evidence—censuses, sample surveys, and observation.
Topic: Gathering Evidence
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Why are scientists concerned about ethics in research?
    1. It is a way to make money.
    2. There is a concern for preventing harm in research endeavors.
    3. It is a way for universities to control what is allowed to be researched.
    4. Ethics is a prominent field of study.

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.5.6 Describe the concern for ethics in research.
Topic: Ethics and Research
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. Which realm of sociology is for “the sake of knowledge itself”?
    1. professional sociology
    2. critical sociology
    3. policy sociology
    4. public sociology

Answer: a
Learning Objective: 1.6.1 Describe sociology as a basic science.
Topic: Basic Science or Professional Sociology
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. __________ sociology emphasizes the development of sociological knowledge with the aim of improving or solving real-world problems.
    1. Professional
    2. Critical
    3. Policy
    4. Public

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.6.3 Describe policy sociology.
Topic: Policy Sociology
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Which realm of sociology consists of the give-and-take of debate, argument, and controversy centered on knowledge production in the discipline of sociology?
    1. professional sociology
    2. critical sociology
    3. policy sociology
    4. public sociology

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.6.2 Describe critical sociology.
Topic: Critical Sociology
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. __________ sociology addresses questions such as: Do sociological theories and research unknowingly perpetuate social inequalities in our society by the way they frame issues?
    1. Professional
    2. Critical
    3. Policy
    4. Public

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.6.2 Describe critical sociology.
Topic: Critical Sociology
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. __________ sociologists work with individuals and groups working for social change.
    1. Professional
    2. Critical
    3. Policy
    4. Public

Answer: d
Learning Objective: 1.6.4 Describe public sociology.
Topic: Public Sociology
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. A sociologist working in which realm of sociology would be most likely to conduct applied sociological research in a branch of state or federal government?
    1. professional sociology
    2. critical sociology
    3. policy sociology
    4. public sociology

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.6.3 Describe policy sociology.
Topic: Policy Sociology
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

  1. __________ refers to suffering on the part of marginalized group members caused by the structural inequalities created by laws, values, and other social structures.
    1. Intersectionality
    2. Institutional oppression
    3. Privilege
    4. Inequality

Answer: b
Learning Objective: 1.7.1 Define institutional oppression.
Topic: Inequality and Oppression
Difficulty Level: Easy
Skill Level: Remember the Facts

  1. Two families go to the bank for a home improvement loan—a White family and an African American family. The families have similar credit scores, annual incomes, and other factors required for the loan. However, they have different zip codes. The loan officer inputs their information into the computer; unfortunately, the African American family does not receive a home improvement loan. What is the likely explanation?
    1. The loan officer was racist and denied the loan because she dislikes African Americans. This is an example of personal racism.
    2. The African American family did not receive a loan because the bank, as an institution, is racist.
    3. The computer program responded to the differences in zip codes. The program was set up to deny loans to communities in specific areas. This is an example of institutional oppression.
    4. No explanation can be found based on the information given.

Answer: c
Learning Objective: 1.7.1 Define institutional oppression.
Topic: Inequality and Oppression
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Apply What You Know

  1. In the United States, what are the three major sources of oppression?
    1. race, class, and sexuality
    2. race, gender, and sexuality
    3. race, class, and immigration status
    4. race, class, and gender

Answer: d
Learning Objective: 1.7.2 Define intersectionality.
Topic: Intersectionality
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Essay:

  1. Describe the key concepts of the three major theoretical perspectives in sociology and explain how each perspective views society and its processes.

Answer: The ideal answer should include:

  1. Functionalism’s key concepts include manifest functions, latent functions, and dysfunctions. The perspective views society as a system of parts that work together to maintain the cohesion of the whole system.
  2. Conflict theory is defined by conflict, dominance, and inequality. It views society as a collection of competing parts held together by social power.
  3. Symbolic interaction includes symbols, socialization, significant others, and the definition of the situation. It sees society as socially constructed through everyday encounters between people.

Learning Objective: 1.4.2 Describe the conflict perspective; 1.4.3 Describe the functional perspective; 1.4.4 Describe the symbolic interaction perspective.
Topic: 1.4 Perspectives Within Sociology
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Analyze It

  1. Explain why ethics are important in sociological research.

Answer: The ideal answer should include:

  1. The concern for ethics is a relatively recent development for social science research. It developed after World War II.
  2. One of the goals of research ethics is to ensure that there is no physical or mental damage to participants. To prevent harm, the American Sociological Association (ASA) has established guidelines to protect research participants. Also, universities require approval from institutional review boards (IRBs) to ensure study safety and participant rights.
  3. Answers may highlight examples from the text, including Zimbardo’s prison experiment and/or psychologists performing waterboarding on terrorism suspects.

Learning Objective: 1.5.6 Describe the concern for ethics in research.
Topic: Ethics and Research
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Analyze It

  1. Discuss the four realms of sociology and their characteristics.

Answer: The ideal answer should include:

  1. Public sociology: work with individuals and groups working for social change.
  2. Basic science or professional sociology: research undertaken for “the sake of knowledge itself.”
  3. Critical sociology: consists of the give-and-take of debate, argument, and controversy centered on knowledge production in the discipline of sociology.
  4. Policy sociology: emphasizes the development of sociological knowledge with the aim of improving or solving real-world problems.

Learning Objective: 1.6.1 Describe sociology as a basic science; 1.6.2 Describe critical sociology; 1.6.3 Describe policy sociology; 1.6.4 Describe public sociology.

Topic: 1.6 Realms of Sociology
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Analyze It

  1. Explain intersectionality and how it applies in everyday life.

Answer: The ideal answer should include:

  1. Definition of intersectionality: the institutional oppression and disadvantages produced by the overlap of various types of inequality.
  2. Discussion of how privileges and inequalities intersect. Students may give examples of how a person is privileged in one way (such as race) but disadvantaged in another (such as social class).

Learning Objective: 1.7.2 Define intersectionality.
Topic: Intersectionality
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Analyze It

  1. Discuss the various sources used for gathering sociological evidence in quantitative and qualitative studies.

Answer: The ideal answer should include:

  1. In quantitative studies, researchers rely on censuses, sample surveys, and observation. These allow for understanding how large populations think and generalizing it to an entire population if random sampling has occurred.
  2. In qualitative studies, researchers are more interested in subjective matters. To study these matters, sociologists use methods such as interviews, life histories, and historical, content, and image analyses.

Learning Objective: 1.5.4 Identify the major sources of sociological evidence—censuses, sample surveys, and observation.
Topic: Gathering Evidence
Difficulty Level: Difficult
Skill Level: Analyze It

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