Test Bank Sociology in Our Times, The Essentials 11th Edition by Diana Kendall A+

$35.00
Test Bank Sociology in Our Times, The Essentials 11th Edition by Diana Kendall A+

Test Bank Sociology in Our Times, The Essentials 11th Edition by Diana Kendall A+

$35.00
Test Bank Sociology in Our Times, The Essentials 11th Edition by Diana Kendall A+

1. Sociology is considered a systematic study because sociologists apply both theoretical perspectives and research methods to examinations of social behavior.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

True

2. Few sociologists attempt to discover patterns or commonalities in human behavior.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

3. The sociological imagination helps an individual place personal troubles, such as losing his or her job or feeling like committing suicide, into a larger social context, where the individual can distinguish whether and how personal troubles may be related to public issues.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

True

4. Middle-income countries are nations with highly industrialized economies; technologically advanced industrial, administrative, and service occupations; and relatively high levels of national and personal income.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

5. The social problems caused by industrialization and urbanization led to the birth of social thinkers who believed that they could use rational thinking and reason to discover the laws of human behavior and apply these laws to solve social problems.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

True

6. Like Auguste Comte, British social theorist Herbert Spencer was strongly influenced by the turmoil of the French Revolution.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

7. Early sociologists were in agreement that human behavior could be studied using the same techniques used for research in the natural sciences.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

8. According to Durkheim, social facts can only be explained by other social facts.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

True

9. Sociologist Emile Durkheim stressed that people are the product of their social environment. He observed that rapid social change and a more specialized division of labor produce strains in society, which lead to a breakdown in traditional organization, values, and authority.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

True

10. In regard to negative consequences of industrial society, sociologist Max Weber was more concerned about the impact of rational bureaucracy than of class struggle.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

True

11. Because of his radical views and emphasis on social action, not just the study of society, Karl Marx's work has been largely discredited today.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

12. German sociologist Georg Simmel concluded that industrialization created greater equality, thus minimizing class conflict.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

13. The first department of sociology in the United States was established at the University of Chicago, where the faculty was instrumental in starting the American Sociological Society (now known as the American Sociological Association).

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

True

14. Sociologist George Herbert Mead was one of the first scholars to note that a dual heritage creates conflict for people of color. He called this duality double-consciousness—the identity conflict of being both a black and an American.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

15. All sociological theories and theorists can be categorized as functionalist, conflict, or symbolic interactionist.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

16. ​According to the functionalist perspective, societies develop social structures (institutions) that persist because they play a part in helping society survive. These institutions include the family, education, government, religion, and the economy.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

True

17. ​Sociologist Talcott Parsons suggested that the division of household labor between husband and wife is one of the fundamental sources of conflict in industrialized societies.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

18. Sociologist Robert K. Merton stated that in order for social institutions and other social units to be considered functional, all their functions must be intended and recognized by the participants.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

19. ​All conflict theorists regard race/ethnicity conflict as the central and most important source of social change.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

20. All the major theoretical perspectives in sociology focus on macrolevel analysis, examining whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

21. Quantitative research and qualitative research both follow the same research model.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

22. Sociological studies on suicide that analyze the contents of suicide notes to look for recurring patterns and themes are an example of qualitative research.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

True

23. An example of quantitative research is a study in which researchers systematically analyze the content of the transcripts of personal interviews conducted with patients of breast cancer, whereas an example of qualitative research is a study in which researchers compare the rates of breast cancer among people of different ethnicities.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

24. A strength of survey research is that it forces respondents to provide self-reported information, which is generally considered more reliable and valid than information gathered by third-party observation.

a.

True

b.

False

ANSWER:

False

Multiple Choice

25. Sociology is the __________.

a.

systematic study of human society and social interaction

b.

analysis of deviant groups and individuals

c.

scientific analysis of premodern people

d.

academic discipline that examines individual human behavior

ANSWER:

a

26. A __________ is a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

a.

culture

b.

society

c.

nation

d.

country

ANSWER:

b

27. When studying the problem of suicide, sociologists are most interested in explaining its __________.

a.

psychological dimensions

b.

association with biological abnormalities

c.

societal patterns

d.

media coverage

ANSWER:

c

28. __________ refers to a relationship in which the lives of people everywhere are intertwined closely so that one nation's problems have an impact on other nations as well.

a.

Societal cohesiveness

b.

Universal cooperation

c.

Global interdependence

d.

International interlock

ANSWER:

c

29. People throughout the world share the same biosphere; environmental pollution in one area may have an adverse effect on people in other areas. Therefore, environmental problems are an example of __________.

a.

commonsense knowledge

b.

universal cooperation

c.

the sociological imagination

d.

global interdependence

ANSWER:

d

30. Which of the following is not part of the sociological approach to the study of society and social interaction?

a.

systematic research techniques

b.

presentation of research findings

c.

search for patterns in human behavior

d.

application of commonsense or everyday understandings

ANSWER:

d

31. Sociologist C. Wright Mills coined the term __________ to refer to the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society.

a.

conflict perception

b.

sociological imagination

c.

reality perception

d.

symbolic interaction approach

ANSWER:

b

32. According to Mills, the sociological imagination enables one to distinguish between personal troubles, which must be solved within the immediate social setting, and __________, which affect large numbers of people and often require solutions at the societal level.

a.

unimportant troubles

b.

nonprivate difficulties

c.

public issues

d.

societal dysfunctions

ANSWER:

c

33. One couple's inability to keep their marriage intact may be an example of a __________, whereas widespread divorce as a result of changes in the economy or other social factors is an example of a __________.

a.

dysfunction; psychological difficulty

b.

personal trouble; public issue

c.

psychological difficulty; private issue

d.

public issue; personal trouble

ANSWER:

b

34. Emile Durkheim refused to accept that suicide is merely a(n) __________.

a.

personal trouble

b.

interdependence issue

c.

public issue

d.

societal dysfunction

ANSWER:

a

35. Which of the following groups has the highest rate of suicide?

a.

males in low-income countries

b.

females in low-income countries

c.

males in high-income countries

d.

females in high-income countries

ANSWER:

c

36. The world's __________ are nations with highly industrialized economies; technologically advanced industrial, administrative, and service occupations; and relatively high levels of national and personal income.

a.

high-income countries

b.

middle-income countries

c.

low-income countries

d.

semi-periphery countries

ANSWER:

a

37. Which of the following countries is most likely to be a low-income nation?

a.

Genera, a technologically advanced European nation

b.

Partingham, a European nation with a high standard of living

c.

Fraqut, a Latin American nation with an industrializing economy

d.

Makena, an agrarian nation in the Asian subcontinent

ANSWER:

d

38. A significant difference between high- and low-income countries is that low-income countries tend to be __________.

a.

more industrialized

b.

more agrarian

c.

less populated

d.

smaller

ANSWER:

b

39. __________ is a socially constructed concept used by many people to specify groups of people based on their physical characteristics such as skin color.

a.

Ethnicity

b.

Nationality

c.

Race

d.

Genealogy

ANSWER:

c

40. The cultural heritage or identity of a group, based on factors such as language or country of origin, is termed __________.

a.

ethnicity

b.

religion

c.

race

d.

genealogy

ANSWER:

a

41. Sociologists use the term __________ to refer to the position of a person or group within a set of hierarchical social categories based on wealth, power, prestige, or other valued resources.

a.

caste

b.

class

c.

ethnicity

d.

ranking

ANSWER:

b

42. The term __________ refers to the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with sex differences.

a.

postgenderism

b.

biology

c.

gender

d.

sociobiology

ANSWER:

c

43. Barbara was born female, which refers to her __________; she acts very feminine, which refers to her __________.

a.

gender; sex

b.

biology; sociobiology

c.

sex; gender

d.

genealogy; sex

ANSWER:

c

44. Interest in the systematic study of people's behavior and ideas became prevalent during the nineteenth century primarily in response to __________.

a.

the agricultural revolution

b.

industrialization and urbanization

c.

enlightenment and new forms of religion

d.

the increases in rural poverty

ANSWER:

b

45. __________ refers to the process by which an increasing number of people live in cities rather than rural areas.

a.

Ruralization

b.

Industrialization

c.

Suburbanization

d.

Urbanization

ANSWER:

d

46. During the __________, massive social changes occurred as technological innovations shifted the economic base of countries in Europe and, later, the economic base of the United States, from agriculture to manufacturing.

a.

Renaissance

b.

Industrial Revolution

c.

Age of Enlightenment

d.

Neolithic Revolution

ANSWER:

b

47. Which of the following was one of the problems that led social thinkers to study societal changes?

a.

inadequate housing

b.

a shift among people from being consumers to producers

c.

an increased emphasis on agriculture and cottage industries

d.

a decrease in the size of cities

ANSWER:

a

48. Which of the following is not a change brought on by industrialization and urbanization?

a.

a rapid increase in the number and size of cities

b.

a shift from agriculture to industrial manufacturing

c.

a shift in people from being consumers to being producers

d.

an increase in the importance of wages to pay rent and buy food

ANSWER:

c

49. French philosopher Auguste Comte's belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry became known as __________.

a.

absolutism

b.

positivism

c.

functionalism

d.

specific methodology

ANSWER:

b

50. Comte believed that societies are made up of social statics, or forces for order and stability, as well as __________, or forces for social change.

a.

social facts

b.

social dynamics

c.

social mores

d.

social symbols

ANSWER:

b

51. British sociologist __________ translated and condensed Comte's work and was noted for her study of social customs in Great Britain and the United States.

a.

Nancy Ammerman

b.

Jane Addams

c.

Harriet Martineau

d.

Sarah Spencer

ANSWER:

c

52. In her work, sociologist Harriet Martineau strongly advocates __________.

a.

building a stronger middle class

b.

the importance of cultural relativism

c.

recognizing the forces for stability and change in society

d.

social equality and reform

ANSWER:

d

53. The term __________ refers to the belief that those species of animals, including human beings, that are best adapted to their environment survive and prosper, whereas those that are poorly adapted die out.

a.

social Darwinism

b.

social eugenics

c.

social statics and dynamics

d.

social relativism

ANSWER:

a

54. Which of the following early scientific thinkers first used the phrase "survival of the fittest" to explain his theory of society?

a.

Karl Marx

b.

Emile Durkheim

c.

Auguste Comte

d.

Herbert Spencer

ANSWER:

d

55. A major criticism of Spencer's theory of social Darwinism is that ______________.

a.

other biological organizations exercise more control over their environments than do humans

b.

it may be used to justify racial/ethnic, gender, and class inequalities in society

c.

it explains society in an era that is less tumultuous than that of the Industrial Revolution

d.

he plagiarized the work of Charles Darwin

ANSWER:

b

56. French sociologist Emile Durkheim coined the term __________ to refer to the patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over every person in society.

a.

social statics

b.

social facts

c.

sociological imagination

d.

sociological generalizations

ANSWER:

b

57. Ron, a sociologist, conducted a study on the relationship between crime and social changes. The results of the study showed that rapid societal changes lead to increased crime rates because social facts, or the patterned ways of thinking and acting that govern the behavior of individuals in a society, are destroyed because of social changes. This observation most likely resonates with the beliefs of sociologist __________.

a.

Emile Durkheim

b.

Herbert Spencer

c.

Auguste Comte

d.

Robert K. Merton

ANSWER:

a

58. Durkheim used the term __________ to refer to a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society.

a.

social disorganization

b.

social dysfunctionalism

c.

cultural breakdown

d.

anomie

ANSWER:

d

59. The basis for Durkheim's theory of society is the principle that _____________.

a.

people are the products of their social environments

b.

the evolution of society is based on the concept of "survival of the fittest"

c.

society consists of the dual processes of social statics and social dynamics

d.

conflict between different economic classes is necessary to produce social change

ANSWER:

a

60. Critics of Durkheim have argued that __________.

a.

his work is of little sociological value or importance

b.

he focused too heavily on social inequality and social change

c.

his emphasis on societal stability obscures the subjective meanings that individuals give to social phenomena

d.

he was not systematic, and therefore not scientific in his approach to the study of society

ANSWER:

c

61. The basis for Marx's theory of society is the belief that _______________.

a.

people are the products of their social environments

b.

the evolution of society is based on the concept of "survival of the fittest"

c.

society is comprised of the dual processes of social statics and social dynamics

d.

conflict between different economic classes is necessary to produce social change

ANSWER:

d

62. In the Marxian framework, the __________ consists of those who sell their labor because they have no other way to earn a living.

a.

proletariat

b.

capitalist class

c.

bourgeoisie

d.

laissez-faire class

ANSWER:

a

63. Marx termed the tools, land, factories, and money for investment that form the economic basis of a society the __________.

trappings of the bourgeoisie

a.

means of production

b.

instruments of capitalism

c.

trappings of the bourgeoisie

d.

factory system

ANSWER:

a

64. Tom works on the assembly line at the local Ford automobile factory. In the context of the Marxian framework, Tom would be considered a member of the __________ because he does not own the means of production.

a.

bourgeoisie

b.

capitalist class

c.

proletariat class

d.

laissez-faire class

ANSWER:

c

65. Marx argued that workers being paid less than the value of their labor results in __________, a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from themselves.

a.

class conflict

b.

alienation

c.

anomie

d.

bourgeoisie

ANSWER:

b

66. A central tenet of Karl Marx's view is his __________.

a.

belief that society must be changed

b.

idea that sociology must be value free

c.

emphasis on race and gender

d.

strong advocacy of stability and order

ANSWER:

a

67. Unlike others who believed that values could not be separated from the research process, German social scientist __________ emphasized that sociology should be value free, that is, research should be conducted in a scientific manner to exclude the researcher's personal values and economic interests.

a.

Emile Durkheim

b.

Max Weber

c.

Karl Marx

d.

Herbert Spencer

ANSWER:

b

68. Angela, a sociologist, is conducting a study on divorce and the factors that affect it. She personally believes that modern couples do not take relationships seriously and is of the opinion that married couples should stick together through thick and thin. However, she knows that she should be objective in her study and, therefore, employs an approach that allows her to gain the ability to see the world from the perspective of others. Which of the following approaches is Angela most likely using?

a.

verstehen

b.

positivism

c.

social Darwinism

d.

gesellschaft

ANSWER:

a

69. Which of the following is not part of the theoretical contributions of Max Weber?

a.

insights on women’s issues

b.

being value free in one’s research

c.

an emphasis on class struggle

d.

concern about the impact of bureaucracy

ANSWER:

c

70. German sociologist Georg Simmel analyzed how social interactions vary depending on the __________. He concluded that interaction patterns differ between a dyad and a triad.

a.

sex of the social group

b.

size of the social group

c.

social class of the social group

d.

race of the social group

ANSWER:

b

71. Daniel is the owner of a company that manufactures automobile parts. He owns all the factories of the company and employs 3,000 workers. In the context of Karl Marx's theory of class conflict, Daniel belongs to the __________.

a.

working class

b.

laissez-faire class

c.

proletariat

d.

bourgeoisie

ANSWER:

d

72. Which of the following statements is true of the beliefs of German social scientist Max Weber?

a.

He stressed the social environment of people and emphasized how it contributes to their behavior.

b.

He believed that values cannot be separated from the research process.

c.

He disagreed with Marx's idea that economics is the central force in social change.

d.

He believed that class struggle is the most significant factor in determining the social relations between people in industrial societies.

ANSWER:

c

73. George Simmel developed the concept of __________, an approach that focuses attention on the universal social forms that underlie social interaction.

a.

socialization

b.

formal sociology

c.

positivism

d.

double-consciousness

ANSWER:

b

74. Megan, an African American adolescent girl living in the United States, is going through the identity conflict of being a black and an American. Sociologist Du Bois would term this conflict __________.

a.

double-consciousness

b.

ethnography

c.

the double bind

d.

functionalism

ANSWER:

a

75. A __________ is a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and (occasionally) predict social events.

a.

hypothesis

b.

law

c.

theory

d.

generalization

ANSWER:

c

76. __________ are based on the assumption that society is a stable, orderly system composed of interrelated parts, each of which (ideally) contributes to the overall stability of the society.

a.

Functionalist perspectives

b.

Conflict perspectives

c.

Interactionist perspectives

d.

Developmental perspectives

ANSWER:

a

77. __________ states that societies develop social structures, or institutions, that persist because they play a part in helping society survive. These institutions include the family, education, government, religion, and the economy.

a.

Postmodernism

b.

Symbolic interactionism

c.

Conflict theory

d.

Functionalism

ANSWER:

d

78. Functionalist Talcott Parsons suggested that complementary roles of men and women in the family contribute to social stability. The wife/mother performs the __________, which include housework, caring for the children, and providing emotional support for the entire family.

a.

expressive tasks

b.

instrumental tasks

c.

reproductive tasks

d.

interdependent tasks

ANSWER:

a

79. Robert K. Merton defined a manifest function as one that __________.

a.

generates conflict between the participants in a social unit

b.

is intended by the participants in a social unit

c.

creates a power imbalance between the participants in a social unit

d.

goes unacknowledged by the participants in a social unit

ANSWER:

b

80. Automobiles provide transportation and independence. They also cause air pollution and contribute to global warming. Sociologist Robert K. Merton would consider these negative impacts the __________ of automobiles.

a.

dysfunctions

b.

overt functions

c.

anomie

d.

manifest functions

ANSWER:

a

81. When students go to college, they often make lifelong friends and may even find their life partners. Robert Merton would consider this a(n) __________ of education.

a.

manifest function

b.

latent function

c.

dysfunction

d.

overt function

ANSWER:

b

82. Students who attend nursing schools aim to learn skills that would enable them to work in the health care industry in the future. Sociologist Merton would consider this a __________ of their education.

a.

manifest function

b.

latent function

c.

dysfunction

d.

covert function

ANSWER:

a

83. A __________ of education in the United States is the perpetuation of gender, racial, and class inequalities, which contributes to a waste of potential talent.

a.

manifest function

b.

dysfunction

c.

latent function

d.

prerequisite function

ANSWER:

b

84. A functionalist study has determined that __________ is the most important factor in whether Air Force personnel experience severe suicidal ideation.

a.

tangible support

b.

companionship support

c.

esteem support

d.

appraisal support

ANSWER:

c

85. According to the __________, groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.

a.

functionalist perspective

b.

interactionist perspective

c.

conflict perspective

d.

developmental perspective

ANSWER:

c

86. In the context of the coal industry, which of the following theoretical perspectives of sociology would most likely be useful in analyzing the disagreements between coal companies and public health advocates?

a.

functionalist perspectives

b.

interactionist perspectives

c.

conflict perspectives

d.

developmental perspectives

ANSWER:

c

87. Both Karl Marx and Max Weber were in agreement that economic conditions played a role in producing inequality in society. However, Max Weber also suggested two other sources of social inequality and conflict. These sources are __________.

a.

power and prestige

b.

gender identity and gender inequality

c.

differences in education and differences in age

d.

alienation and anomie

ANSWER:

a

88. C. Wright Mills used the term __________ to refer to a small clique composed of top corporate, political, and military officials who hold the most power in society.

a.

oligarchy

b.

bureaucracy

c.

autocrats

d.

power elite

ANSWER:

d

89. According to feminist theorists, we live in a(n) __________, a system in which men dominate women and in which things that are considered to be "male" or "masculine" are more highly valued than those considered to be "female" or "feminine."

patriarchy

a.

patriarchy

b.

autocracy

c.

matriarchy

d.

oligarchy

ANSWER:

a

90. Who among the following sociologists is most likely to conduct a macrolevel analysis?

a.

Rubin, who believes that a society is composed of institutions such as family and government that contribute to the stability of the society

b.

Georgia, who believes that a society is the sum of the interactions of people and groups

c.

Rebecca, who believes that behavior is the result of the communication between people

d.

Matthew, who believes that an individual's interpretation of events and the situations he or she encounters becomes the individual's subjective reality

ANSWER:

a

91. Martha, a sociologist, is conducting a study on terrorism. Instead of examining social structures such as family, education, religion, and government to evaluate their roles in advancing terrorism, Martha is studying small groups of people comprising the family members of various terrorists. In this case, Martha is conducting a __________.

a.

macrolevel analysis

b.

mesolevel analysis

c.

microlevel analysis

d.

metalevel analysis

ANSWER:

c

92. The __________ focuses on the immediately reciprocated communication between two or more people and the part that facial gestures, posture, tone of voice, and other gestures play in that communication.

a.

functionalist perspective

b.

conflict perspective

c.

postmodern perspective

d.

symbolic interactionist perspective

ANSWER:

d

93. A __________ is anything that meaningfully represents something else and includes signs, gestures, written language, and shared values.

a.

symbol

b.

sociological construct

c.

theory

d.

myth

ANSWER:

a

94. Breanna believes that Jarrod is upset with her because she interprets his tone of voice as angry. Although Jarrod states that he is not angry, from a symbolic interactionist perspective, it is Breanna's __________ of the situation that is most real or believable to her.

a.

prior knowledge

b.

interpretation

c.

trust

d.

imagination

ANSWER:

b

95. Social-class pressures may affect rates of suicide among young people. This view is consistent with the __________.

a.

conflict theory perspective

b.

postmodern perspective

c.

functionalist perspective

d.

symbolic interactionist perspective

ANSWER:

a

96. According to the __________, the classical theories of sociology have been unsuccessful in explaining social life in contemporary societies that are characterized by consumerism, global communications, and information explosion.

a.

functionalist perspective

b.

conflict perspective

c.

symbolic interactionist perspective

d.

postmodern perspective

ANSWER:

d

97. In a study of education in the United States, __________ would look at the role schools play in maintaining the social system as a whole, how education provides the young with skills they need later in life, and how education transmits cultural values from one generation to the next.

a.

symbolic interactionists

b.

postmodern theorists

c.

functionalists

d.

conflict theorists

ANSWER:

c

98. In a study of education in the United States, __________ would emphasize the daily activities and the various forms of communication between teachers and students. They would also examine the influence of peer groups and look at the reaction when school rules are either broken or followed.

a.

conflict theorists

b.

symbolic interactionists

c.

postmodern theorists

d.

functionalists

ANSWER:

b

99. In a study of homelessness in American society, __________ would emphasize the struggle between social classes, especially how the policies of wealthy people protect their interests while pushing certain groups into unemployment and homelessness.

a.

conflict theorists

b.

functionalists

c.

symbolic interactionists

d.

postmodern theorists

ANSWER:

a

100. Kevin, a sociologist, decides to study the relationship between stress and aggression. He develops a hypothesis and conducts an experiment with a group of participants to systematically gather data. After analyzing the results, Kevin concludes that there is a positive correlation between stress and violence. In this scenario, Kevin is using __________ to test his hypothesis.

a.

commonsense thinking

b.

research

c.

systematic speculation

d.

scientific laws

ANSWER:

b

101. With __________, the goal is scientific objectivity, and the focus is on data that can be measured numerically.

a.

qualitative research

b.

observational research

c.

quantitative research

d.

explanatory research

ANSWER:

c

102. Which of the following statements is true of quantitative research?

a.

It allows researchers to formulate research questions that can seldom be tested using statistical methods.

b.

It helps sociologists compare rates of suicide with variables such as age, race, sex, and education.

c.

It allows sociologists to focus on data that can only be understood through content analysis.

d.

It enables researchers to use a smaller sample than the one used in qualitative research.

ANSWER:

b

103. With __________, interpretive descriptions (words) rather than statistics (numbers) are used to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships.

a.

qualitative research

b.

observational research

c.

quantitative research

d.

explanatory research

ANSWER:

a

104. Researchers in one study systematically analyzed the content of the notes of suicide victims to determine recurring themes, such as feelings of despair or failure. Through the study of the words used in the notes, the researchers hoped to determine if any common underlying meanings were present across the notes that would help them understand why people kill themselves. This is an example of __________.

a.

functionalist research

b.

qualitative research

c.

postmodern research

d.

quantitative research

ANSWER:

b

105. A sociologist who is conducting a study on the relationship between social media use and narcissism formulates the following statement: Regular use of social media increases narcissism among people. This statement is a(n) __________.

a.

theory

b.

variable

c.

operational definition

d.

hypothesis

ANSWER:

d

106. A researcher is conducting a longitudinal study on how age affects the learning of a new language. In this study, age is a factor that differs for each participant. The learning capacity of each participant also differs based on his or her age. In this context, age and learning capacity are both measurable traits that are likely to differ from one time to another. Therefore, age and learning capacity are examples of __________.

a.

variables

b.

theories

c.

hypotheses

d.

principles

ANSWER:

a

107. When studying the relationship between social integration and suicide, a researcher hypothesizes that a low degree of social integration causes suicide. In this case, the degree of social integration is a(n) __________.

a.

independent variable

b.

dependent variable

c.

universal variable

d.

control variable

ANSWER:

a

108. A sociology student is asked to conduct quantitative research on a topic related to sociology as part of his final year curriculum. The student decides to study racism and its causes and defines his research problem. In the context of the research process, which of the following steps should the student take next?

a.

The student should formulate a hypothesis.

b.

The student should review previous research on the chosen topic.

c.

The student should develop the research design.

d.

The student should collect data on incidents of racism and analyze them.

ANSWER:

b

109. LeBron has developed the hypothesis that the stress felt by single parents increases the probability of child abuse. In this case, stress would be considered the __________ variable and child abuse would be considered the __________ variable.

a.

dependent; independent

b.

universal; control

c.

independent; dependent

d.

control; universal

ANSWER:

c

110. __________ is the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.

a.

Validity

b.

Reliability

c.

Predictability

d.

Variability

ANSWER:

a

111. Soledad has developed a scale to assess job satisfaction among temporary workers. She is afraid that workers in her study will each interpret the scale items in a different way. Soledad is concerned about the __________ of her scale.

a.

representativeness

b.

accuracy

c.

validity

d.

reliability

ANSWER:

d

112. Unlike researchers who conduct quantitative research, researchers who conduct qualitative research are more likely to __________.

a.

use a larger sample

b.

collect and analyze data simultaneously

c.

focus on scientific objectivity

d.

use statistical analysis

ANSWER:

b

113. A(n) __________ is a method most commonly used to study people's behavior and beliefs.

a.

survey

b.

experiment

c.

case study

d.

content analysis

ANSWER:

a

114. A researcher who is conducting a study on how religious views impact the voting behavior of the elderly sends an e-mail with a questionnaire to all members of the population being studied. The people who complete the questionnaire and thereby provide data for analysis are called __________.

a.

observers

b.

respondents

c.

placebos

d.

controlled variables

ANSWER:

b

115. __________ is a method of gathering data for research in which face-to-face communication between a researcher and a respondent allows the researcher to ask questions to the respondent and record his or her answers.

a.

A questionnaire

b.

An interview

c.

Secondary analysis

d.

Content analysis

ANSWER:

b

116. In __________, researchers use existing material and analyze data that were originally collected by others.

a.

primary analysis

b.

tertiary analysis

c.

secondary analysis

d.

manifest analysis

ANSWER:

c

117. Asher decides to conduct a study on the effectiveness of the Gardasil vaccine but lacks time and money to gather his own data. As a result, he analyzes the data that were gathered by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In this case, Asher is conducting __________.

a.

an experiment

b.

secondary analysis

c.

survey research

d.

a participant observation

ANSWER:

b

118. __________ is the systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to extract thematic data and draw conclusions about social life.

a.

Content analysis

b.

Content standardization

c.

Content validity

d.

Content reliability

ANSWER:

a

119. A sociologist studied the learning capacity of toddlers by joining a preschool for six months. During this period, he observed the activities of toddlers and asked questions related to their development to their parents and teachers. In this scenario, the sociologist most likely conducted __________.

a.

a survey

b.

secondary analysis

c.

field research

d.

an experiment

ANSWER:

c

120. To understand the process coroners use to determine whether or not a death is a suicide, a sociologist works for six months in the coroner's office and spends as much time as possible observing coroners at work. This is an example of __________.

a.

an experiment

b.

survey research

c.

participant observation

d.

secondary analysis

ANSWER:

c

121. Two researchers affiliated with different universities decided to study the Amish. The first researcher moved into an Amish community for six months and observed the behavior and activities of the residents of that community. The second researcher moved into an Amish community and lived there for four years, participating in the residents' daily lives during this period. In this context, unlike the first researcher, the second researcher conducted __________.

a.

a correlational study

b.

an ethnographic study

c.

an experiment

d.

content analysis

ANSWER:

b

122. __________ is a carefully designed situation in which a researcher studies the impact of certain variables on subjects' attitudes or behavior.

a.

A case study

b.

A correlational study

c.

An experiment

d.

Participant observation

ANSWER:

c

123. In an experiment, the __________ contains the subjects who are exposed to an independent variable to study its effect on them.

a.

experimental group

b.

dependent group

c.

control group

d.

independent group

ANSWER:

a

124. Which of the following is a guideline set forth by the American Sociological Association's Code of Ethics for conducting research?

a.

All research methods used in a study should have the same sample size.

b.

Researchers must attempt to maintain objectivity at all times.

c.

All research topics must fall into either of the following two categories: feminism or depression.

d.

Researchers must obtain informed consent from participants under the age of 18.

ANSWER:

b

Subjective Short Answer

125. Define the term sociology and explain how it helps us better understand our social world and ourselves.

ANSWER:

Sociology is the systematic study of human society and social interaction. Sociologists study human societies and their social interactions to develop theories of how human behavior is shaped by group life and how, in turn, group life is affected by individuals. Sociology helps us gain a better understanding of ourselves and our social world. It enables us to see how behavior is largely shaped by the groups to which we belong and the society in which we live. Because of our culture's emphasis on individualism, we often do not consider the complex connections between our own lives and the larger, recurring patterns of the society and the world in which we live. Sociology helps us look beyond our personal experiences and gain insights into society and the larger world order. Sociology enables us to move beyond established ways of thinking, thus allowing us to gain new insights into ourselves and to develop a greater awareness of the connection between our own world and that of other people. Sociology provides new ways of approaching problems and making decisions in everyday life. Sociology promotes understanding and tolerance by enabling each of us to look beyond our personal experiences.

126. Explain the term the sociological imagination and provide an example.

ANSWER:

Mills described the sociological imagination as the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society. This awareness enables us to understand the link between our personal experiences and the social contexts in which they occur. The sociological imagination helps us distinguish between personal troubles, which are problems that affect individuals and the networks of people with which they associate, and public issues, which are problems that affect large numbers of people and often require solutions at the societal level. For example, a person's unemployment can be understood as part of a more widespread pattern of unemployment resulting from economic changes such as plant closings and outsourcing.

127. Explain how industrialization and urbanization motivated the emergence of sociology, the systematic study of society.

ANSWER:

Massive economic, technological, and social changes occurred as machine technology and the factory system shifted the economic base from agriculture to manufacturing. A new social class of industrialists emerged in textiles, iron smelting, and related industries. Many people who had labored on the land were forced to leave their tightly knit rural communities and sacrifice well-defined social relationships to seek employment as factory workers in the emerging cities, which became the centers of industrial work. The development of the factory system led to a rapid increase in both the number of cities and the size of their populations. People from very diverse backgrounds worked together in the same factory. At the same time, many people shifted from being producers to being consumers. These living and working conditions led to the development of new social problems: inadequate housing, crowding, unsanitary conditions, poverty, pollution, and crime. Wages were so low that entire families—including very young children—were forced to work, often under hazardous conditions and with no job security. As these conditions became more visible, a new breed of social thinkers tried to understand why and how society was changing.

128. Briefly summarize the contributions of Harriet Martineau to early sociology and explain why she did not receive recognition for her work until recently.

ANSWER:

British sociologist Harriet Martineau translated and condensed the works of Auguste Comte, bringing them to a wider audience. Perhaps more importantly, she studied the social customs of Britain and the United States, analyzing the consequences of industrialization and capitalism. In addition, she strongly advocated social change, encouraging greater racial and gender equality, and was committed to creating a science of society that would be grounded in empirical observations and widely accessible to people. Until fairly recently, Martineau received no recognition in the field of sociology, partly because she was a woman in a male-dominated discipline and society.

129. Explain what Herbert Spencer meant by "survival of the fittest." What are the criticisms of his approach?

ANSWER:

Spencer believed that societies develop through a process of "struggle" (for existence) and "fitness" (for survival), which he referred to as the "survival of the fittest." Spencer's view of society is known as social Darwinism—the belief that those species of animals, including human beings, best adapted to their environment survive and prosper, whereas those poorly adapted die out. Spencer equated this process of natural selection with progress because only the "fittest" members of society would survive the competition and the "unfit" would be filtered out of society. Critics say that he considered society similar to a biological system. Also, his idea of the survival of the fittest can be used to justify different kinds of inequalities.

130. Explain how rapid social change and specialization of labor contributed to the development of Durkheim's concept of anomie.

ANSWER:

As societies industrialized, more specialized economic activity became the basis of social bonds because people became interdependent. Durkheim observed that rapid social change and a more specialized division of labor produce strains in society. These strains lead to a breakdown in traditional organization, values, and authority and to a dramatic increase in anomie—a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society.

131. Describe Karl Marx's theory of class conflict with an emphasis on the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.

ANSWER:

German economist and philosopher Karl Marx stressed that history is a continuous clash between conflicting ideas and forces. He believed that conflict—especially class conflict—is necessary in order to produce social change and a better society. Class conflict is the struggle between the capitalist class and the working class. The capitalist class, or bourgeoisie, comprises those who own and control the means of production—the tools, land, factories, and money for investment that form the economic basis of a society. The working class, or proletariat, is composed of those who must sell their labor because they have no other means to earn a livelihood. The capitalist class controls and exploits the masses of struggling workers by paying less than the value of their labor. This exploitation results in workers' alienation—a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from themselves. Marx predicted that the working class would become aware of its exploitation, overthrow the capitalists, and establish a free and classless society.

132. State the major assumptions of the functionalist perspective of sociology and explain how this perspective differs from the symbolic interactionist perspective.

ANSWER:

Functionalist perspectives are based on the assumption that society is a stable, orderly system. This stable system is characterized by societal consensus, whereby the majority of members share a common set of values, beliefs, and behavioral expectations. A society is composed of interrelated parts, each of which serves a function and (ideally) contributes to the overall stability of the society. Societies develop social structures, or institutions that persist because they play a part in helping society survive. These institutions include the family, education, government, religion, and the economy. If anything, adverse happens to one of these institutions or parts, all other parts are affected, and the system no longer functions properly.

The functionalist perspective focuses primarily on a macrolevel analysis. A macrolevel analysis examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems instead of looking at important social dynamics in individuals' lives. On the contrary, the symbolic interactionist perspective is based on a microlevel analysis, which focuses on small groups rather than large-scale social structures. According to this perspective, society is the sum of the interactions of people and groups. Behavior is learned in interactions with other people; how people define a situation becomes the foundation for how they behave.

133. State the major assumptions of the conflict perspectives of sociology. How can a conflict approach be used to explain suicide?

ANSWER:

According to conflict perspectives, groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources. Conflict may take the form of politics, litigation, negotiations, or family discussions about financial matters. Today, advocates of the conflict perspective view social life as a continuous power struggle among competing social groups. The conflict perspective encompasses the following branches: (1) the neo-Marxist approach, which views struggle between the classes as inevitable and as a prime source of social change; (2) the branch that focuses on racial–ethnic inequalities and the continued exploitation of members of some racial–ethnic groups; and (3) the feminist approach, which focuses on gender issues.

Conflict perspectives state that social-class pressures may affect rates of suicide among young people from lower-income families when they perceive that they have few educational or employment opportunities and little hope for the future. Feminist analysts employing a conflict perspective believe that social structural pressures on young women, such as cultural assumptions about women and what their multiple roles should be in the family, education, and the workplace, may contribute to suicide. Other conflict approaches suggest that racial and ethnic subordination may be a factor in some suicides.

134. State the major assumptions of the symbolic interactionist perspectives of sociology. Explain how this perspective differs from the conflict perspective of sociology.

ANSWER:

According to symbolic interactionist perspectives, society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups. Symbolic interactionists focus on the process of interaction—defined as immediate, reciprocally oriented communication between two or more people—and the part that symbols play in giving meaning to human communication. Symbolic communication occurs in a variety of forms, including facial gestures, posture, tone of voice, and other symbolic gestures (such as a handshake or a clenched fist). In social encounters, each person's interpretation or definition of a given situation becomes a subjective reality from that person's viewpoint. Symbolic interactionists attempt to study how people make sense of their life situations and the way they go about their activities, in conjunction with others, on a day-to-day basis.

The symbolic interactionist perspective is based on a microlevel analysis, which focuses on small groups rather than large-scale social structures. On the contrary, the conflict perspective focuses primarily on a macrolevel analysis. A macrolevel analysis examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems instead of looking at important social dynamics in individuals' lives.

135. Explain how the steps in the qualitative research model differ from the steps in the "conventional" quantitative model.

ANSWER:

The underlying logic involved in both quantitative and qualitative sociological research is the same, but the styles of these two models are very different. In a quantitative approach, the researcher reviews previous research on the research problem, develops a hypothesis if the study is explanatory, and then develops the research design. On the contrary, in a qualitative approach, reviewing the literature and developing the research design often happen simultaneously. Typically, the next step in both these models is collecting and analyzing data to assess the validity of the starting proposition. Data gathering is the foundation of research. As compared to a quantitative model, a qualitative approach often involves a smaller number of cases. Researchers pursuing a qualitative approach tend to gather data in natural settings, such as where the person lives or works, rather than in a laboratory or other research setting, which is the case in a quantitative approach. In a qualitative approach, data collection and analysis frequently occur concurrently and the analysis draws heavily on the language of the persons studied, not the researcher. In a quantitative approach, data collection and analysis occur sequentially; researchers first collect data and then analyze them. Once these steps are complete, the next step in both these models involves drawing conclusions from the research and reporting the findings to others.

136. Explain the process of conducting an experiment and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of experiments as a research method. Describe how experiments can be used to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between video games and an increase in violent tendencies in people who use them.

ANSWER:

An experiment is a carefully designed situation in which researchers study the impact of certain variables on subjects' attitudes or behaviors. An experiment has an experimental group, which is exposed to the independent variable, and a control group, whose subjects are not exposed to the independent variable. A major advantage is the experimenter's control of the process; the greatest limitation is that the experiment is artificial—the behavior takes place in an artificially created situation.

Researchers may use experiments when they want to demonstrate that a cause-and-effect relationship exists between variables, such as whether violent video games (the independent variable) cause an increase in violent tendencies in people who use them (the dependent variable). To show that a change in the independent variable causes a change in the dependent variable, three conditions must be satisfied: (1) A correlation between the two variables must be shown to exist (correlation exists when two variables are associated more frequently than could be expected by chance), (2) the independent variable must have occurred prior to the dependent variable, and (3) any change in the dependent variable must not have been caused by an extraneous variable—one outside the stated hypothesis.

137. List the guidelines set forth by the American Sociological Association's Code of Ethics for conducting research. Use these guidelines to explain the ethical concerns related to suicide research.

ANSWER:

Researchers are required to obtain written "informed consent" statements from the persons they study. The American Sociological Association's Code of Ethics sets forth certain basic standards that sociologists must follow in conducting research. These standards are as follows: (1) Researchers must endeavor to maintain objectivity and integrity in their research by disclosing their research findings in full and including all possible interpretations of the data (even those interpretations that do not support their own viewpoints); (2) researchers must safeguard the participants' right to privacy and dignity while protecting them from harm; (3) researchers must protect confidential information provided by participants, even when this information is not considered to be "privileged" (legally protected, as is the case between doctor and patient and between attorney and client) and legal pressure is applied to reveal this information; and (4) researchers must acknowledge research collaboration and assistance they receive from others and disclose all sources of financial support. Sociologists are obligated to adhere to this code and to protect research participants.

In the twenty-first century, some researchers have called attention to the ethics of suicide research. These ethical problems include how to maintain the confidentiality of research participants, as well as how to respond in a sensitive and supportive manner to meet their needs (Lakeman and Fitzgerald, 2009). When studies of suicides are conducted to provide better insights on how to reduce rates of suicide, these ethical concerns are important in all stages of the research process.

Essay

138. How does sociology differ from common sense? Provide examples to explain the difference between these concepts.

ANSWER:

Will vary

139. Discuss Emile Durkheim's focus on the stability of society and contrast his views with the views of Karl Marx and Max Weber about conflict and social change.

ANSWER:

​Will vary

140. A number of early European social thinkers were important in establishing sociology. Discuss the contributions of these sociologists to the field of sociology.

ANSWER:

​Will vary

141. A significant difference among the four major theoretical perspectives of sociology—functionalist, conflict, symbolic interactionist, and postmodern—is the level of analysis. Identify the level of analysis of each of these perspectives and highlight why they are criticized.

ANSWER:

​Will vary

142. Explain the guidelines that researchers must follow while conducting research to ensure compliance with the American Sociological Association's Code of Ethics. Provide an example of a study that violated some or all of these guidelines.

ANSWER:

​Will vary

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