Test Bank Sociology Now, 3rd Edition Michael S. Kimmel

$35.00
Test Bank Sociology Now, 3rd Edition Michael S. Kimmel

Test Bank Sociology Now, 3rd Edition Michael S. Kimmel

$35.00
Test Bank Sociology Now, 3rd Edition Michael S. Kimmel

Test Bank Sociology Now, 3rd Edition Michael S. Kimmel

Chapter 1 What Is Sociology?

Multiple Choice Questions

1.1 Sociology as a Way of Seeing

1) What is the sociological imagination?

  1. A) the application of sociology to imaginary scenarios, as in film and fictional writing
  2. B) the ability to see the connection between our individual identities and our social contexts
  3. C) the sociological study of play, dreams, and other imaginative activities
  4. D) the enhanced imaginative capacity of those who engage in the study of society

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1.1 Understand the sociological imagination as both a set of skills and as a way of seeing.

Topic: Beyond Either‒Or: Seeing Sociologically

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

2) Applying the sociological imagination to understanding unemployment would lead you to __________.

  1. A) conclude that people without jobs are most likely incompetent workers
  2. B) look at the way that individual and larger social factors are both at work
  3. C) realize that people are not responsible for their actions because society shapes the outcome
  4. D) see that evolutionary biology has most likely determined who is unemployed

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1.1 Understand the sociological imagination as both a set of skills and as a way of seeing.

Topic: Beyond Either‒Or: Seeing Sociologically

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

3) What positive take does the text indicate sociologists might present when considering cases of violent road rage?

  1. A) Violent road rage allows people to vent their energy and calm their emotions.
  2. B) Most people driving the freeways under stressful conditions do not engage in violent road rage.
  3. C) Violent road rage has a functional role, providing employment for emergency responders.
  4. D) By simply increasing the power of law enforcement, society can reduce violent road rage.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1.2 Summarize why sociologists study the order and organization of societies.

Topic: Making Connections: Sociological Dynamics

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

4) Which statement about road rage in the United States is true?

  1. A) All other industrialized countries have similar incidents of road rage.
  2. B) A similar prevalence of road rage is seen mostly in regions ruled by violent warlords.
  3. C) Road rage is exceedingly rare in the United States compared to other countries.
  4. D) Road rage is an individual incident and tells us nothing about how societies compare.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1.3 Explain why sociologists study both social order and social disorder.

Topic: Sociological Understanding

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

5) In their investigation of society, sociologists direct their focus on __________.

  1. A) social order—positive aspects of society that help people remain optimistic
  2. B) social disorder—social problems that need to be examined and solved
  3. C) both social order and social disorder, as the study of each can help inform the study of the other
  4. D) neither social order nor social disorder, but instead on the activities of political leaders

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1.3 Explain why sociologists study both social order and social disorder.

Topic: Sociological Understanding

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

6) Which countries are among the top 10 most globalized countries in the world?

  1. A) Ireland and Hungary
  2. B) Monaco and Guam
  3. C) Democratic Republic of Korea and Liechtenstein
  4. D) Somalia and San Marino

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.1.3 Explain why sociologists study both social order and social disorder.

Topic: Sociological Understanding

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

7) What is one factor used to measure how globalized a country is?

  1. A) migration of people across borders
  2. B) size of the country’s military
  3. C) racial diversity of the country
  4. D) geographic area of the country’s territory

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.1.3 Explain why sociologists study both social order and social disorder.

Topic: Sociological Understanding

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

8) Which describes how sociologists think about the role of biology and social upbringing in determining behavior?

  1. A) Behavior is determined solely by “nature”—our biology.
  2. B) Behavior is essentially random, caused by physical forces outside of us.
  3. C) Both “nature” and “nurture” determine behavior.
  4. D) Behavior is determined only by “nurture,” or social upbringing—biology has nothing to do with it.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.1.4 Using the nature–nurture debate as an example, explain why what passes as “common sense” is often more complicated than it first appears.

Topic: Getting beyond “Common Sense”

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

9) According to General Social Survey results from both 2006 and 2012, most Americans think sociology is __________.

  1. A) very scientific
  2. B) pretty scientific
  3. C) not too scientific
  4. D) not scientific at all

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.1.4 Using the nature–nurture debate as an example, explain why what passes as “common sense” is often more complicated than it first appears.

Topic: Getting beyond “Common Sense”

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

10) How would a good sociologist explain LeBron James’s athletic ability?

  1. A) His ability is the result of practice, teaching, help, as well as physical qualities.
  2. B) His ability is the result of the physical athleticism he was born with.
  3. C) His ability is the result of only practice and teaching—anyone of any genetic predisposition could do as well.
  4. D) His ability is the result only of his intense personal interest in the sport of basketball.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.1.4 Using the nature–nurture debate as an example, explain why what passes as “common sense” is often more complicated than it first appears.

Topic: Getting beyond “Common Sense”

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

11) What would a sociologist be likely to say about the notion of “common sense”?

  1. A) Commonsense explanations are true because they uphold our culture’s values.
  2. B) Commonsense ideas like “men are aggressive” tend to be verified by further scientific study.
  3. C) We can trust commonsense explanations because they have endured across history.
  4. D) Commonsense explanations often trade in untrue stereotypes posed as fact.

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.1.4 Using the nature–nurture debate as an example, explain why what passes as “common sense” is often more complicated than it first appears.

Topic: Getting beyond “Common Sense”

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

1.2 iSoc: Sociological Frames of Analysis

12) Which description fits the definition of identity as a component of the iSoc perspective?

  1. A) the visible characteristics that determine how other people see each individual
  2. B) the unique combination of group affiliations and social characteristics that each individual develops
  3. C) the parts of who we are that do not match the social mainstream and so leave us marginalized
  4. D) the way our individuality is legally recognized through name, social security number, and birth certificate

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.2.1 Define the first three components of the iSoc perspective (identity, intersectionality, and inequality) as well as how they are interrelated.

Topic: Identity, Intersectionality, and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

13) The definition of intersectionality as a component of the iSoc perspective is the __________.

  1. A) ways different identities intersect with one another to shape our social identity and experiences
  2. B) ways various social institutions cooperate to manage their individual members
  3. C) ways individual people affect all other people through a network of connections
  4. D) recognition of ways in which history and biography inform each other

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.2.1 Define the first three components of the iSoc perspective (identity, intersectionality, and inequality) as well as how they are interrelated.

Topic: Identity, Intersectionality, and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

14) What explanation does the text offer for why the United States does not have a “country code” for its Google Web address?

  1. A) The United States has a relatively small population compared to countries like India and China and so does not need an individualized code.
  2. B) Google did not want to give the United States a special code, as that would give it too much power over the Internet.
  3. C) The majority of Internet users in the world are from the United States due to greater access to technology.
  4. D) Due to its great power, the United States is simply the “default,” a privilege that is largely invisible to Americans.

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2.1 Define the first three components of the iSoc perspective (identity, intersectionality, and inequality) as well as how they are interrelated.

Topic: Identity, Intersectionality, and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

15) __________ aspects of identity are likely to be invisible to those who possess them.

  1. A) Privileged
  2. B) Marginalized
  3. C) Foreign
  4. D) New

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.2.1 Define the first three components of the iSoc perspective (identity, intersectionality, and inequality) as well as how they are interrelated.

Topic: Identity, Intersectionality, and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

16) Which is a definition of interactions as a component of the iSoc perspective?

  1. A) conflicts throughout society created through social class divisions
  2. B) varying components of our identities that, in combination, have unique impacts on our life experience
  3. C) the behaviors with others we are forced to take due to the scripts defined by our identities
  4. D) conflict and cooperation between all the social institutions that govern our lives

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.2.2 Define the final two components of the iSoc perspective (interactions and institutions) as well as how they are interrelated.

Topic: Interactions and Institutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

17) Social institutions as a component of the iSoc perspective are __________.

  1. A) patterned sets of interactions that work to meet collective needs not met by individual action alone
  2. B) formal, recognized social organizations with defined membership and leadership structures
  3. C) media and educational organizations that work to construct positive identities for individuals in society
  4. D) sites of social control, like prisons and asylums, that work to construct new identities for troublesome individuals

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.2.2 Define the final two components of the iSoc perspective (interactions and institutions) as well as how they are interrelated.

Topic: Interactions and Institutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

18) How should you use the five different “lenses” of the iSoc model, such as identity, institutions, interactions, and so on?

  1. A) Determine which one lens provides the superior explanation for you in most cases, and use only that one.
  2. B) Use whatever lens, or combination of lenses, provides the best understanding of the social phenomenon you are studying.
  3. C) Rank the lenses in terms of how useful you feel each one to be, and proceed through using them one by one, giving more focus to those you have determined are better.
  4. D) Always examine a social phenomenon through all five lenses at once, as it is never useful to consider only one or two at a time.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.2.2 Define the final two components of the iSoc perspective (interactions and institutions) as well as how they are interrelated.

Topic: Interactions and Institutions

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

19) How is a name understood sociologically?

  1. A) The meaning of a name tends to determine our identities by shaping what we think of ourselves.
  2. B) Unlike social identity markers like race and gender, names tell us almost nothing sociological.
  3. C) Parents’ choice of a name is both intensely personal and also structured by social trends and inequalities.
  4. D) Whether a name is common or unusual determines whether the bearer is socially marginalized.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.2.3 Explain how sociologists look at changes in popular baby names to describe changes in other parts of society.

Topic: iSoc in Action: What’s in a Name?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

20) Which statement describes trends in the popularity of the top 10 ranked names among boys and girls over time?

  1. A) Although there have been periods of exception, the top 10 names have decreased markedly in popularity for both boys and girls since 1880.
  2. B) With almost no exceptions, the top 10 names have been gaining in popularity for boys and girls since 1880.
  3. C) Although the top 10 names for boys have increased in popularity since 1880, they have decreased for girls.
  4. D) The top 10 names have been increasing dramatically in popularity for girls since the 1970s.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.2.3 Explain how sociologists look at changes in popular baby names to describe changes in other parts of society.

Topic: iSoc in Action: What’s in a Name?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

21) According to the “modernization theory of name trends,” __________.

  1. A) names become more unusual as time progresses
  2. B) the church takes on a greater influence over name choice as time goes on
  3. C) no one names their children after pop culture figures anymore
  4. D) pop culture has started to have the influence over names that family and religion once had

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2.3 Explain how sociologists look at changes in popular baby names to describe changes in other parts of society.

Topic: iSoc in Action: What’s in a Name?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

22) How did sociologist Alice Rossi explain why popular names tend to remain more common for boys than for girls?

  1. A) Men are often seen as the carriers of the family line, and so are more likely to be named after an ancestor.
  2. B) Parents expect girls to be more unique and original, while they expect boys to be traditional.
  3. C) Boys are expected to have strong and respectable names to prepare them for positions of authority.
  4. D) Baby naming books historically did not include girls’ names until relatively recently.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.2.3 Explain how sociologists look at changes in popular baby names to describe changes in other parts of society.

Topic: iSoc in Action: What’s in a Name?

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

23) Many immigrants arriving in the United States end up with “Americanized” names. How do the reasons for this practice help to illustrate inequality?

  1. A) Only the wealthy have the privilege of changing key aspects of identity such as names.
  2. B) Immigrants understand that names that do not “sound American” can be an obstacle to success.
  3. C) Migrants from very powerful countries are able to blend in and render their privilege invisible.
  4. D) Taking on the name of a famous and powerful person is thought to grant greater success.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.2.4 Summarize the ways that trends in baby names illustrate each element of the iSoc perspective.

Topic: Names and the Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

24) The sociologist Stanley Lieberson found that about __________ years had to pass for an “out-of-date” name to become fashionable again.

  1. A) 10
  2. B) 20
  3. C) 50
  4. D) 100

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.2.4 Summarize the ways that trends in baby names illustrate each element of the iSoc perspective.

Topic: Names and the Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

1.3 Where Did Sociology Come From?

25) What was the Enlightenment?

  1. A) a sudden breakthrough in scientific advances and technologies in the early twentieth century that expanded our collective understanding of the world
  2. B) the historical period in ancient Greece when arts, social reform, and philosophy flourished
  3. C) a process over the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when established ideas, such as many religious dogmas, monarchy, and the “divine right of kings,” were challenged by new scientific forms of thought
  4. D) the massive growth in collective knowledge and scientific understanding that has been ongoing since the establishment of a global Internet during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.3.1 Understand how “The Enlightenment” is connected with challenges to the social order that created a new way of understanding society and inequalities between different groups.

Topic: Before Sociology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

26) How did Thomas Jefferson’s “Declaration of Independence” combine themes from two Enlightenment thinkers?

  1. A) It combined Wollstonecraft’s strong demand for gender equality with Rousseau’s insistence on the abolition of human slavery.
  2. B) It combined Locke’s idea that humans are essentially violent and greedy with Hobbes’s idea that government must provide restraint.
  3. C) It combined Locke’s idea that society is composed of sovereign individuals with Rousseau’s idea that society enhanced freedom.
  4. D) It combined Locke’s argument that the King’s power must be checked with Wollstonecraft’s insistence on women’s participation in governance.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.3.1 Understand how “The Enlightenment” is connected with challenges to the social order that created a new way of understanding society and inequalities between different groups.

Topic: Before Sociology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

27) What was the Industrial Revolution?

  1. A) the rapid development of industry in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that radically reorganized economies
  2. B) the revolution of industrial workers against the capitalist order in many countries in the mid-twentieth century
  3. C) the rapid technological advancement and development of space-age technology in the 1950s and 1960s
  4. D) the rapid change in the purpose and use of technology in the eighteenth century, from use for private gain to use for public good

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.3.2 Understand how the Industrial Revolution changed almost everything about the societies it affected and how this created new fears about whether and how society could persist.

Topic: The Invention of Sociology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

28) The “old regime” __________, while the “new order” __________.

  1. A) was characterized by large cities; had more rural populations
  2. B) was based on divine right; was based on popular consent
  3. C) ascribed to a strictly scientific ideology; ascribed to an ideology based on spiritual feeling
  4. D) was characterized by strict property division; was characterized by democratically owned common property

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.3.2 Understand how the Industrial Revolution changed almost everything about the societies it affected and how this created new fears about whether and how society could persist.

Topic: The Invention of Sociology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

29) How did sociologists react to the changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution and Enlightenment?

  1. A) Sociologists both praised and criticized the new developments.
  2. B) Sociologists were not present in society for another three centuries.
  3. C) Sociologists uniformly praised the changes, calling for increasingly rapid social change.
  4. D) Sociologists uniformly condemned the changes and felt that society had gone too far.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.3.2 Understand how the Industrial Revolution changed almost everything about the societies it affected and how this created new fears about whether and how society could persist.

Topic: The Invention of Sociology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

30) Which social theorist introduced the term sociology?

  1. A) Émile Durkheim
  2. B) Karl Marx
  3. C) Alexis de Tocqueville
  4. D) Auguste Comte

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.3.3 Describe the issues that motivated classical sociological thinkers to create a science of society—consider the types of questions they were asking and why they sought answers.

Topic: Classical Sociological Thinkers

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

31) If statistical analysis demonstrated that suicide rates had increased in a country, one might analyze this using Durkheim’s theories by examining __________.

  1. A) social factors that cause increasing social equality, which Durkheim believed caused discontent
  2. B) social forces that are known to cause increases in mental illness such as schizophrenia
  3. C) social changes influencing social norms and levels of social integration
  4. D) changes in the nature of class conflict, which Durkheim believed was a major source of social strain

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.3.3 Describe the issues that motivated classical sociological thinkers to create a science of society—consider the types of questions they were asking and why they sought answers.

Topic: Classical Sociological Thinkers

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

32) Imagine you read an article that argued that social networking websites combined with new surveillance technologies are increasing state powers of observation to the point that all individuals could be closely monitored and social movement could be severely restrained. Which theorist’s work would you say is reflected in the conclusions of the article?

  1. A) Karl Marx
  2. B) Émile Durkheim
  3. C) W. E. B. Du Bois
  4. D) Max Weber

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.3.3 Describe the issues that motivated classical sociological thinkers to create a science of society—consider the types of questions they were asking and why they sought answers.

Topic: Classical Sociological Thinkers

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

33) Some sociologists argue that although W. E. B. Du Bois, Frederick Douglass, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman studied, wrote about, and theorized about society, historically they have been excluded from lists of the canonical figures who developed the discipline. Using what you know from reading about these figures and their work, what might explain why?

  1. A) Their work is far too recent to be considered canonical or foundational sociology.
  2. B) Both their identities and the subjects of their focus were marginalized in society and in academic study.
  3. C) While canonical sociologists conducted rigorous empirical studies, these writers simply wrote from opinion.
  4. D) Only the wealthiest social scientists could afford to circulate their work and become respected figures.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.3.3 Describe the issues that motivated classical sociological thinkers to create a science of society—consider the types of questions they were asking and why they sought answers.

Topic: Classical Sociological Thinkers

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

34) Sociologists studying the ways micro-level interactions help develop a sense of “self” are called what?

  1. A) symbolic interactionists
  2. B) conflict theorists
  3. C) structural functionalists
  4. D) postmodernists

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.3.4 Explain how contemporary sociologists build on classical sociological thinkers and what kinds of new and different questions they are asking.

Topic: Contemporary Sociology

Difficulty Level: Easy

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

35) If you wanted to study the way racially grouped prison gangs throughout a society’s prisons behave toward other gangs and prison bureaucracy in order to maximize their access to space and resources, which school of sociological thought would you adopt as being the most directly applicable?

  1. A) symbolic interaction
  2. B) structural functionalism
  3. C) conflict theory
  4. D) Weber’s iron cage

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.3.4 Explain how contemporary sociologists build on classical sociological thinkers and what kinds of new and different questions they are asking.

Topic: Contemporary Sociology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

36) Talcott Parson’s structural functionalism is exemplified in the way that __________.

  1. A) families work to regulate sexual relationships and ensure the socialization of the young
  2. B) policing requires often violent displays of masculine dominance
  3. C) race is sometimes mobilized by poor whites in competition with other racial groups
  4. D) boys learn the meaning of their gendered identity through communication with peers

Answer: A

Learning Objective: 1.3.4 Explain how contemporary sociologists build on classical sociological thinkers and what kinds of new and different questions they are asking.

Topic: Contemporary Sociology

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze it

1.4 Sociology NOW: New Issues, New Lenses

37) The world has seen a dramatic explosion of movements emphasizing ethnic uniformity as the sole basis for unity in recent years. Based on what you know, which of the following is likely to accompany such a movement?

  1. A) a nation-state that emphasizes multiculturalism
  2. B) increasing communication between people in the movement’s territory and those outside of it
  3. C) an increase in security and stability in the region
  4. D) the violent restoration of a strict gender binary and gender roles

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.4.1 Understand how and why globalization and multiculturalism are central issues for sociologists to study today.

Topic: Globalization and Multiculturalism

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

38) What is multiculturalism?

  1. A) the study of the progressive advancement of various cultures in relation to each other
  2. B) the doctrine that several different cultures can coexist peacefully in the same country
  3. C) an increasing variety of languages in the world today
  4. D) the study of interactions between different nation-states in different regions

Answer: D

Learning Objective: 1.4.1 Understand how and why globalization and multiculturalism are central issues for sociologists to study today.

Topic: Globalization and Multiculturalism

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

39) Which offers an example of how globalization and multiculturalism are interrelated forces?

  1. A) an increase in British-owned oil being extracted and refined in Saudi Arabia
  2. B) businesspeople in Norway talking on cell phones made in Finland
  3. C) an increase in Nike shoes being manufactured in Vietnam
  4. D) Syrian refugees in the United States facing persecution by Irish and German descended Americans

Answer: B

Learning Objective: 1.4.2 Explain the ways that globalization and multiculturalism are interrelated forces in the world today.

Topic: Global Tensions

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

40) Which statement describes the full effects of globalization and multiculturalism on societies?

  1. A) They create more communication and understanding between peoples, binding societies together.
  2. B) They have very little effect, as these processes are too slow to create great change.
  3. C) They both hold societies together and create divisions that pull them apart.
  4. D) They create conflict as different cultures come to interact with one another.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: 1.4.2 Explain the ways that globalization and multiculturalism are interrelated forces in the world today.

Topic: Global Tensions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Essay Questions

1.1 Sociology as a Way of Seeing


1) Define the term sociological imagination, and name the sociologist who developed the concept. Using that concept, analyze why, at any point in time, you or a relative had to move from one home to another.

The ideal answer should include:

  1. Sociological imagination refers to the ability to see the connection between our individual identities and the social contexts (family, friends, and institutions) in which we find ourselves.
  2. The term was coined by sociologist C. Wright Mills.
  3. Examples will vary, but may include having to move due to a lost job, a new job, migration pressures, finances, and so on.

Learning Objective: 1.1.1 Understand the sociological imagination as both a set of skills and as a way of seeing.

Topic: Beyond Either‒Or: Seeing Sociologically

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

2) Why might sociologists believe that studying fistfights in bars can help them understand various aspects of society? How might they use cross-national comparisons to say something about social order and disorder?

The ideal answer should include:

  1. Examples will vary, but studying fistfights in bars could help sociologists understand how much alcohol impacts aggression in a given society, or how much violent conflict there is as an element of public spaces.
  2. Cross-national comparison could be used to see how levels of violence or reasons for violence compare across different countries, in order to illuminate what variables influence these phenomena.
  3. This could help determine which countries have higher levels of social order (less violence) and what factors are most important in achieving these outcomes.

Learning Objective: 1.1.3 Explain why sociologists study both social order and social disorder.

Topic: Sociological Understanding

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

3) Give a sociological analysis of the common saying, “boys will be boys,” and what it tells us about society and human behavior. How is this saying an example of “common sense” and its potential problems? What beliefs does it imply about the nature‒nurture debate?

The ideal answer should include:

  1. The saying demonstrates a belief that (usually aggressive) behavior is inherent in boys and to some extent should be tolerated as an unavoidable part of life.
  2. It is an example of common sense because it is a widespread saying betraying a commonly held belief—but a belief that is supported by popularity rather than scientific evidence.
  3. The nature‒nurture debate is the cultural division over whether who we are is more influenced by biology or upbringing and environment. The saying demonstrates a cultural bias toward nature as an explanation for what is seen as traditional gendered behavior.

Learning Objective: 1.1.4 Using the nature–nurture debate as an example, explain why what passes as “common sense” is often more complicated than it first appears.

Topic: Getting beyond “Common Sense”

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

1.2 iSoc: Sociological Frames of Analysis

4) Define identity, intersectionality, and inequality. Explain how the three concepts are related, giving examples from your own life for each topic and for their interconnections.

The ideal answer should include:

  1. Identity refers to the unique combination of group affiliations and social characteristics that each individual develops. Examples will vary.
  2. Intersectionality is the sociological term for the ways that different identities “intersect” with one another to shape our social identity and our experience of inequality. Examples will vary.
  3. Inequality refers to the social process by which valued goods, opportunities, and experiences are unequally distributed throughout a population. Examples will vary.
  4. Interconnections: Intersectionality describes the ways the different aspects of identity intersect to shape our experiences, and inequality is determined in part by our identities. Examples will vary.

Learning Objective: 1.2.1 Define the first three components of the iSoc perspective (identity, intersectionality, and inequality) as well as how they are interrelated.

Topic: Identity, Intersectionality, and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

5) Define both interactions and institutions. Think about how people learn how to behave in romantic relationships. How do they learn through their interactions with others, and how do they learn through institutions such as the family or media?

The ideal answer should include:

  1. Interactions refer to contact with other people and with society at large through communication and other encounters.
  2. Institutions are patterned sets of interactions that work to meet collective needs that are not easily met by individuals working alone.
  3. People learn how to behave in romantic relationships both through their interactions with partners and peers, and through institutions like school, religion, the media, and the family. They learn by being instructed and being rewarded or punished for certain behaviors, and they are also taught by example.

Learning Objective: 1.2.2 Define the final two components of the iSoc perspective (interactions and institutions) as well as how they are interrelated.

Topic: Interactions and Institutions

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

6) What’s in a name? Explain what parents’ choices in names for their children, and the trends in those choices over time, especially with regard to gender and immigration, can tell us about identity, intersectionality, and inequality.

The ideal answer should include:

  1. Sociologists have found that over time, popular boys’ names tend to remain more popular, while popular girls’ names tend to change more frequently. Sociologists have argued that this is due to the societal convention of seeing males as the carriers of the family lineage.
  2. Migration can also impact naming, as names are changed in order to assimilate into a new culture with less discrimination.
  3. These factors tell us about society because the gender difference is an indication of gender bias in our society, and the immigration aspect tells us about the pressures people face when they migrate.

Learning Objective: 1.2.4 Summarize the ways that trends in baby names illustrate each element of the iSoc perspective.

Topic: Names and the Sociological Imagination

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

1.3 Where Did Sociology Come From?

7) Explain how Enlightenment figures John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Mary Wollstonecraft took part in the Enlightenment by challenging the dominant ideas of the “old regime,” and how their ideas prefigured the emergence of sociology.

The ideal answer should include:

  1. The old regime was represented by the rule of the monarchy and hereditary aristocracy, and the ideas that justified it, like the “divine right of kings.”
  2. The Enlightenment, or “Age of Reason,” was a period of collective and intellectual challenge to the ideas of the old regime, spanning the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
  3. John Locke believed that the basis of society was the rational decisions of free individuals, and that government’s role was to resolve conflicts and preserve order among them. This represented a “social contract.”
  4. Rousseau believed that human beings were essentially good but were corrupted by inequality. He thought that, liberated from inequality, society would be guided by a collective spirit or “general will.”
  5. Mary Wollstonecraft is sometimes regarded as the first feminist. She argued that society could not progress if women were held in a position of subjugation. She also argued that women’s subjugation was the result of cultural norms rather than nature.
  6. The ideas of these writers prefigured sociology because they dealt with issues that are central to sociology today, including identity, inequality, interaction, institutions, and intersections.

Learning Objective: 1.3.1 Understand how “The Enlightenment” is connected with challenges to the social order that created a new way of understanding society and inequalities between different groups.

Topic: Before Sociology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

8) What did classical sociologist Émile Durkheim find in his sociological investigations into the causes of suicide? What factors did he find affected suicide, how did he measure them, and how were these factors affected by the major social changes occurring during the period in which Durkheim lived?

The ideal answer should include:

  1. Durkheim found that suicide rates varied by such factors as religion, age, marital status, gender, and employment.
  2. He measured the degree of social regulation and social integration present in society, and what effects these had on rates of suicide, by empirically examining what happens when social regulation and integration fail.
  3. The Industrial Revolution had created a great deal of social turmoil as masses of people were drawn to the cities and thrown into new chaotic economic cycles and systems.
  4. Durkheim observed that social regulation and integration were reduced by these processes, generating higher rates of suicide.

Learning Objective: 1.3.3 Describe the issues that motivated classical sociological thinkers to create a science of society—consider the types of questions they were asking and why they sought answers.

Topic: Classical Sociological Thinkers

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

9) Describe and contrast structural functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory in terms of their levels of analysis, concepts of social order, and concepts of the relationship of the individual to society.

The ideal answer should include:

  1. Structural functionalism is a theory focused on macro-level analysis. This theory holds that society is a stable system of interrelated elements—shared values, institutions—and there is general agreement (consensus) about how society should work. Individuals are integrated into society by socialization.
  2. Conflict theory is also focused on the macro level. Its proponents argue that society is a dynamic tension among unequal groups marked by an unequal distribution of rewards and goods. Individuals belong to different groups that compete for resources.
  3. Symbolic interactionism is a micro-level theory which holds that society is a set of processes among individuals and groups, using symbolic forms (language, gestures, performance) to create identity and meaning. In this theory, individuals connect to others symbolically.

Learning Objective: 1.3.4 Explain how contemporary sociologists build on classical sociological thinkers and what kinds of new and different questions they are asking.

Topic: Contemporary Sociology

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

1.4 Sociology NOW: New Issues, New Lenses

10) Define McDonaldization, and explain how it relates to both globalization and multiculturalism. Use this concept as an example of the ways globalization and multiculturalism are both holding society together and generating pressures and divisions that pull it apart. Define both globalization and multiculturalism in your answer.

The ideal answer should include:

  1. McDonaldization refers to the homogenizing spread of consumerism around the globe, rendering cultures more alike through the overwhelming influence of Western consumer society.
  2. Globalization refers to a set of processes leading to the development of patterns of economic, political, cultural, and social relationships that transcend geographical boundaries; a widening, deepening, and speeding up of worldwide interconnectedness in all aspects of contemporary life.
  3. McDonaldization is both a cause and a symptom of globalization, which is dominated by powerful groups like corporations.
  4. Multiculturalism is a doctrine that several different cultures (rather than one national culture) can coexist peacefully and equitably in a single country.
  5. McDonaldization demonstrates how globalization creates both uniting and dividing pressures. It is a homogenizing force, rendering societies more alike, but largely through the destruction of difference. In this way, it represents how globalization can create commonality and also generate conflict.

Learning Objective: 1.4.2 Explain the ways that globalization and multiculturalism are interrelated forces in the world today.

Topic: Global Tensions

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Skill Level: Analyze It

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