Test Bank Special Education in Contemporary Society 6th Edition by Richard M. Gargiulo

$35.00
Test Bank Special Education in Contemporary Society 6th Edition by Richard M. Gargiulo

Test Bank Special Education in Contemporary Society 6th Edition by Richard M. Gargiulo

$35.00
Test Bank Special Education in Contemporary Society 6th Edition by Richard M. Gargiulo

Test Bank Special Education in Contemporary Society 6th Edition by Richard M. Gargiulo

Chapter 1: Special Education in Context: People, Concepts, and Perspectives

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

1. A written plan developed by a team that coordinates services for infants and toddlers and their families is referred to as

a. a 504 Plan.

b. an Individualized Education Program.

c. an Individualized Family Service Plan.

d. an Individualized Transition Plan.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Summarize the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Infants/Toddlers and Preschoolers with Special Needs
Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Multiple means of representation, engagement, and expression are the essential elements of

a. an Individualized Education Program.

b. universal design for learning.

c. an Individualized Transition Plan.

d. an Individualized Family Service Plan.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Identify key dimensions of universal design for learning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Universal Design for Learning
Difficulty Level: Medium

3. Services designed by federal law whose purpose is to assist a student with exceptionalities in deriving benefits from a special education.

a. an Individualized Family Service Plan

b. a 504 Plan

c. an Individualized Education Program

d. related services

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Developmentally Delayed and At Risk
Difficulty Level: Easy

4. ______ worked with the urban poor and children with intellectual disabilities.

a. Dorothea Dix

b. Maria Montessori

c. Alexander Bell

d. Alfred Binet

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: A Brief History of the Development of Special Education
Difficulty Level: Easy

5. The legislation most responsible for the rapid development of services for young children with disabilities or delays is ______.

a. PL 94-142, 1975

b. PL 101-476, 1990

c. PL 108-446, 2004

d. PL 99-457, 1986

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Number of Children and young adults Served
Difficulty Level: Medium

6. One teacher taking the instructional lead while the other providing support and assistance to the students describes which type of co-teaching method?

a. station

b. alternative

c. parallel

d. one teach, one support

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cooperative Teaching
Difficulty Level: Easy

7. This co-teaching instructional arrangement lowers the teacher-pupil ratio. Instruction is planned jointly but delivered separately.

a. parallel

b. station

c. team

d. one teach, one support

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cooperative Teaching
Difficulty Level: Easy

8. Both teachers share the instructional activities equally in this co-teaching model.

a. one teach, one support

b. team teach

c. station

d. alternative

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cooperative Teaching
Difficulty Level: Easy

9. One teacher provides instruction to the larger group while the other teacher interacts with a small group of students.

a. station

b. one teach, one observe

c. alternative

d. parallel

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Teaching
Difficulty Level: Easy

10. One teacher presents the instruction to the entire class while the second teacher circulates, gathering information.

a. team teach

b. one teach, one support

c. one teach, one observe

d. alternative

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cooperative Teaching
Difficulty Level: Easy

11. The benefits of effective collaboration include all of the following EXCEPT this:

a. incorrect placement

b. greater likelihood that assessments will be nondiscriminatory

c. more appropriate educational plans

d. the absence of administrative support

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Professionals Who Work with Individuals with Exceptionalities
Difficulty Level: Medium

12. Identify the exceptionality that is not included in the list of thirteen disability categories although these individuals may receive a special education.

a. other health impaired

b. speech language impairments

c. gifted and talented

d. multiple disabilities

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Categories and Labels
Difficulty Level: Easy

13. The Father of Special Education is the title bestowed on this man because of his groundbreaking work over two centuries ago.

a. Jean-Marc Gastard Itard

b. Edouard Seguin

c. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet

d. Samuel Gridley Howe

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education
Difficulty Level: Easy

14. This service delivery approach utilizes the expertise of professionals from several disciplines.

a. transdisciplinary team

b. collaboration team

c. multidisciplinary team

d. interdisciplinary team

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Contrast the differences between multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary team models.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Multidisciplinary team
Difficulty Level: Medium

15. Which would be considered an example of person-first language?

a. Intellectually disabled

b. Child with autism

c. The blind girl

d. The Downs kid

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Special Education in Context

Difficulty Level: Medium

16. Which term refers to an inability or incapacity to perform a task or activity in a normal fashion?

a. Impairment

b. Handicap

c. Disability

d. Exceptionality

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Disability Versus Handicap

Difficulty Level: Easy

17. Which term refers to the number of new instances of a disability occurring within a specific period?

a. Prevalence

b. Incidence

c. Frequency

d. Population

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Compare prevalence and incidence

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Prevalence of Children and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

18. Which category of disability has the highest incidence?

a. Intellectual disabilities

b. Behavioral disorders

c. Specific learning disabilities

d. Visual impairments

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Compare prevalence and incidence

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Prevalence of Children and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

19. Who was one of the first individuals to use behavior modification to treat people with disabilities?

a. Jean Marc Gaspard Itard

b. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet

c. Philippe Pinel

d. Louis Braille

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

20. Which was a shortcoming of the institutions of the mid-nineteenth century?

a. They provided protection for people with disabilities.

b. They were funded by philanthropists.

c. They provided little or no education.

d. They provided housing for individuals with disabilities.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Establishment of Institutions

Difficulty Level: Medium

21. An approach in which related service professionals teach their skills to each other is referred to as a(n)

a. multidisciplinary approach.

b. interdisciplinary approach.

c. collaborative approach.

d. transdisciplinary approach.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Outline the differences between multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary team models.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Service Delivery Teams

Difficulty Level: Easy

22. A major premise of the universal design is to

a. remove administrative barriers for students with disabilities.

b. make all instruction accessible by students with disabilities.

c. make only physical environments accessible by students with disabilities.

d. make learning environments accessible for all students.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Identify key dimensions of the universal design for learning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Universal Design for Learning

Difficulty Level: Easy

23. What percentage of adolescents and adults with disabilities is employed?

a. 59%

b. 57%

c. 28%

d. 10%

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

24. In 2004, IDEA mandated what provision for transitioning students with disabilities?

a. Community-based education services

b. Development of an individualized transition plan by age 16

c. Requirements for school-based vocational programs

d. Special transition-related instructional programs

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

25. Which term is used to describe an infant or child who has a high probability of exhibiting delays in development or developing a disability?

a. Developmentally delayed

b. At risk

c. Underdeveloped

d. Exceptional

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Developmentally Delayed and At Risk

Difficulty Level: Easy

26. Which term does not describe special education?

a. Services

b. Location

c. Individualized

d. Instructional programs

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

27. Programs centered on the common instructional needs of students are best described as

a. noncategorical.

b. categorical.

c. exceptional.

d. multidisciplinary.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Easy

28. Services for young students with disabilities were mandated with the passing of

a. Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142).

b. Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986 (PL 99-457).

c. PL 101-476, the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (commonly known as IDEA.

d. Americans With Disabilities Act (PL 101-336).

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Number of Children and Young Adults Served

Difficulty Level: Easy

29. A type of cooperative teaching in which two teachers instruct two different segments of a lesson and then exchange students is referred to as

a. parallel teaching.

b. alternative teaching.

c. team teaching.

d. station teaching.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cooperative Teaching

Difficulty Level: Easy

30. Who founded the first school for the deaf?

a. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet

b. Samuel Gridley Howe

c. Dorothea Dix

d. Lewis Terman

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

31. Which type of teaming involves each team member performing individual assessment and then collaborating during program development?

a. Multidisciplinary

b. Interdisciplinary

c. Transdisciplinary

d. Parallel

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Outline the differences between multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary team models.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Service Delivery Teams

Difficulty Level: Easy

32. In the “one teach, one observe” model of cooperative teaching, one teacher delivers instruction while the other teacher

a. provides additional assistance to struggling students.

b. collects data concerning the other teacher's presentation.

c. collects data on student performance.

d. prepares materials for the next lesson.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cooperative Teaching

Difficulty Level: Medium

33. The concept of “universal design” was derived from the field of ______.

a. religion

b. mathematics

c. biology

d. architecture

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Identify key dimensions of the universal design for learning

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Universal Design for Learning

Difficulty Level: Easy

34. The term early childhood special education typically applies to children ages

a. birth to 2 years.

b. birth to 5 years.

c. 3 to 5 years.

d. 3 to 7 years.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Infants/Toddlers and Preschoolers With Special Needs

Difficulty Level: Easy

35. Early intervention programming is guided by the

a. individualized education plan (IEP).

b. individualized family service plan (IFSP).

c. individualized family education plan (IFEP).

d. individualized transition plan (ITP).

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Infants/Toddlers and Preschoolers With Special Needs

Difficulty Level: Easy

36. In 1984, Madeline Will proposed a three-level model of transition support services referred to as the

a. bridges model.

b. cascade model.

c. school-to-work program.

d. vocational support taxonomy.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

37. The transition from school to postschool environments for students with disabilities may be enhanced by increasing the

a. intensity of the traditional curriculum.

b. relevance of the traditional curriculum.

c. level of difficulty of the traditional curriculum.

d. duration of the traditional program.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

38. One concern associated with alternative teaching is that

a. not all students receive all of the critical content.

b. it requires two teachers.

c. students may become stigmatized.

d. students may not receive equity in instruction.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cooperative Teaching

Difficulty Level: Medium

39. Which event set the stage for the rapid expansion of special education services?

a. The Civil War

b. World War II

c. The assassination of John F. Kennedy

d. The creation of Braille

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Compare prevalence and incidence

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Special Education in the Public Schools

Difficulty Level: Easy

40. Who, as an early teacher of students with hearing impairments, advocated for the use of residual hearing?

a. Alexander Graham Bell

b. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet

c. Francis Galton

d. Lewis Terman

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

41. Who called attention to the shocking conditions in asylums during the mid-nineteenth century?

a. Francis Galton

b. Samuel Gridley Howe

c. Dorothea Dix

d. Maria Montesorri

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

42. Which major educational reform focused on the academic achievement of students and qualifications of teachers?

a. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (PL 107-110)

b. Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (PL 105-17)

c. Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986 (PL 99-457)

d. Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (PL108-446)

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

43. The American educator and psychologist who developed the notion of intelligence quotient, or IQ, is

a. Alfred Binet.

b. Alexander Graham Bell.

c. Lewis Terman.

d. Samuel Gridley Howe.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

44. In ______ a teacher and a special educator plan and deliver instruction together to a heterogeneous group of students.

a. cooperative teaching

b. tandem teaching

c. multidisciplinary teaching

d. universal design instruction

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cooperative Teaching

Difficulty Level: Easy

45. The total number of individuals with a particular disability at a given time is referred to as ______.

a. incidence

b. prevalence

c. frequency

d. a sample

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Compare prevalence and incidence

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Prevalence of Children and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

46. In the 1970s, students with disabilities were afforded the right to a ______ education.

a. desegregated and appropriate

b. free and appropriate

c. free and inclusive

d. free and public

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Special Education in the Public Schools

Difficulty Level: Easy

47. ______ helped to establish an organization that was the forerunner to the American Association on Mental Retardation.

a. Édouard Séguin

b. Philippe Pinel

c. Maria Montessori

d. Lewis Terman

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

48. ______ refers to the impact of a disability.

a. Delay

b. Impairment

c. Limitation

d. Handicap

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Disability Versus Handicap

Difficulty Level: Easy

49. What percentage of students with disabilities will drop out of school?

a. 10%

b. 20%

c. 33%

d. 57%

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

50. ______ recognized the importance of sensory stimulation.

a. Jean Marc Gaspard Itard

b. Jacob Rodrigues Pereira

c. Édouard Séguin

d. Alfred Binet

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

51. Key ingredients required for successful cooperative teaching include all except

a. mutual respect.

b. mandatory participation.

c. shared instructional philosophy.

d. adequate planning time.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Team Teaching

Difficulty Level: Easy

52. All of the following are categories of disability under IDEA except

a. traumatic brain injury.

b. autism.

c. gifted and talented.

d. multiple disabilities.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Easy

53. According to Gargiulo and Kilgo (2014), ______ refers to the delivery of a coordinated and comprehensive package of specialized services to infants and toddlers.

a. special education

b. universal design

c. early childhood special education

d. early intervention

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Infants/Toddlers and Preschoolers With Special Needs

Difficulty Level: Easy

54. An inability or incapacity to perform a particular task or activity in a specific way because of sensory, physical, cognitive, or other forms of impairment is called

a. handicap.

b. intellectual disability.

c. disability.

d. autism.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Disability Versus Handicap

Difficulty Level: Easy

55. Exceptionalities are/can

a. always easy to spot.

b. never easy to see.

c. always keep people from being able to succeed.

d. range in scope and obviousness.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Easy

56. A perspective that reflects dignity and potential is referred to as

a. being able to recognize a disability on sight.

b. speaking in terms of a disability, when describing a person.

c. using people-first language.

d. never using the word disability.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Special Education in Context

Difficulty Level: Easy

57. Exceptionality is a(n) ______ term generally referring to individuals who differ from societal or community standards of normalcy.

a. inclusive

b. exclusive

c. proprietary

d. rude

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Easy

58. The terms developmentally delayed and at risk are defined by the

a. federal government.

b. state governments.

c. municipal governments.

d. school districts.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Developmentally Delayed and At Risk

Difficulty Level: Easy

59. When referring to children who are at risk, which of the following is not a potential cause?

a. Biology

b. Environment

c. Genetics

d. Accident

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Developmentally Delayed and At Risk

Difficulty Level: Easy

60. Simply stated, a special education is a(n) ______ instructional program designed to meet the unique needs of an individual learner.

a. universal

b. customized

c. appropriate

d. collaborative

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

61. Public Law (PL) 108-446 identifies how many categories of disabilities?

a. 13

b. 10

c. 17

d. 6

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Easy

62. With regards to exceptionality, as discussed in the text, all of the following would be examples of exceptionality except a

a. student with autism.

b. child who is gifted and talented.

c. person who has traumatic brain injury.

d. student who is much taller than his or her classmates.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Medium

63. Which of the following is not an advantage of labeling individuals with special needs?

a. Labels serve as a means for effective communication among professionals.

b. Labels establish an individual's eligibility for services.

c. Labels serve as a means for funding.

d. Labels can be used as an acceptable excuse for discrimination.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Easy

64. Which of the following students with exceptionalities are not required, by the federal government, to be provided with a special education?

a. Students with emotional disturbances

b. Students who are gifted and talented

c. Students with visual impairments

d. Students with a traumatic brain injury

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Easy

65. All of the following people are listed in the text as having been instrumental in pioneering special education except

a. Howard Gardner.

b. Philippe Pinel.

c. Louis Braille.

d. Alexander Graham Bell.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

66. The first special education classrooms were

a. duplicitous.

b. self-contained.

c. service related.

d. vocationally focused.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Special Education in the Public Schools

Difficulty Level: East

67. Which of the following are examples of related service professionals?

a. Physical therapist

b. Psychologist

c. Audiologist

d. All of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: List the related services sometimes required by students with disabilities.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Professionals Who Work With Individuals With Exceptionalities

Difficulty Level: Easy

68. A traditional secondary curriculum has the potential to fail in effectively transitioning students with special needs because it focuses on which of the following?

a. College prep

b. Remedial academics

c. Passing the GED

d. Standards-based education

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

69. UDL does not remove academic challenges; it removes _____.

a. difficult instructional design

b. nonessential content

c. barriers to access

d. flexibility and variety

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Identify key dimensions of the universal design for learning

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Universal Design for Learning

Difficulty Level: Easy

70. PL 99-457, the Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986, mandated services for

a. individuals with autism.

b. individuals with traumatic brain injury.

c. children between 3 and 5 years of age.

d. individuals between 4 and 6 years of age.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Infants/Toddlers and Preschoolers With Special Needs

Difficulty Level: Easy

71. Édouard Séguin’s ideas and theories provided a basis for the work of _________ with the urban poor and children with intellectual disabilities.

a. Philippe Pinel

b. Maria Montessori

c. Samuel Gridley Howe

d. Alfred Binet

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

72. Multidisciplinary teams are best described as

a. team members working collaboratively.

b. team members who make recommendations based on shared information and joint planning.

c. having a team leader who also serves as the primary interventionist.

d. team members who perform their roles independent of one another with little collaboration.

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Outline the differences between multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary team models.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Service Delivery Teams

Difficulty Level: Easy

73. Every high school student who is enrolled in a special education program must have

______ as part of his or her IEP.

a. an individualized transition plan (ITP)

b. a behavior management plan

c. an individual family service plan (IFSP)

d. a 504 accommodation plan

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

True/False

1. Universal Design for Learning provides equal access to learning.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Identify the key dimensions of universal design for learning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Universal Design for Learning
Difficulty Level: Medium

2. PL 99-457, Education of Handicapped Children Act Amendments (1986), mandated early intervention services for children birth to two.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Number of Children and Adults Served.
Difficulty Level: Easy

3. Universal Design for Learning removes academic challenges thereby allowing access to all children.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Identify the key dimensions of universal design for learning

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Universal Design for Learning
Difficulty Level: Easy

4. IDEA 2004 requires that each student, beginning no later than age 16, have a statement of transition services incorporated into his or her IEP.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Summarize the related services available to students with disabilities.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities
Difficulty Level: Medium

5. Labels are typically inadequate for instructional purposes.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Categories and Labels
Difficulty Level: Medium

6. A person without use of his or her legs is generally considered to be handicapped.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Disability Versus Handicap

Difficulty Level: Easy

7. Learning disabilities account for about 4 of every 10 students with disabilities.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Compare prevalence and incidence

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Number of Children and Young Adults Served

Difficulty Level: Easy

8. The French psychologist Alfred Binet originated the concept of mental age.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

9. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, services for children with exceptionalities were sporadic and slow to develop.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Special Education in the Public Schools

Difficulty Level: Easy

10. The term exceptional children is defined as individuals who deviate from the norm to such an extent that special education services are required.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Exceptional Children

Difficulty Level: Easy

11. There are inconsistencies from state to state concerning the definition of developmental delay.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Developmentally Delayed and At Risk

Difficulty Level: Easy

12. Federal legislation mandates that states provide special education for gifted and talented students.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Number of Children and Young Adults Served

Difficulty Level: Easy

13. Early intervention refers to more than educational services.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Infants/Toddlers and Preschoolers With Special Needs

Difficulty Level: Easy

14. Only one third of people with disabilities report that they are satisfied with their lives.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

15. Approximately 39.5% of students receiving special education are classified as having a learning disability.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Compare prevalence and incidence

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Number of Children and Young Adults Served

Difficulty Level: Easy

16. Empirical investigations fail to provide clear-cut questions about the effects of labels on children and youth with disabilities.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Easy

17. A handicap refers to an inability or reduced capacity to perform a task in a specific way.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Disability Versus Handicap

Difficulty Level: Easy

18. The title Father of Special Educationis rightly bestowedon Itard.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

19. Categorizing students by disability is basically the same as labeling.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Easy

20. Students identified as gifted and talented would rank as the largest group of learners if they were included in the overall federal calculation of students with exceptionalities.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Number of Children and Young Adults Served

Difficulty Level: Easy

21. Cooperative teaching is the most effective mechanism for facilitating successful inclusion.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cooperative Teaching

Difficulty Level: Easy

22. Because it originates in the field of architecture, universal design for learning applies only to physical accessibility issues.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Identify key dimensions of the universal design for learning

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Universal Design for Learning

Difficulty Level: Easy

23. Without early intervention programs, many preschool aged children with minor developmental delays may develop major delays by the time they reach school age.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Infants/Toddlers and Preschoolers With Special Needs

Difficulty Level: Easy

Short Answer

1. List at least four suggestions for communicating about individuals with disabilities.

Ans: Do not focus on a disability; do not portray successful people with disabilities as superhuman; o not sensationalize a disability; put people first; emphasize abilities; avoid euphemisms; do not equate disability with illness; show people with disabilities as active participants.

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Suggestions for Communicating About Individuals With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Cite two barriers to collaboration.

Ans: Examples: Planning time; interpersonal skills; turf battles; lack of administrative support.

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Professionals Who Work With Individuals With Exceptionalities

Difficulty Level: Easy

3. List three types of cooperative teaching.

Ans: Examples: Team teaching; parallel teaching; alternative teaching; one teach, one observe; one teach, one support; station teaching.

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cooperative Teaching

Difficulty Level: Easy

4. What are three factors that may put a child at risk for developmental delays?

Ans: Any three of the following: exposure to toxin, low birth rate, neglect or abuse, genetic disorders, extreme poverty, oxygen deprivation

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Developmentally Delayed and At Risk

Difficulty Level: Easy

5. Describe the three service delivery teams.

Ans: Multidisciplinary teams utilize the expertise of professionals from several disciplines, each of whom perform his or her own assessments, interventions, and other tasks independent of the others. Interdisciplinary team members perform their evaluations separately, but program development and instructional recommendations are the result of information sharing and joint planning. Transdisciplinary team members are committed to working collaboratively across individual discipline lines. The aim of the transdisciplinary model is to avoid compartmentalization and fragmentation of services.

Learning Objective: Outline the differences between multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary team models.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Service Delivery Teams

Difficulty Level: Easy

6. What was the most distinct characteristic of early special education classrooms?

Ans: Self-contained, Isolated, segregated

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Special Education in the Public Schools

Difficulty Level: Easy

7. Describe at least three characteristics of the federal definition of transition services.

Ans: Results oriented; functional skills and academic skills; individualized, preferences are considered; includes instruction; living and employment options are considered.

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

8. Where has research demonstrated that it is beneficial to teach functional skills?

Ans: Natural environments/community-based settings

Learning Objective: Explain the services typically available to infants/toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Easy

9. How did Itard affect the general perceptions of people with disabilities?

Ans: Itard demonstrated that people with disabilities were capable of learning.

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

10. List five categories of disability defined by IDEA.

Ans: Autism

Orthopedic impairments

Deaf-blindness

Other health impairments

Developmental delay

Specific learning disabilities

Emotional disturbance

Speech or language impairments

Hearing impairments

Traumatic brain injury

Deafness

Visual impairments including

Mental retardation

Blindness

Multiple disabilities

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Easy

11. Would students with disabilities benefit from being labeled? Defend your position by citing at least four advantages or disadvantages of labeling students with disabilities.

Ans: Advantages:

Labels serve as a means for funding and administering education programs.

Teacher certification programs are developed around specific disability categories.

Labels allow professionals to communicate efficiently in a meaningful fashion.

Research efforts frequently focus on specific diagnostic categories.

Labels establish an individual’s eligibility for services.

Treatments, instruction, and support services are differentially provided on the basis of a label.

Labels heighten the visibility of the unique needs of persons with disabilities.

Labels serve as a basis for counting the number of individuals with disabilities and thus assist governments, schools, agencies, etc. with the delivery of needed services.

Advocacy and special interest groups have an interest in assisting particular groups of citizens.

Disadvantages:

Labels can be stigmatizing and may lead to stereotyping.

Labeling has the potential of focusing attention on limitations and not strengths.

Labeling can sometimes be used as an excuse or a reason for delivering ineffective instruction.

Labels can contribute to a diminished self-concept, lower expectations, and poor self-esteem.

Labels are typically inadequate for instructional purposes.

Labeling can lead to reduced opportunities for normalized experiences in school and community life.

A label can give the false impression of the permanence of a disability.

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Categories and Labels

Difficulty Level: Easy

12. Describe an instance where someone may have a handicap and not have a disability.

Ans: Laura, a ninth grader who has exceptional skills in mathematics, uses a wheelchair because of a driving accident. Her inability to walk is not a problem in her math classes. Architectural barriers at her school, however, do pose difficulties for her. She cannot access the water fountain, get to the second floor computer lab, or use the bathroom independently. Given this scenario, Laura would be considered handicapped but has no disability.

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Disability Versus Handicap

Difficulty Level: Easy

13. You are asked to write an article about a young special Olympian for a local newspaper. Describe how you will ensure that the article will reflect the most appropriate view of persons with disabilities. Include at least five considerations.

Ans: Do not focus on a disability; do not portray successful people with disabilities as superhuman; do not sensationalize a disability; put people first; emphasize abilities; avoid euphemisms; do not equate disability with illness; show people with disabilities as active participants

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk, and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Suggestions for Communicating About Individuals With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Medium

14. What types of things can be included within the high school curriculum to increase the chance for successful transitions to postschool settings?

Ans: Secondary programming for students with disabilities should reflect the basic functions of adult life – work, personal management, and leisure. The goal is to link curricular content to the demand of living and working in the community as an independent adult.

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities

Difficulty Level: Medium

15. Identify and describe the three essential elements of the universal design for instruction.

Ans: Multiple Means of Representation – the “what” of teaching and learning; Multiple Means of Engagement – the “why” of teaching and learning; Multiple Means of Expression – the “how” of teaching and learning

Learning Objective: Identify key dimensions of the universal design for learning

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Universal Design for Learning

Difficulty Level: Easy

16. Give three examples of contributions to the foundations of special education by Itard, Séguin, and their contemporaries.

Ans: Individualized instruction; the use of positive reinforcement techniques; a belief in the capacity of all children to learn

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Pioneers of Special Education

Difficulty Level: Easy

17. Discuss the attributes of effective collaboration. Give examples of the different

approaches to effective collaboration.

Ans: Service providers must exhibit a high degree of cooperation, trust, and mutual

respect; must share in the decision-making process; voluntary participation

and parity in the relationship; shared goals, accountability and resources

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Professionals Who Work With Individuals With Exceptionalities

Difficulty Level: Easy

18. Discuss the significant differences among the multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary,

and transdisciplinary models of collaborative teaming.

Ans: Multidisciplinary: a group of professionals from different disciplines who function as a team but perform their roles independent of one another.

Interdisciplinary: a group of professionals from different disciplines who function as a team but work independently; recommendations, however, are the result of sharing information and joint planning.

Transdisciplinary: a group of professionals from different disciplines who function as a team but work independently; however, they share roles, and a peer is identified as the primary interventionist.

Learning Objective: Outline the differences between multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary team models.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Collaborative Teaching

Difficulty Level: Medium

19. Select one of the six methods of co-teaching and explain how it could be beneficial to all students in an inclusive content classroom.

Ans: One Teach, One Observe

One teacher presents the instruction to the entire class while the second educator circulates, gathers information on a specific student, a small group of students, or targeted behaviors across the entire class.

One Teach, One Support

Both teachers are present

One teacher takes the instructional lead while the other provides support and assistance to the students

Teachers rotate roles

Station Teaching

The lesson is divided into two or more segments and presented in different locations in the classroom. One teacher presents one portion of the lesson while the other teacher provides a different portion. The groups rotate and the teachers repeat their information to new groups of students.

Parallel Teaching

Instructional arrangement lowers the teacher-pupil ratio

Instruction is planned jointly but is delivered by each teacher to one half of a heterogeneous group of learners.

Lends itself to drill-and-practice activities or projects that require close teacher supervision

Alternative Teaching

Provides small group instruction

One teacher provides instruction to the larger group while the other teacher interacts with a small group of pupils.

Used effectively for both remediation and enrichment

Team Teaching

Both teachers share the instructional activities equally

Requires a significant amount of professional trust and a high level of commitment

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Collaborative Teaching

Difficulty Level: Medium

Essay

1. What is significant about the fact that individual states determine and define what constitutes a developmental delay or at risk?

Ans: Lack of consistent criteria across states; student may be eligible in one but not another state which may prevent the student from receiving services

Learning Objective: Define exceptional children, disability, handicapped, developmentally delayed, at risk and special education.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Developmentally Delayed and At Risk
Difficulty Level: Hard

2. Discuss the negative impact of labeling on children with exceptional learning needs.

Ans: A demeaning process that frequently contributes to stigmatization and leading to social and educational isolation.

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Categories and Labels
Difficulty Level: Medium

3. Contrast categorical and noncategorical special education programs.

Ans: Categorical programs label individuals based on the category of eligibility; noncategorical programs provide special education programs based on individual student need and not a label.

Learning Objective: Identify the thirteen disability categories recognized by the federal government.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Categories and Labels
Difficulty Level: Medium

4. Discuss how changes in attitudes helped shape special education during the late eighteenth century through the early nineteenth century.

Ans: Programs, resources, and practices that affect individuals with disabilities are a reflection of current social climate. As people’s beliefs about exceptionality change, so do services and opportunities. Discuss breakthroughs by Itard (1774-1838), Seguin (1812-1880), Gallaudet (1787-1851), Braille (1809-1852), Montessori (1870-1952), and others.

Learning Objective: Describe the historical evolution of services for children and adults with disabilities.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: A Brief History of the Development of Special Education
Difficulty Level: Medium

5. Describe the characteristics of an effective, collaborative relationship.

Ans: Service providers must exhibit a high degree of cooperation, trust, and mutual respect. They must share the decision-making process. Voluntary participation and parity in the relationship, along with shared goals, accountability, and resources are also essential.

Learning Objective: Describe common instructional models of cooperative teaching.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Professionals Who Work with Individuals with Disabilities.
Difficulty Level: Medium

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