Test Bank The Developing Person Through the Life Span 11th Edition by Kathleen Stassen Berger

$60.00
Test Bank The Developing Person Through the Life Span 11th Edition by Kathleen Stassen Berger

Test Bank The Developing Person Through the Life Span 11th Edition by Kathleen Stassen Berger

$60.00
Test Bank The Developing Person Through the Life Span 11th Edition by Kathleen Stassen Berger

Test Bank The Developing Person Through the Life Span 11th Edition by Kathleen Stassen Berger

1. The science of human development seeks to understand _____.

a.

the meaning of life

b.

the accuracy of new theories

c.

the works of Freud, Piaget, and Erikson

d.

how and why people change over time

ANSWER:

d

2. Dr. Christoff wonders if children who have experienced stunting will increase in height if given large doses of vitamin D. Dr. Christoff has just demonstrated the _____ step in the scientific method.

a.

first

b.

second

c.

third

d.

fourth

ANSWER:

a

3. Dr. Margo predicts that early parent-child attachments will impact future parent-child relationships, particularly during adolescence. Her prediction is called _____

a.

a "conclusion."

b.

"empirical evidence."

c.

a "hypothesis."

d.

an "observation."

ANSWER:

c

4. Dr. Thomas designed and conducted an experiment to determine whether a playing violent video games caused increased aggression in children. By designing and conducting this experiment, the researcher was able to _____.

a.

establish a positive correlation

b.

demonstrate proof

c.

test the hypothesis

d.

confirm the results

ANSWER:

c

5. Dr. Wayne is curious to know more about how children's relationships with their parents develop and change over time. To gain an understanding of this subject that is not based on opinion or personal bias, Dr. Wayne should _____.

a.

use the scientific method to collect data and establish facts

b.

have the children undergo psychoanalysis

c.

interview parents and children

d.

read Dr. Spock's book Baby and Child Care

ANSWER:

a

6. What is the first step of the scientific method?

a.

posing a question

b.

conducting research

c.

analyzing evidence

d.

developing a hypothesis

ANSWER:

a

7. What is the second step of the scientific method?

a.

posing a question

b.

conducting research

c.

developing a hypothesis

d.

sharing the results

ANSWER:

c

8. The third step in the scientific method involves _____.

a.

posing a question

b.

conducting research

c.

sharing the results

d.

developing a hypothesis

ANSWER:

b

9. The fourth step in the scientific method involves _____.

a.

posing a question

b.

conducting research

c.

developing a hypothesis

d.

supporting or refuting a hypothesis

ANSWER:

d

10. What is empirical evidence based on?

a.

theories and speculation

b.

observation, experience, or experiment

c.

inferences based on personal biases

d.

opinions generated by focus groups

ANSWER:

b

11. After posing a question, a researcher using the scientific method _____.

a.

draws conclusions

b.

runs an experiment

c.

selects a group of participants

d.

develops a hypothesis

ANSWER:

d

12. Which of the following is the last step in the scientific method?

a.

testing a hypothesis

b.

posing a question

c.

conducting research

d.

reporting the results

ANSWER:

d

13. Dr. Feigl is interested in designing a study on children's language acquisition. What is the first step that Dr. Feigl should take, according to the scientific method?

a.

Recruit children and their parents as participants in the study.

b.

Develop a hypothesis regarding language acquisition.

c.

Pose a research question about language acquisition.

d.

Draw conclusions on the way children acquire language.

ANSWER:

c

14. A hypothesis is a(n) _____.

a.

experiment

b.

prediction that can be tested

c.

conclusion drawn from research

d.

replication of a scientific study

ANSWER:

b

15. Replication involves _____.

a.

the repetition of a study using different participants

b.

the repetition of a study using the same participants

c.

designing a new study based on information from a previous study

d.

designing a new study using new ideas and information

ANSWER:

a

16. Dr. Kong conducts a study in which he finds that smoking is related to an increased risk of high blood pressure. He publishes his results. Then Dr. Meco conducts the same study using different participants in another city. Dr. Meco's work is an example of _____.

a.

scientific controversy

b.

replication

c.

ethics

d.

data analyses

ANSWER:

b

17. An effort to replicate 100 published studies in psychology found that many of them did not replicate and that others were less conclusive, causing what has been called a(n) _____.

a.

replication crisis

b.

empirical evidence issue

c.

research design crisis

d.

false results claim

ANSWER:

a

18. Which of the following is NOT an improvement with psychological research based on the replication crisis?

a.

more outliers are included in the data

b.

studies include more participants

c.

details of the data are available to other researchers

d.

hypotheses are stated in advance

ANSWER:

a

19. _____ occurs when participants are induced to think in a certain way and then assessed to determine if those thoughts affected later cognition or behavior.

a.

Priming

b.

Evidence

c.

Replication

d.

Experimentation

ANSWER:

a

20. Parents who spend a great deal of time and money trying to find the best school for their children believe in the importance of _____ as it relates to development.

a.

nurture

b.

replication

c.

nature

d.

classical conditioning

ANSWER:

a

21. All environmental influences that impact development after the moment of conception can be considered aspects of _____ on development.

a.

replication

b.

nurture

c.

nature

d.

differential susceptibility

ANSWER:

b

22. In the science of human development, nature refers to _____.

a.

the influence of the genes that people inherit

b.

environmental influences

c.

patterns of development

d.

developmental differences

ANSWER:

a

23. In the science of human development, nurture refers to _____ traits.

a.

hereditary

b.

genetic

c.

environmental

d.

unique

ANSWER:

c

24. Dr. Towne believes that heredity is primarily responsible for personality traits. Dr. West believes that environmental influences are primarily responsible for personality traits. They are on different sides of the _____ debate.

a.

nature–nurture

b.

intelligent design–evolution

c.

genes–development

d.

traits–conditioning

ANSWER:

a

25. Most developmental psychologists believe that development is the result of _____.

a.

nature and nurture acting separately

b.

genetic traits

c.

nature and nurture acting together

d.

environmental influences

ANSWER:

c

26. Which of the following illustrates the influence of nature in development?

a.

having a mother who smoked during pregnancy

b.

having the gene for epilepsy

c.

eating a healthy diet

d.

living in a loud neighborhood

ANSWER:

b

27. Trent and Marcus are close friends who grew up in the same neighborhood. Both were exposed to chronic stressors during childhood, such as poverty and family dysfunction. By the time they were in high school, Trent was flunking most of his classes, had a child, and had already been arrested several times. Marcus, on the other hand, was a good student, played football, and had aspirations to attend college. These different developmental trajectories, despite similar environmental influences, illustrate the concept of _____

a.

"nature versus nurture."

b.

a "critical period."

c.

a "sensitive period."

d.

"differential susceptibility."

ANSWER:

d

28. In one study that looked at the effects of maternal depression during pregnancy and child outcomes, researchers found that children who had a particular type of the serotonin transporter gene were likely to be emotionally immature if their mothers were depressed. However, children with this gene were more mature than average if their mothers were not depressed. These findings illustrate the concept of _____

a.

"nature versus nurture."

b.

a "critical period."

c.

a "sensitive period."

d.

"differential susceptibility."

ANSWER:

d

29. Differential sensitivity means that certain people have genes that _____.

a.

make them more vulnerable to particular experiences

b.

interact and coordinate to influence developmental outcomes

c.

determine their social interactions and intellectual outcomes

d.

have an unknown impact on their long-term development

ANSWER:

a

30. The life-span perspective takes into account development from _____.

a.

birth to death

b.

childhood to middle age

c.

birth to adolescence

d.

conception to death

ANSWER:

d

31. Late adulthood begins at age _____.

a.

45

b.

55

c.

65

d.

75

ANSWER:

c

32. A developmental perspective requires consideration of _____.

a.

time

b.

one's birthday

c.

observer bias

d.

scientific conclusions

ANSWER:

a

33. With respect to the concept of multidirectional development, when change is rapid and dramatic, such as when a larva becomes a mosquito, it is an example of _____.

a.

continuity

b.

discontinuity

c.

genetics

d.

nurture

ANSWER:

b

34. The concept of multidirectional development suggests that when change is gradual, as when a tortoise grows larger over its 150-year lifespan, it is an example of _____.

a.

continuity

b.

discontinuity

c.

genetics

d.

nurture

ANSWER:

a

35. Which example best illustrates a critical period?

a.

a child learning to walk

b.

a child learning a second language before age 4

c.

a human fetus developing fingers and toes between 28 and 54 days in utero

d.

a child learning to ride a bike between 5 and 6 years of age

ANSWER:

c

36. Which example best illustrates a sensitive period?

a.

a child who is born blind

b.

an egg being fertilized

c.

a fetus developing fingers and toes

d.

a child learning to speak a second language

ANSWER:

d

37. Between 1957 and 1961, many pregnant women took thalidomide to alleviate morning sickness; this drug disrupted a(n) _____ period of prenatal development.

a.

sensitive

b.

critical

c.

early

d.

late

ANSWER:

b

38. A woman in Honduras worked in a field treated with pesticides during her pregnancy. Her son was subsequently born with no arms or legs. Her pesticide exposure likely occurred during a(n) _____ period of prenatal development.

a.

critical

b.

early

c.

late

d.

sensitive

ANSWER:

a

39. Bobby did not learn to read until he was an adolescent. When he did learn to read, it was much harder for him than it was for his peers. If Bobby had learned to read during the early and middle childhood years, he would have acquired literacy skills much more efficiently. Bobby's difficulty learning to read as an adolescent demonstrates the concept of a(n) "_____ period."

a.

critical

b.

early

c.

late

d.

sensitive

ANSWER:

d

40. The effects of climate, noise, population density, family size, and multiethnic communities illustrate that development is _____.

a.

linear

b.

multidirectional

c.

multicontextual

d.

multicultural

ANSWER:

c

41. The ecological-systems approach was proposed by _____.

a.

Maslow

b.

Freud

c.

Bronfenbrenner

d.

Skinner

ANSWER:

c

42. In Bronfenbrenner's ecological-systems approach, the _____ refers to the interactions among systems.

a.

macrosystem

b.

exosystem

c.

microsystem

d.

mesosystem

ANSWER:

d

43. Which term did Bronfenbrenner use to describe the impact of the specific time in history on a person's development?

a.

macrosystem

b.

exosystem

c.

microsystem

d.

chronosystem

ANSWER:

d

44. Juanita was born during World War II. Within the context of the ecological-systems approach, Juanita's experience of growing up during this time period falls within the _____.

a.

chronosystem

b.

exosystem

c.

microsystem

d.

macrosystem

ANSWER:

a

45. Amanda grew up in a reconstituted family in Minnesota. According to Bronfenbrenner's theory, Amanda's experience in this social context is an example of the _____.

a.

chronosystem

b.

exosystem

c.

microsystem

d.

macrosystem

ANSWER:

c

46. Dr. Kolbe is studying the impact of exosystems on human development. Which of the following would Dr. Kolbe be MOST interested in examining?

a.

cultural values and economic processes

b.

family and peer groups

c.

medical centers and religious institutions

d.

the development of the skeletal structure in children

ANSWER:

c

47. In Bronfenbrenner's ecological-systems model, a hospital in the community is an example of the _____.

a.

ecosystem

b.

microsystem

c.

chronosystem

d.

exosystem

ANSWER:

d

48. In Bronfenbrenner's ecological-systems model, family and peers are part of one's _____.

a.

microsystem

b.

exosystem

c.

macrosystem

d.

social system

ANSWER:

a

49. A person's macrosystem includes _____.

a.

political processes

b.

the peer group

c.

school and church

d.

the historical setting

ANSWER:

a

50. According to Bronfenbrenner's ecological-systems approach, the historical context that affects other systems is called the "_____."

a.

ecosystem

b.

chronosystem

c.

mesosystem

d.

macrosystem

ANSWER:

b

51. Bettie grew up in the Great Depression, while her granddaughter is part of the millennial generation. Bettie and her granddaughter belong to different _____.

a.

socioeconomic groups

b.

microsystems

c.

cohorts

d.

cultural groups

ANSWER:

c

52. Bree and Stacey are both currently in high school. They are part of the same _____.

a.

social construction

b.

network

c.

socioeconomic status

d.

cohort

ANSWER:

d

53. Socioeconomic status refers to an individual's _____.

a.

culture

b.

ethnicity

c.

social class

d.

race

ANSWER:

c

54. An individual's socioeconomic status includes, among other things, his or her _____.

a.

ethnicity

b.

education level

c.

political beliefs

d.

religion

ANSWER:

b

55. An individual's socioeconomic status includes, among other things, his or her _____.

a.

ethnicity

b.

political beliefs

c.

neighborhood

d.

religion

ANSWER:

c

56. Zachary is a part-time construction worker. Noah is an attorney. These occupations reflect Zachary and Noah's _____.

a.

SES

b.

political values

c.

cohorts

d.

family values

ANSWER:

a

57. Jameel has a college degree, lives in a nice neighborhood, and earns more than $50,000 a year. This information defines his _____.

a.

economic potential

b.

socioeconomic status

c.

cohort

d.

microsystem

ANSWER:

b

58. A system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviors, expectations, and symbolic representations is the definition of _____.

a.

a cohort

b.

culture

c.

nature

d.

nurture

ANSWER:

b

59. The general term for a concept that is created by society is _____.

a.

culture

b.

a cohort

c.

a social construction

d.

SES

ANSWER:

c

60. Li, age 11, is a recent Chinese immigrant. Li's new teachers have noticed that he rarely talks, does not make eye contact, and seems very shy. When they speak to Li's parents, they are surprised, as these characteristics are valued in Li's culture. The perception of Li's behavior reflects the concept of a(n) "_____."

a.

microsystem

b.

exosystem

c.

social construction

d.

social phobia

ANSWER:

c

61. One historical example of the "different-equals-deficit" error is _____.

a.

men perceiving women as intellectually inferior

b.

European immigrants crossing the ocean to settle in America

c.

how people's IQ scores have been steadily rising for more than 100 years

d.

women taking factory jobs during World War II

ANSWER:

a

62. An example of the "difference-equals-deficit" error is _____.

a.

assuming that children who are hearing impaired cannot communicate as well as children who can hear

b.

failing to compare typical and atypical behavior

c.

ignoring inconsistencies in a child's language development

d.

identifying flaws within the scientific method

ANSWER:

a

63. A careful multicultural approach is needed based on the _____.

a.

social construction of equality

b.

replication crisis

c.

multicontextual aspect of human development

d.

difference-equals-deficit error

ANSWER:

d

64. The idea that the various identities need to be combined is referred to as _____.

a.

intersectionality

b.

social construction

c.

the microsystem

d.

a sensitive period

ANSWER:

a

65. Our different identities can be used to discriminate by dividing people. This idea is recognized by _____.

a.

intersectionality

b.

social construction

c.

the microsystem

d.

a sensitive period

ANSWER:

a

66. _____ focuses attention on power differences that exist between groups and highlights discrimination that occurs in many institutions.

a.

Intersectionality

b.

Social construction

c.

The microsystem

d.

A sensitive period

ANSWER:

a

67. Marcus is a young African American man who has been arrested for shop lifting. He is likely to receive a harsher sentence for this crime, in comparison to a White older man, due to the intersectionality of all of the following EXCEPT:

a.

race.

b.

age.

c.

gender.

d.

religion.

ANSWER:

d

68. The effects of marijuana on the brain are influenced by the _____.

a.

age of the user

b.

genetics of the user

c.

specific aspects of marijuana

d.

All of these can influence the effect of marijuana on the brain of the user.

ANSWER:

d

69. People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who usually share the same language and religion are called a(n) "_____."

a.

racial group

b.

ethnic group

c.

SES group

d.

exosystem

ANSWER:

b

70. According to the text, race is _____.

a.

part of the microsystem

b.

a social construction

c.

defined by heritage

d.

multidirectional

ANSWER:

b

71. Some social scientists believe that _____ terms exaggerate minor differences between people.

a.

color

b.

diversity

c.

genetic analysis

d.

culture

ANSWER:

a

72. The fact that race is a social construction _____.

a.

reflects inconsistencies in ethnic categories

b.

does not make the term meaningless

c.

means that it should be replaced with the term "culture"

d.

shows how powerful genetic influences are on development

ANSWER:

b

73. The three domains of development are _____.

a.

genetic, environmental, and cultural

b.

nature, nurture, and SES

c.

biosocial, cognitive, and psychosocial

d.

physical, social, and emotional

ANSWER:

c

74. Genes alone do not determine development; environmental forces also shape development. This information has led to the understanding that many human characteristics are _____.

a.

plastic

b.

epigenetic

c.

static

d.

diverse

ANSWER:

b

75. Plasticity refers to the _____.

a.

fact that many academic fields contribute data to the science of development

b.

universals and specifics of human development in many cultural settings

c.

vast array of contexts in which development occurs

d.

potential for human traits to be modeled during development but also to remain durable

ANSWER:

d

76. The term plasticity reminds us that _____.

a.

human development is linear

b.

critical and sensitive periods predict developmental outcomes

c.

developmental change is possible

d.

human traits are mostly inborn

ANSWER:

c

77. The idea that human development is an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the body, mind, and every aspect of the environment reflects the _____.

a.

dynamic-systems approach

b.

theory of evolution

c.

concept of universality

d.

domino effect

ANSWER:

a

78. Which of these is the BEST example of plasticity?

a.

a child who experiences a traumatic brain injury and relearns how to walk and talk

b.

a teenager who spends a summer in Chile as part of his church youth group

c.

a woman who leaves her job to stay home with her newborn

d.

a man who is in a serious car wreck and remains in a coma five years later

ANSWER:

a

79. In the case study of David, he was exposed to _____ during his mother's pregnancy.

a.

HIV

b.

cancer-causing pesticides

c.

rubella

d.

pneumonia

ANSWER:

c

80. In the case study of David, his IQ changed from about 40 to about 130, and his physical disabilities improved with age. These changes reflect which characteristic of development?

a.

multidirectional

b.

multidisciplinary

c.

multicontextual

d.

plasticity

ANSWER:

d

81. Scientific observation allows for the _____.

a.

study of individuals' behaviors in a systematic and objective manner

b.

determination of cause-and-effect relationships

c.

observation of participants without their knowledge

d.

systematic manipulation of variables

ANSWER:

a

82. Which statement about scientific observation is true?

a.

It requires a large number of participants.

b.

It requires specialized equipment, such as video recorders.

c.

It involves recording behavior systematically and objectively.

d.

It must take place in a lab setting.

ANSWER:

c

83. Experiments allow researchers to _____.

a.

study the natural environment

b.

study the complexity of an individual

c.

use the scientific method in a cost-effective way

d.

determine a cause-and-effect relationship

ANSWER:

d

84. When a researcher wants to determine the cause of a particular behavior, the appropriate research method to use is a(n) _____.

a.

case study

b.

meta-analysis

c.

experiment

d.

survey

ANSWER:

c

85. A dependent variable is _____.

a.

the measured variable that may change depending on manipulation of an independent variable

b.

any unmeasured variable that is uncontrolled within the context of the experiment

c.

the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher

d.

an external variable that cannot be controlled by the researcher

ANSWER:

a

86. An independent variable is _____.

a.

the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of a dependent variable.

b.

any unmeasured variable that is uncontrolled within the context of the experiment.

c.

the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.

d.

an external variable that cannot be controlled by the researcher.

ANSWER:

c

87. An example of a dependent variable in an experiment might be _____.

a.

gender

b.

blood type

c.

eye color

d.

level of depression

ANSWER:

d

88. In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the "_____ group."

a.

independent

b.

dependent

c.

experimental

d.

comparison

ANSWER:

c

89. The purpose of an experiment is to find out whether _____.

a.

an independent variable affects the dependent variable

b.

a positive correlation can be established

c.

the dependent variable can be manipulated

d.

the hypothesis is flawed or influenced by researcher bias

ANSWER:

a

90. "_____ research" is a quick way to study the development of a large group of people.

a.

Experimental

b.

Survey

c.

Cohort-sequential

d.

Longitudinal

ANSWER:

b

91. Which of the following is a limitation of survey research?

a.

Participants often drop out of the research.

b.

It is expensive and time-consuming.

c.

It requires experimental control.

d.

Participants may be dishonest in their answers.

ANSWER:

d

92. Combining the results of many studies to reach a general conclusion is called a(n) _____.

a.

meta-analysis

b.

correlational study

c.

experimental design

d.

longitudinal study

ANSWER:

a

93. The quickest and least expensive way to study development over time is with _____ research.

a.

survey

b.

cross-sectional

c.

longitudinal

d.

experimental

ANSWER:

b

94. Dr. Stanley wanted to learn how peer relationships change at different stages of development. For her study, she conducted a one-time assessment in which she asked a group of 5-year-olds, a group of 15-year-olds, and a group of 30-year-olds to describe their current peer relationships. Dr. Stanley conducted a _____ study.

a.

case

b.

cross-sectional

c.

longitudinal

d.

cross-sequential

ANSWER:

b

95. _____ research involves studying the same individuals over time, as their development is repeatedly assessed.

a.

Survey

b.

Cross-sectional

c.

Longitudinal

d.

Observational

ANSWER:

c

96. Which is NOT a limitation associated with longitudinal research?

a.

the aging of the participants

b.

losing participants over time

c.

changing historical context

d.

participants becoming aware of the goals of the study and changing their behaviors or answers

ANSWER:

a

97. Which type of research design combines the cross-sectional design with the longitudinal research design?

a.

cross-sequential

b.

cross-sectional

c.

meta-sequential

d.

quasi-experimental

ANSWER:

a

98. A correlation indicates that there is _____ between two variables.

a.

a causal link

b.

validity

c.

reliability

d.

a relationship

ANSWER:

d

99. A correlation is considered to be negative if _____.

a.

both variables decrease

b.

both variables increase

c.

one variable increases while the other variable decreases

d.

change in one variable is unrelated to change in the other variable

ANSWER:

c

100. A correlation is considered to be zero if _____.

a.

one variable increases while the other decreases

b.

both variables decrease

c.

both variables increase

d.

there is no relationship between the variables

ANSWER:

d

101. The more Hank eats, the less hungry he feels. The correlation that exists between Hank's food intake and his hunger is _____.

a.

positive

b.

negative

c.

zero

d.

causal

ANSWER:

b

102. The more parents read to their children, the higher their children score on achievement tests. This relationship between parents reading to their children and child achievement represents a(n) _____.

a.

causal relationship

b.

inverse correlational

c.

positive correlation

d.

negative correlation

ANSWER:

c

103. If a researcher finds that there is a correlation between secondhand smoke and children's asthma, he knows for SURE that _____.

a.

secondhand smoke causes children's asthma

b.

secondhand smoke does not cause children's asthma

c.

prenatal exposure to smoking leads to asthma

d.

asthma and secondhand smoke have some connection

ANSWER:

d

104. _____ research can be categorized, ranked, or numbered.

a.

Quantitative

b.

Qualitative

c.

Correlational

d.

Observational

ANSWER:

a

105. _____ research involves asking open-ended questions and reporting answers in narrative, not numerical, form.

a.

Quantitative

b.

Qualitative

c.

Correlational

d.

Observational

ANSWER:

b

106. _____ research reflects cultural and contextual diversity but is also more vulnerable to bias and harder to replicate.

a.

Experimental

b.

Quantitative

c.

Qualitative

d.

Longitudinal

ANSWER:

c

107. IRB stands for _____.

a.

Institutional Review Board

b.

International Research Board

c.

Internal Review Board

d.

Intelligence Research Board

ANSWER:

a

108. The most important caution for all scientists, particularly those studying human development, is to _____.

a.

have an advanced degree

b.

only conduct experimental research

c.

uphold ethical standards

d.

avoid using vulnerable populations

ANSWER:

c

109. _____ are essential ethical safeguards.

a.

Promotion, social awareness, and publication

b.

Independence, privacy, and funding

c.

Political correctness, scientific advancement, and medical treatment

d.

Collaboration, replication, and transparency

ANSWER:

d

110. From an ethical stance, researchers should choose topics of study that _____.

a.

may be researched quickly

b.

may be researched inexpensively

c.

can help all people live better lives

d.

are politically correct

ANSWER:

c

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