Test Bank The Moral of the Story An Introduction to Ethics 8th Edition by Nina Rosenstand A=

$35.00
Test Bank The Moral of the Story An Introduction to Ethics 8th Edition by Nina Rosenstand A=

Test Bank The Moral of the Story An Introduction to Ethics 8th Edition by Nina Rosenstand A=

$35.00
Test Bank The Moral of the Story An Introduction to Ethics 8th Edition by Nina Rosenstand A=

1. The phrase "50-50 nation" referred to individuals who were above and below the poverty line.

FALSE

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2. Psychologists claim that a child must develop a sense of values by the age of 7 in order to become an adult with a conscience.

TRUE

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3. The study of a moral center in the brain claims that mapping of the moral center can reveal whether one moral answer is better than another.

FALSE

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4. The study of ethics is an exclusively Western phenomenon.

FALSE

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5. According to the experiments of Milgram, Zimbardo, and Arendt, normal and decent people are capable of committing evil acts such as murdering innocents under extreme and unusual circumstances.

TRUE

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6. The proverb "It takes a village to raise a child" originated in the American Indian tradition.

FALSE

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7. "Morality" usually refers to theories about the moral rules we follow.

FALSE

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8. There is common agreement among ethicists that it is not possible for an atheist to have morals.

FALSE

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9. A nonmoral value never refers to something as being good or bad, or right or wrong.

FALSE

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10. Philosophers believe that reason as a tool of ethics can be a bridge builder among religious people, atheists, and agnostics.

TRUE

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11. Historically, Western philosophers lay greater emphasis on reason rather than on faith in defending particular moral positions because they tended to be atheists.

FALSE

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12. The conclusion of an inductive argument is based on a gathering of evidence, but there is no certainty that the conclusion is true, only that it is probable.

TRUE

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13. There are two types of "arguments" in philosophy: deductive and inductive.

TRUE

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14. The logical fallacy of using physical threats is called the ad baculum fallacy.

TRUE

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15. The logical fallacy of begging the question makes the assumption that what you're trying to prove is a fact.

TRUE

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16. The logical fallacy of bifurcation makes the assumption that what you're trying to prove is a fact.

FALSE

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17. The slippery slope logical fallacy assumes that drastic consequences will follow a certain policy.

TRUE

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18. Recent research of the brain suggests that the "normal" brain has evolved to recognize the value of a human life emotionally.

TRUE

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19. Moral naturalism is the view that we all come equipped with a moral intuition, hardwired from birth.

TRUE

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20. Martha Nussbaum agrees with the philosophical tradition of past centuries when she says that emotions have no cognitive value.

FALSE

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21. According to Nussbaum, we understand ourselves and our emotions best through narratives.

TRUE

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22. According to Nussbaum, since narratives reflect the values of society they deprive people of their moral autonomy.

FALSE

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23. According to Nussbaum, when we experience the emotions of disgust and shame, we establish an us-versus-them environment.

TRUE

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24. In the film Smoke Signals, Thomas, the storyteller, undertakes a sad journey to collect his father's ashes in Wyoming.

FALSE

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25. The films Big Fish and Smoke Signals lay emphasis on the importance of storytelling in human life.

TRUE

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26. The part of the brain that plays a pivotal role in our development of a moral sense is the

A. central sulcus.

B. prefrontal cortex.

C. limbic system.

D. cerebellum.

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27. Which is not one of the classic branches or fields of philosophy?

A. anthropology

B. epistemology

C. metaphysics

D. ethics

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28. Which one of these is a definition of the theory of moral naturalism?

A. It explores the legal ramifications of nudity on beaches.

B. It claims that any moral behavior that derives from human nature should be legal.

C. It explores the natural laws of science.

D. It is the view that individuals come equipped with a moral intuition, hardwired from birth.

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29. Which of the following is a characteristic of Socrates' dialectic method?

A. questions and answers

B. rational examination of values

C. dialogue between people

D. All answer choices are correct.

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30. Which logical fallacy makes the assumption that what you are trying to prove is a fact?

A. begging the question

B. ad hominem

C. bifurcation

D. ad baculum

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31. Which is not a type of logical fallacy?

A. red herring

B. black beast

C. slippery slope

D. false dichotomy

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32. If you claim that “it is my way or the highway,” then you are creating a(n)

A. ad hominem fallacy.

B. red herring fallacy.

C. false dichotomy fallacy.

D. ad misericordiam fallacy.

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33. In comparison with subjects with healthy and undamaged brains, scientific studies indicate that subjects with damage to their ventromedial frontal lobes

A. are more likely to make tough decisions involving other people's lives.

B. are less likely to make tough decisions involving other people's lives.

C. are equally likely to make tough decisions involving other people's lives.

D. are unable to make decisions of any sort.

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34. Martha Nussbaum claims that

A. narratives cannot communicate about values.

B. Aristotle warned against paying attention to stories.

C. emotions can have cognitive value.

D. philosophical examples are superior to stories in conveying a philosophical issue.

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35. Which is the least likely conclusion to be drawn from Zimbardo's work?

A. People with strong moral values are less likely to be corrupted by immoral circumstances.

B. Human nature is capable of both compassion and cruelty.

C. Abu Ghraib prison should not have surprised us.

D. Prisons can psychologically harm both prisoners and guards.

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36. According to Arendt, the banality of evil refers to the fact that

A. acts of evil are often performed out of duty to one's job or country.

B. acts of evil are perceived by those who commit them as normal everyday acts and not as anything extreme or immoral.

C. acts of evil are often committed by normal everyday people and not perverted or sadistic people.

D. All answer choices are correct.

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37. All philosophers believe that

A. emotions and not logic (rationality) should be the basis for moral decision making.

B. logic (rationality) and not emotions should be the basis for moral decision making.

C. both logic (rationality) and emotions should play major roles in moral decision making.

D. None of the above: there are philosophers who take each of the three positions above.

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38. What do you think is the origin of "evil"? Is it something present or absent in human nature, or some other source?

Answer will vary.

39. Differentiate between morals and ethics.

Answer will vary.

40. What is the conclusion that Arendt would have you draw regarding the horrors committed against the Jews during World War II?

Answer will vary.

41. If children need to develop a sense of values by the age of 7, what can we, as citizens, do to ensure that? Is it a matter for schools or homes, or is there another alternative?

Answer will vary.

42. List three logical fallacies. Explain why they are fallacies and give examples of fallacious statements with regard to moral problems.

Answer will vary.

43. Identify the moral challenges associated with your present occupation. List the common challenges of your workplace. Determine if there are any particular moral challenges associated with your current profession. How would such moral challenges affect the choice of your future profession?

Answer will vary.

44. Identify and discuss the moral challenges associated with being a college/university student and with being a college/university instructor.

Answer will vary.

45. Nussbaum claims that philosophy has not dealt with emotions because, when humans are emotional, they are not self-sufficient. What does she mean by that?

Answer will vary.

46. Comment on Nussbaum's statement "We have never lived enough. Our experience is, without fiction, too confined and too parochial. Literature extends it, making us reflect and feel about what might otherwise be too distant for feeling."

Answer will vary.

47. Several students will agree that a lot of people, even many of their fellow students, might do very bad acts such as the murder of innocents under extreme circumstances (as Arendt and Zimbardo have suggested). In spite of this, the students will say that they themselves would not do such acts under similar circumstances. What might Arendt or Zimbardo say in response? Do you agree?

Answer will vary.

Category # of Questions

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