Test Bank The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 7th Edition, by Ronet D. Bachman A+

$35.00
Test Bank The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 7th Edition, by Ronet D. Bachman A+

Test Bank The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 7th Edition, by Ronet D. Bachman A+

$35.00
Test Bank The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice 7th Edition, by Ronet D. Bachman A+

1. According to your textbook, which of the following is NOT an example of a factor present in illogical reasoning?

a. perspectives

b. reflection

c. biases

d. emotions

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: High

2. We only interact with a small fraction of the social world, but we sometimes tend to assume that what we know to be true for some cases is true for all cases. This is an example of which type of error in reasoning your book discusses?

a. resistance to change

b. inaccurate observation

c. selective observation

d. overgeneralization

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

3. Imagine that in class your criminology professor gave an example of a selective observation she saw in the field. Which of the following resembles the example she provided?

a. Her colleague believed that only youth who experienced trauma in childhood committed violence and this is how she interpreted the results of a survey she collected.

b. Her colleague believed that all boys engaged in vandalism and assumed that all the boys in her study engaged in vandalism too.

c. Her colleague jumped immediately to the conclusion that depictions of violence in media led to violence in all youth.

d. Her colleague found her data did not support one of her beliefs, but she still did not want to admit she was wrong.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: High

4. Ego-based commitments and excessive devotions to traditions are representative of what type of error of reasoning?

a. resistance to change

b. overgeneralization

c. selective observation

d. inaccurate observation

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Errors in reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

5. John told people that he felt that mental health was the only reason why school shootings occurred. Then a friend of his told him about research that found school shooters were influenced by other factors, and he still did not want to admit that he may be wrong. Which of the following represents his error of reasoning?

a. inaccurate observation

b. excessive devotion to tradition

c. selective observation

d. ego-based commitment

ans: d

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

6. Lynn assumed that because she felt that all teens were delinquents that her teen neighbor was also a delinquent. Which type of error reasoning is this?

a. inaccurate observation

b. excessive devotion to tradition

c. overgeneralization

d. selective observation

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

7. Deborah was reluctant to change her ideas about causes of youth violence in light of new information because her grandfather believed strongly in those causes. Which of the following describes her error of reasoning the best ?

a. ego-based commitment

b. excessive devotion to tradition

c. uncritical agreement with authorities

d. selective observations

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Avoiding Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

8. Elijah made observations about causes of crime based on what his beliefs were. Based on the terms used in your textbook, what type of error in reasoning did Elijah exhibit ?

a. selective observation

b. inaccurate observation

c. illogical reasoning

d. uncritical agreement with authorities

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Avoiding Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

9. Social science research is different from pseudoscience because social science uses ______.

a. personal accounts

b. anecdotal evidence

c. the scientific method

d. public testimony

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Medium

10. What is a branch of philosophy that studies how knowledge is gained or acquired?

a. parsimony

b. epistemology

c. phrenology

d. transparency

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Low

11. Which of the following allows researchers to see if the same results from a previously published study can be reproduced?

a. subjectivity

b. objectivity

c. peer review process

d. transparency

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Medium

12. Doctors doing entry examinations in prisons to examine a new inmate’s head for bumps or cavities to develop a criminal profile refers to which of the following?

a. parsimony

b. epistemology

c. phrenology

d. transparency

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Medium

13. Instead of relying on findings that are based on intuition, gut reactions, or our own experiences, what do criminologists use or do?

a. scientific method

b. pseudoscience

c. phrenology

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Primarily 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience/1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience/Descriptive Research
Difficulty Level: Medium

14. A graduate student recently found out that he has to submit his journal article to another journal. This means that he received a ______ during the peer review process.

a. acceptance

b. rejection

c. revise and resubmit

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Medium

15. A graduate student did not base her evidence on the principles of the scientific method and as such engaged in ______.

a. explanatory research

b. the peer review process

c. descriptive research

d. pseudoscience

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Medium

16. The ______process occurs when a journal editor sends a submitted article to two or three experts who judge whether the paper should be accepted, revised and resubmitted, or rejected.

a. peer review

b. substantive review

c. transparency

d. error

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Low

17. Whereas ______ relies on logical and systematic methods to answer questions, ______ produces dubious but fascinating claims that are touted as “scientifically proven.”

a. transparency; science

b. science; epistemology

c. pseudoscience; science

d. science; pseudoscience

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Medium

18. When criminologists report on a crime-related topic, compared to reports from the media, which of the following is most likely true?

a. Criminologists base their report on anecdotal accounts whereas the media uses empirical evidence.

b. Criminologists use public testimonials whereas the media reports on evidence gained from systematic methods.

c. The media’s reports tend to appeal to the public, whereas most criminologists are concerned with reporting facts.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminology Research in Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

19. Which of the following research projects should NOT be considered descriptive research?

a. Dr. Smith studied the causes of bullying in schools and how bullying was related to substance use.

b. Erica, a graduate student, studied the most common types of crimes committed in schools.

c. Brad, a research assistant, studied how many youth are arrested for violent crimes each year.

d. A government agency examined the percentage of youth that are victims of violence.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminology Research in Practice
Difficulty Level: High

20. Which of the following is a reason why someone would choose exploratory research to examine youth violence in schools?

a. the desire to examine how individual- and school-level factors affect violence in schools

b. the need to evaluate the long-term effects of a program intended to reduce violence in schools

c. to determine the prevalence of youth violence in schools

d. to investigate a previously understudied issue related to school violence

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminology Research in Practice
Difficulty Level: Medium

21. Tricia’s research project in her community revealed that the unemployment rate was related to the crime rate. In which type of research did Tricia engage?

a. explanatory research

b. descriptive research

c. exploratory research

d. evaluative research

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminology Research in Practice
Difficulty Level: Medium

22. Sara went into her research project without any a priori expectations. In which of the following types of research did she engage?

a. explanatory research

b. descriptive research

c. exploratory research

d. evaluative research

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminology Research in Practice
Difficulty Level: Medium

23. According to your text, what is one way social scientists attempt to reduce potential sources of error in everyday reasoning?

a. rely on logical and systematic methods to answer questions

b. become aware of each type of error in reasoning

c. bolster their work with public testimonials

d. believe they are different from others that suffer from these errors

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Medium

24. Bob thought he saw seven people on a street corner, but in reality there were only five people. This is an example of which type of error in reasoning discussed in your text?

a. illogical reasoning

b. selective observation

c. inaccurate observation

d. overgeneralization

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Selective or Inaccurate Observations
Difficulty Level: Medium

25. Which of the following is NOT an example of resistance to change?

a. ego-based commitments

b. excessive devotion to tradition

c. uncritical agreement with authorities

d. selective observations

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Resistance to Change
Difficulty Level: Medium

26. Which of the following types of research would be used to answer this type research question: The relationship between youth violence and substance use—what is going on here ?

a. explanatory research

b. exploratory research

c. descriptive research

d. evaluative research

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Exploratory Research
Difficulty Level: Medium

27. Which of the following is an example of explanatory research?

a. a research project found that a program intended to reduce violence needed more financial support to carry out the project effectively

b. a researcher conducted intensive interviewers with research participants to explore an aspect about school shootings that had not been conducted before

c. a research project reported a higher prevalence of violence during certain ages than others

d. a researcher who found that teens who have witnessed violence in the past are more likely to be victims and/or perpetrators of violence in the future

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Explanatory Research
Difficulty Level: High

28. Eric, a graduate student, learned that a program to prevent violence was not working because it was not implemented the way it was intended. Eric engaged in what type of social science research?

a. exploratory

b. explanatory

c. evaluative

d. descriptive

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminology Research in Practice
Difficulty Level: Medium

29. A graduate student is interested in understanding how many youth have engaged in a violent offense and at what age they committed the offense. Her advisor suggested that she engage in what type of social science research?

a. exploratory

b. explanatory

c. evaluative

d. descriptive

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Descriptive Research
Difficulty Level: Medium

30. The goal of a research project that resulted in a large amount of relatively unstructured information was most likely ______.

a. explanatory

b. exploratory

c. descriptive

d. evaluative

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminology Research in Practice
Difficulty Level: Medium

31. Erica, a graduate student, wants to collect in-depth information on an individual’s feelings, experiences, and perceptions. Which of the following would be the best method to achieve her goals?

a. participant observation

b. intensive interviewing

c. survey collection

d. content analysis

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods
Difficulty Level: Medium

32. Before two researchers collaborate on a project, they must achieve an intersubjective agreement. To what is this agreement referring?

a. the nature of reality

b. reliability

c. bias

d. social construction

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Questions
Difficulty Level: Medium

33. Which of the following are value orientations used in approaching research in criminology or criminal justice?

a. objectivity

b. participatory action research

c. subjectivity

d. interpretivism

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Questions
Difficulty Level: Medium

34. Unlike positivism or postpositivism, ______ is a philosophy that emphasizes the importance of understanding the subjective meanings people give to reality.

a. interpretivism

b. objectivity

c. action research

d. critical theory

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Questions
Difficulty Level: Medium

35. When evaluating the efficacy of a program or policy, an ______ approach is often used.

a. descriptive

b. experimental

c. exploratory

d. explanatory

Ans : B

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods
Difficulty Level: Low

36. Dr. Williams studies how structures and patterns in society influence her participant’s interpretations of their reality and she uses her research as a way to challenge societal structures that reinforce oppression. Her research falls under ______.

a. intersubjective agreement

b. positivism

c. critical theory

d. interpretivist philosophy

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Alternative Research Questions
Difficulty Level: Medium

37. In our understanding of reality, positivism differs from postpositivism in all the following ways EXCEPT ______.

a. acknowledging its complexity

b. biases of researchers

c. their view on the nature of reality

d. limitations of the researchers

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Alternative Research Questions
Difficulty Level: High

38. What is the most common motive for employing qualitative research methods?

a. exploratory

b. explanatory

c. descriptive

d. evaluative

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
Difficulty Level: Low

39. A researcher examined newspapers to find out the amount of ads devoted to alcoholic beverages. Which type of research method did this researcher use?

a. crime mapping

b. secondary data analysis

c. survey instrument

d. content analysis

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods
Difficulty Level: Medium

40. Dr. Smith developed and sustained an intensive relationship with people while they went about their daily activities to engage in what type of field research?

a. experimental research

b. participant observation

c. intensive interviewing

d. survey collection

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods
Difficulty Level: Medium

True/False

1. Surveys can be either self-administered or read by an interviewer.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods
Difficulty Level: Low

2. Triangulation is useful when a researcher desires to take multiple perspectives into consideration to examine a phenomenon.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
Difficulty Level: Medium

3. Descriptive research is often used to explore details of a phenomenon that have not yet been studied.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Descriptive Research & Exploratory Research
Difficulty Level: Medium

4. Evaluative research refers to identifying the causes and effects of a social phenomena.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Explanatory Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

5. A research report that reported on the prevalence of youth and adult violence. This is an example of descriptive research.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Descriptive Research
Difficulty Level: Medium

6. Research about social programs or interventions is exploratory research.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminology Research in Practice
Difficulty Level: Low

7. A local news station argued that most criminals are bad people. This claim is most likely based off empirical research.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminology Research in Practice
Difficulty Level: Medium

8. Transparency is an important feature of the scientific method that requires procedures, methods, and data analyses of any study to be presented clearly for the purposes of replication.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Low

9. In the 19th century, phrenology asserted that bumps and fissures of the skull determined the character and personality of a person, and today it still remains a valid field of study.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Low

10. Today’s pseudoscience could be yesterday’s science.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Medium

11. Social science is the use of logical, systematic, documented methods to investigate individuals, societies, and social processes, as well as the knowledge produced by these investigations.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Low

12. A research assistant that assumed youth who were violent would continue to be violent in adulthood, only found research to support this belief. This was an example of inaccurate observation.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

13. Overgeneralization, selective or inaccurate observation, resistance to change, and illogical reasoning are all examples of errors in reasoning.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Low

14. Overgeneralization refers to when we draw conclusions about people and social processes from our own interactions with them.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

15. Illusory correlation is another word used for errors in reasoning.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

16. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that studies how knowledge is gained and acquired.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Low

17. Jumping to premature conclusions is an example of an inaccurate observation.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Illogical Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

18. When researchers include dimensions of race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, for example, they are engaging in culturally competent research.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: A Comment on Research in a Diverse Society
Difficulty Level: Medium

19. One activist approaches to research is participatory action research.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Questions
Difficulty Level: Medium

20. A type of indirect measurement is content analysis.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods
Difficulty Level: Low

Short Answer

1. Name two common data sources with which criminologists conduct secondary data analysis.

Ans: Official sources such as local or federal agencies (e.g., rates of crime reported to police, information on incarcerated offenders from state correctional authorities, adjudication data from the courts), or surveys sponsored by government agencies or conducted by other researchers.

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods
Difficulty Level: Low

2. Describe two similarities between feminist research and research based on critical theory.

Ans: Respondents can provide any of these similarities: Both feminist research and critical theory are not research methods as they utilize multiple types of methodologies, instead they are both critical approaches to research. Both tend to be similar to interpretivist as they are concerned with personal experience and subjective feelings and with the researcher’s position and standpoint. Both feminist and critical theory research are concerned with power relationships and societal structures that influence oppression.

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternative Research Orientations
Difficulty Level: Medium

3. Identify two subpopulations that researcher’s pay attention to when conducting culturally competent research. Using these subpopulations, provide two reasons why paying attention to them is important in social science research.

Ans: Answers will vary for the subpopulation (could be age, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, disabilities, religious or political beliefs, etc.). Examples of these subpopulations are important: LGBTQ individuals and minority populations. Studying these two types of groups is important because if the unique issues they face are not accounted for, then any research resulting could not be generalized to the larger diverse population. Studying these two types of groups allows for a special understanding of how structural issues in society influence the reality of individuals in these groups. Asking questions for a homogenous sample may not apply to these subpopulations.

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: A Comment on Research in a Diverse Society
Difficulty Level: Medium

4. Imagine you are a criminological researcher interested in studying violence. Describe what in particular you are interested in learning. Then indicate which type of social science research you should employ and why.

Ans: Answers will vary. I am interested in understanding the causes of violence. Since I am interested in the causes of violence, I would use explanatory research. I should choose this type of social science research because I am interested in the causes of violence, rather than describing who, what, where or when violence occurs.

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminology Research in Practice
Difficulty Level: Medium

5. A program intended to reduce violence in schools, taught youth coping skills on how to deal with stress and negative emotions. While on the surface, it appeared to be successful, the school board would not continue funding the program unless an official evaluation was done. Using the knowledge you gained in Chapter 1 so far, can you identify two reasons why a formal evaluation of a program is important to the school board in deciding to continue funding it?

Ans: Answers will vary, but here are three options. The intention is for them to know the material well enough to infer that formal evaluation is important because there are errors in reasoning; the errors could reveal necessary changes in the curriculum, which could lead to money wasted if it was not working and that money could have been used elsewhere. Here are three potential reasons: (1) Formal evaluations with scientific methods would provide a more accurate representation of whether or not the program was working and worthy of being funded for another year. (2) Sometimes we have selective observations and would see the ways the program was working, but ignore the areas that it wasn’t working. As such, it would be important to have a formal evaluation so that the school board can know if the appropriate outcomes were reached by the program and if changes should be made. (3) A formal evaluation may be able to reveal unique environmental circumstances that influenced violence in the schools and therefore the school board may move to a more comprehensive program rather than one focused on just individual risk factors.

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Evaluative Research
Difficulty Level: High

6. Describe how science and pseudoscience differ from each other.

Ans: The scientific method represents objective, empirical investigation. Its techniques must be transparent so that the methods, procedures, and data analyses of any study can be replicated. This transparency allows other researchers to see if the same results can be reproduced. If findings can be replicated, we have greater confidence that the findings are real and not based on bias. In contrast, if we relied on findings based on intuition, gut reactions, or our own experience, we would be open to the errors in reasoning covered in Chapter 1. If we based findings on these, it would not be science, but instead, it would fall under the classification of pseudoscience. Pseudoscientific beliefs are not based on the scientific method but rather on claims that may be touted as “scientifically proven,” only bolstered by testimonials of believers who have experienced firsthand or who have claimed to have witnessed the phenomenon.

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Medium

7. Define the term transparency in social science research. Then provide why it is important for social science research.

Ans: Transparency in research requires that procedures, methods, and data analyses of any study are presented clearly for the purposes of replication. It is important for social science research to be able to reproduce a study’s results. If findings can be replicated, we can have greater confidence in the validity of the findings.

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience
Difficulty Level: Medium

8. List and define the different types and subtypes of errors in reasoning listed in your textbook.

Ans: Illogical reasoning: Prematurely jumping to conclusions or arguing on the basis of invalid assumptions.

Resistance to change: Reluctance to change ideas in light of new information, due to ego-based commitments, excessive devotion to tradition, or uncritical agreement with authorities.

Ego-based commitments: Sometimes we commit to ideas simply because they conform to our own needs, rather than observable facts. It can also be difficult to admit we are wrong once we have taken a stance on an issue.

Excessive devotion to tradition: Sometimes we believe that if something worked for our parents or our grandparents, that there would be no need to change it. While some adherence to tradition may be important for the functioning of society, too much can impede progress.

Uncritical agreement with authorities: If we do not have the courage to evaluate critically the ideas of those in positions of authority, we will have little basis for complaint if they exercise their authority over us in ways we do not like.

Inaccurate or selective observations: Inaccurate observations are based on faulty perceptions of empirical reality whereas selective observations are observations that were chosen because they are in accord with preferences or beliefs of the observer.

Overgeneralization: An error in reasoning that occurs when we conclude that what we have observed or know to be true for a subset of cases holds true for the entire set.

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Avoiding Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Low

9. Give an example of an overgeneralization. Then describe why this is an error in reasoning.

Ans: Answers will vary, but here are two examples: (1) someone who assumes all youth who are violent will be violent in adulthood. This is an error in reasoning because not all youth who are violent will be violent in adulthood. (2) All programs to reduce violence will not work because youth are programmed to be violent. This is an error in reasoning because it assumes that youth are born violent, which may not be the case. Also the idea that all programs would be unsuccessful is incorrect as it makes it seem like nothing could be done to prevent youth violence, which may or may not be true.

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

10. Describe one of the errors in reasoning that you recently saw in the news.

Ans: Answers will vary, but here is one example: A recent news network reported that an immigrant youth killed his parents. Then the news went on to say that all immigrant youth are prone to violence and may kill their parents.

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: Medium

Essay

1. Explain qualitative and quantitative research methods and describe some of the common research motives for choosing to use qualitative or quantitative research methods. Then explain why some researchers use both methods to answer their research questions.

Ans: Wording may vary, but this should generally be the response: Qualitative research methods are mostly written or spoken words or observations that do not have a direct numerical interpretation. Quantitative research methods are typically in the form of surveys and experiments that record variation in social life in terms of categories that vary in amount. Data that are treated as quantitative are either numbers or attributes that can be ordered in terms of magnitude. Some of the common motives for choosing qualitative research is if the goal of the research is to explore a phenomenon. It can also be descriptive and evaluative. For quantitative research methods, the common motives are typically to explain, describe or evaluate a phenomenon. Sometimes researchers use mixed methods to explore a phenomenon in order to gain a clearer picture of the phenomenon being studied from multiple perspectives. This is sometimes referred to as triangulation.

Learning Objective: 1-4. Explain the difference between each orientation in social research—positivist or interpretivist, quantitative or qualitative—and be able to identify the strengths of an integrated approach.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
Difficulty Level: Low

2. Identify and define two categories of purposes for social scientific research. Then, provide an example of a common phenomenon explored in criminological research and how those two categories could be used to examine that phenomenon. Then, using this example, provide a brief overview of how they could be integrated together into one research project.

Ans: Answers will vary. Descriptive and explanatory research. Descriptive is when you are trying describe a phenomenon such as examining frequencies. Explanatory research is when you examine the cause and effect or how a phenomenon changes over time or in response to another phenomenon. The example I will use is youth violence. For the descriptive portion, youth violence could be described in terms of its prevalence, the age of youth who engage in violence, and the common victims of such violence. Then, for the explanatory portion, research could examine why certain ages of youth are more likely to be violent, why common victims of violence are targeted, and the societal factors that influence high rates of violence among youth.

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Criminal Justice and Criminology Research in Practice

Difficulty Level: High

3. A researcher wants to examine what factors related to predicting both youth delinquency and violence. First indicate what type of research would be needed to find out which factors predict both youth delinquency and violence. Then provide at least three research questions that could be asked.

Ans: Answers will vary, but should incorporate the first component, as well as at least three similar questions to those provided. First answer: Explanatory research. Second answer: How does youth’s relationship with their parents affect a youth engaging in violence and delinquency? Does parental supervision affect this? What about parent’s criminal behavior?

Learning Objective: 1-3. Identify the four types of social research.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Explanatory Research
Difficulty Level: High

4. Describe how pseudoscience is related to common errors in reasoning: First choose two errors of reasoning you will discuss and then define them. Then, define pseudoscience. Last, describe how pseudoscience is related to those two errors in reasoning.

Ans: The answers will vary since there are four errors in reasoning described in the book. However, the principles of pseudoscience that relate to errors in reasoning should resemble this: Pseudoscience is related to these errors in reasoning because pseudoscience directly relates to relying on findings that are based on these errors. If we based findings on these, it would not be science, but instead, it would fall under the classification of pseudoscience. Examples of two reasonings and how they relate to pseudoscience: Inaccurate observations, for instance, by relying on one person’s perceptions would lead to pseudoscience because findings were not based on the scientific method and instead on one person’s inaccurate observations. Similarly, if a researcher was resistant to change, he or she may engage in pseudoscience by relying on his or her preconceived notions while conducting the study. Or they may pick out the findings of the study that align with his or her beliefs, which would relegate this to pseudoscience rather than science.

Learning Objective: 1-2. Define social science compared to pseudoscience.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Science Versus Pseudoscience/Avoiding Errors in Reasoning

Difficulty Level: High

5. Provide the similarities and differences between selective observations and inaccurate observations.

Ans: Similarities: both are observations that are incorrect.

Differences: The former is more about willful self-deception and choosing to see a phenomenon in a way that conforms to previous preferences or beliefs, while the latter is about observations that are based on faulty perceptions which include influences from memory, emotion, and inaccuracies in how the brain senses events.

Learning Objective: 1-1. Describe the four common errors in everyday reasoning.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Errors in Reasoning
Difficulty Level: High

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