Test Bank The Practice of Research in Social Work 4th Edition, by Rafael J. Engel A+

Test Bank The Practice of Research in Social Work 4th Edition, by Rafael J. Engel A+

Test Bank The Practice of Research in Social Work 4th Edition, by Rafael J. Engel A+

Test Bank The Practice of Research in Social Work 4th Edition, by Rafael J. Engel A+

Engel/Schutt, The Practice of Research in Social Work 4th Edition

Chapter 01

1. Selective observation occurs when people conclude that what is true for some cases is true for all cases.

a. True

*b. False

2. Illogical reasoning occurs when researchers prematurely jump to conclusions on the basis of invalid assumptions.

*a. True

b. False

3. Excessive devotion to tradition and uncritical agreement with authority are both examples of ego-based commitments.

a. True

*b. False

4. Social science is defined as the use of scientific methods to investigate individuals, societies, and social processes.

*a. True

b. False

5. True social science cannot be motivated by personal reasons.

a. True

*b. False

6. Exploratory research identifies the causes and effects of social phenomena.

a. True

*b. False

7. Quantitative methods collect data that are either numbers or that can be ordered in terms of magnitude.

*a. True

b. False

8. Explanation is often the motive for using qualitative methods.

a. True

*b. False

9. Evidence-based practice is a decision-making process that prioritizes prior research and clinical expertise over other factors when choosing an intervention.

  1. True

*b. False

10. Positivism is an orienting philosophy best described as one where:

a. Our social reality is seen as improving, moving towards a more equitable distribution of resources

*b. Research is driven by the interest to better understand our objective world

c. Research focuses on understanding stakeholder’s perceptions of reality

d. Our reality is elusive and cannot be understand through direct observation

e. Reality can be sometimes influenced by our perceptions

11. Match the concept with its description.

[d] 1. Overgeneralization

[b] 2. Selective observation

[c] 3. Illogical reasoning

[a] 4. Resistance to change

a. Reluctance to change ideas even in light of new information

b. Noting observations that coincide with pre-existing preferences or beliefs

c. Prematurely jumping to conclusions or arguing on the basis of invalid assumptions

d. Unjustifiably concluding that what is true for some cases is true for all cases

12. Match the concept with an example statement or question.

[c] 1. Description

[d] 2. Evaluation

[a] 3. Explanation

[b] 4. Exploration

a. Increased substance abuse tends to increase the risk of becoming homeless

b. How do homeless women adapt to their situation?

c. How many people are homeless in Atlanta, Georgia?

d. Graduates of the Klickenmore Group Home Project maintained their own apartments for an average of 2.7 years, compared to non-graduates who maintained their own apartments for 0.4 years

13. The everyday error that involves choosing to look at things that are in line with our own preferences or beliefs is called:

a. Overgeneralization

*b. Selective observation

c. Inaccurate observation

d. Illogical reasoning

e. Resistance to change

14. The everyday error that involves the reluctance to reevaluate ideas in light of new information comes from all of the following sources EXCEPT:

a. Excessive devotion to tradition
b. Ego-based [I1] commitments

c. Inability to admit earlier conclusions were made in error
d. Thinking we have seen something that is not true
e. Uncritical agreement with authority

15. Which of the following should social workers provide clients, so that they are provided with the information necessary to make decisions about services?

a. Effectiveness of the intervention

b. Client's role in the intervention

c. Expectations of the client

d. Length of the intervention

*e. All of the above are important

16. You are working with a homeless adult in a clinical setting using an evidence-based practice decision-making process. Which of the following should not occur in this process?

a. You consider his/her anger at being homeless and his/her feelings of resentment towards prior family and friends who rejected him/her and extrapolate to this individual’s larger needs for support, consistency, and reintegration.

b. You take your personal experience as a clinician and combine this knowledge with your client’s needs.

*c. You use your past experience as a reference point, telling your client that he/she shouldn’t let his/her anger and resentment jade him/her or keep him/her from pursuing group structured housing, as you’ve found this to be very beneficial for past clients.

d. You discuss intervention options with your client, allowing him/her the opportunity to express any anxiety or problems they might have with each of the interventions.

e. You follow up with your client in their supported housing to discuss their placement as well as any concerns/problems he/she had with the consultation process. You use this feedback going forward.

17. Social science reduces the likelihood of overgeneralization by:

*a. Using systematic procedures for selecting individuals to study that are representative for the groups to which we hope to generalize

b. Using explicit criteria for establishing causality

c. Requiring systematic measurement and sampling

d. Using empirical evidence

e. Answering questions from an ego-based commitment

18. Descriptive research:

*a. Defines and illustrates social phenomena

b. Investigates social phenomena without expectations

c. Identifies causes and effects of social phenomena

d. Determines effect of a social program

e. Produces valid but unreliable data

19. As average income of a neighborhood increased, violent crime rate decreased. This information is an example of which kind of social research?

a. Descriptive

b. Exploratory

*c. Explanatory

d. Evaluation

e. Qualitative

20. Researcher X has proposed a project in which she will interview several immigrants from other countries to find out why they chose to move to the United States. This study is an example of which kind of social research?

a. Descriptive

*b. Exploratory

c. Explanatory

d. Evaluation

e. Quantitative

21. The results of a recent survey found that only 23% of social workers use the internet to provide services, compared to 48% of professional counselors. This study is an example of which kind of social research?

*a. Descriptive

b. Exploratory

c. Explanatory

d. Evaluation

e. Idiographic

22. Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) has resulted in a 50% decrease in the number of families receiving assistance and a 50% increase in the number of working mothers. This information suggests which kind of social research?

a. Descriptive

b. Exploratory

c. Explanatory

*d. Evaluation

e. Counter-Factual

23. In a field experiment to observe altruistic behavior, an observer records the number of people who stopped to hold the door for a student on crutches. She reports that seven people volunteered to assist the young man, when in fact there were only five. She has made an error called:

a. Overgeneralization

b. Selective observation

c. Illogical reasoning

d. Resistance to change

*e. Inaccurate observation

24. Which of the following is an example of descriptive research about the homeless?

a. A study aimed at determining the effects of tax breaks on rent costs.

b. A study focused on the meanings homeless people assign to their conditions.

*c. A study based on the questions who are the homeless and how do they live.

d. A study based on the hypothesis that the homeless are more likely to have drug problems.

e. A study focused on the effects of social networks and homelessness.

25. Findings from a recent study indicated that education was an important predictor of financial status. What is the purpose of this research?

a. Descriptive

b. Exploratory

*c. Explanatory

d. Evaluation

e. Selective

26. Both explanatory and evaluation research studies are concerned with the causes and effects of social phenomena. The difference between them is that evaluation research focuses on the:

*a. Effect of particular policies or programs

b. Meanings that people give their actions

c. Description of the social phenomena of interest

d. Consideration of the impact of social context

e. How people get along in the setting under study

27. Qualitative methods are most often used for which type of research?

a. Descriptive

*b. Exploratory

c. Explanatory

d. Evaluation

e. Generalizable

28. Which of the following does NOT apply to the quantitative methods?

a. Surveys and experiments are common methods of quantitative data collection.

b. Quantitative data collection records variation in social life in terms of categories that vary in amount.

c. Data can be in the form of numbers.

d. Data can be in the form of attributes ordered in terms of magnitude.

*e. Data is not collected in categories predetermined by the researcher.

29. Barriers to Implementation of EBP include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. Negative perceptions of the role of research in practice scenarios

*b. Too broad or open-ended agency guidelines

c. Too few monetary resources

d. Insufficient research expertise

e. Too many pre-existing demands on the agency

30. The goal of qualitative research is to:

*a. Better understand the motivations behind complex phenomena

b. To compliment quantitative research

c. To identify demographic analyze, such as age, race, and class

d. To collect factual information direct from the source

e. To explore personal preferences.

31. Constructivism implies that:

a. Research is futile because we can never completely understand our reality as each individual constructs their own versions

b. There exists no objective facts; everything is just a product of an individual’s perception or imagination

*c. Understanding stakeholders is our best chance at understanding their reality and improving it.

d. Individuals construct their own realities and can therefore change them by themselves.

e. Quantitative research is the only way to reduce all of the individual perceptions to their objective elements.

32. Students attending a state college have chosen to live in a neighboring community because it is cheaper than continuing to live on campus. This campus is fondly known as a “student slum” because of its living conditions and broader low cost of living. One day, a student was shocked to see an older person walking around the neighborhood and concluded that they must be visiting a student. This error in reasoning can be attributed to:

a. Selective Observation

*b. Illogical Reasoning

c. Inaccurate Observation

d. Overgeneralization

e. Resistance to Change

33. Which one of these is not an example of evaluation research?

  1. Effectiveness of group homes vs. individual supportive housing
  2. Intervention styles: treatment or housing first

*c. Community-based participatory research

d. Pre- and post- intervention surveys

e. Utilization-focused research

34. The executive director of a community center requests an assessment of how youth in the neighborhood spend their leisure time, including what after school activities they attend and what type of sports activities they prefer. She has asked for which type of research to be conducted?

*a. Descriptive

b. Explanatory

c. Evaluation

d. Qualitative

e. Authentic

35. The social worker at the local mental health center noticed that clients whose workers were female were more compliant with their medications than those whose workers were male. He concluded that female workers are more nurturing and therefore, their clients are more likely to comply with treatment. This error in reasoning is:

a. Selective observation

*b. Overgeneralization

c. Inaccurate observation

d. Illogical reasoning

e. Resistance to change

36. Which of the following pairs are strongly linked?

*a. Evaluation research and evidence-based practice

b. Exploratory research and a quantitative research orientation

c. Explanatory research and a qualitative research orientation

d. Qualitative research orientation and positivism

e. Quantitative research orientation and constructivism

37. Ego and expertise are elements that are linked by having ample experience in a given field. Yet, as was outlined in the chapter, we are taught to perceive “ego-based commitments” as a bad thing, as they lead us to make errors in reasoning. At the same time, clinical expertise is invaluable and an important piece of evidence-based practice. How should one manage this distinction between ego and expertise? Use your knowledge of research, reasoning, and social work to address this question.

38. Briefly compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research methods. Explain why both can be useful in social science.

39. Identify five errors in everyday reasoning. Give one example of each.

40. In which circumstances are descriptive, exploratory, explanatory, and evaluation research appropriate? Give one example for each.

41. Consider a local agency that works with individuals experiencing homelessness. They are very interested in implementing an evidence-based practice decision-making system. Give an example of how five of the many barriers to implementation listed in the book could manifest themselves for this organization. Also discuss how this organization could overcome these barriers.

42. Consider the research conducted on homelessness, as described in Chapter 1. What is the potential impact of these research findings on social policies? How do these findings potentially shape program development? Based on these findings, describe an effective intervention to ameliorate this social problem.

43. Briefly describe the examples given in Chapter 1 that demonstrate the four types of social work research. Consider the strengths and weaknesses of each. Propose four research studies about teen pregnancy using each of the four research categories. What are the strengths and limitations of each approach?

44. Which of the errors in scientific reasoning are the most difficult for social science to overcome? Review each of the five and evaluate the relative difficulties they create. Answer in terms of a specific research area, such as homelessness, mental health, or adaptations to communities or work organizations.

45. Why are quantitative methods used predominantly in explanatory, descriptive, or evaluative research? What does quantitative information help us understand as researchers? Furthermore, why are qualitative methods used in exploratory research? What is the value of qualitative information for a researcher?

46. Using the examples on homelessness found in Chapter 1, define and describe the difference between quantitative and qualitative methods in social research. How did the researchers’ choice of qualitative or quantitative methods strengthen their conclusions? Weaken them? Propose another study of people who are homeless, in which you build on one of the previous studies. Which method did you choose and why?

47. You are working for a community development organization in a city with high rates of unemployment, poverty, high school attrition, and juvenile delinquency. Your organization wants to begin an afternoon computer training program for young people. Explain how descriptive, exploratory, explanatory, and evaluation research can all be used to help start and later maintain this program.

48. What is the value in considering diversity in cultural norms when conducting research? Specifically, when discussing social work research, is research that focuses on dominant groups the most valuable? What strategies can be used to ensure a diverse group of research participants at all points in the research process, from identifying participants to drawing conclusions?

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