Test Bank The Psychology of Sex and Gender, 1st edition Jennifer K. Bosson A+

$35.00
Test Bank The Psychology of Sex and Gender, 1st edition Jennifer K. Bosson A+

Test Bank The Psychology of Sex and Gender, 1st edition Jennifer K. Bosson A+

$35.00
Test Bank The Psychology of Sex and Gender, 1st edition Jennifer K. Bosson A+

1. The study of gender psychology first gained traction ______.

A. in 1879 when William Wundt founded the first psychology lab

B. during the Women’s suffrage movement of the early 1900s

C. in response to large numbers of women entering the workforce during World War II

D. during the second wave of the women’s movement in the 1970s

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Introducing Sex and Gender

Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Rhoda Unger (1979) argued for using “sex” to refer to the ______ aspects of being female or male while “gender” should be used when discussing the ______ aspects.

A. culturally constructed; biological

B. hormonal; culturally constructed

C. biological; culturally constructed

D. anatomical; hormonal

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

Difficulty Level: Easy

3. To address the ambiguity of biological and social causes of sex differences, Alice Eagly (2013) suggests using “sex” to refer to ______ and “gender” to ______.

A. groups of people; the meanings given to different sex categories

B. culturally constructed differences; biological differences

C. biological categories; social meaning given to those categories

D. a chosen social identity; a category given to you at birth

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

Difficulty Level: Easy

4. Using “sex” to refer to biological differences between men and women and “gender” to refer to the culturally constructed differences is problematic for which of the following reasons?

A. Biology has too small of an influence to warrant its own term.

B. It overemphasizes the role of socialization and cultural forces.

C. It is difficult to pinpoint the precise influence of biology and culture in sex differences.

D. The terms sex and gender fail to account for issues related to intersectionality.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

Difficulty Level: Medium

5. Researchers have found that testosterone ______.

A. is stable and generally insensitive to social events

B. increases during competition but only for men

C. decreases when women perform masculine behaviors

D. decreases when men perform feminine behaviors

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

Difficulty Level: Easy

6. Research shows that differences in physical aggression between men and women are ______.

A. due to hormonal differences, such as higher levels of testosterone in men

B. primarily caused by differences in brain structure arising from the presence of androgen during fetal development

C. caused by men being socialized to be risky and to direct negative emotion outward

D. most likely caused by some mixture of biological and social factors

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

Difficulty Level: Medium

7. Which of the following do sex binaries NOT accomplish?

A. communicating the variety in the biological components of sex

B. simplifying social interactions

C. organizing labor divisions

D. maintaining order in social institutions

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Sex and Gender Binaries

Difficulty Level: Hard

8. Around what percent of infants are born with some form of intersexuality?

A. 2%

B. 5%

C. 10%

D. 20%

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sex and Gender Binaries

Difficulty Level: Easy

9. Intersexuality refers to instances where ______.

A. gender identity transcends multiple sex categories

B. people feel sexual attraction to others regardless of their gender identity

C. biological components of sex do not fit the typical male/female pattern

D. there is a mismatch between anatomical and psychological gender

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer location: The Sex and Gender Binaries

Difficulty Level: Easy

10. Strict sex and gender binaries are ______.

A. observed in all cultures across the world

B. oversimplified categorical structures people impose on society

C. reflections of the simple biological facts of sex

D. necessary to maintain social order

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

Difficulty Level: Easy

11. For transgender individuals there exists ______

A. no sense of belonging to any category of sex

B. a mismatch between the sex they are assigned at birth and their psychological gender

C. a match between the sex they are assigned birth and gender to which they feel they belong

D. a sense of belonging to both categories of sex

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gender Identity

Difficulty Level: Easy

12. Categories such as heterosexual, gay, and lesbian refer to ______ whereas categories such as cisgender, transgender, and genderqueer refer to ______.

A. sex; gender

B. biological identities; cultural identities

C. sexual orientation; gender identities

D. group identities; individual identities

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gender Identity

Difficulty Level: Easy

13. People who do not feel a sense of belonging to any category of sex are referred to as ______.

A. cisgender

B. transgender

C. agender

D. pangender

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gender Identity

Difficulty Level: Easy

14. ______ refers to an individuals’ psychological experience of their gender.

A. Sex

B. Gender identity

C. Sexual identity

D. Gender orientation

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gender Identity

Difficulty Level: Easy

15. Which of the following is most characteristic of a person who is gender fluid?

A. shifting among female, male, and third gender identities

B. unusual fluctuations in hormones associated with masculine and feminine behavior

C. changes in which gender they feel sexually attracted to

D. never having any clear gender identity at any given time

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Gender Identity

Difficulty Level: Medium

16. Which of the following is TRUE according to Janet Spence’s Multifactorial Theory of Gender Identity?

A. The variety of roles, traits, and attitudes that shape gender identity are independent/uncorrelated.

B. There are a narrow set of different ways gender attributes group together.

C. Most people struggle to develop a basic sense of belongingness to their biological sex.

D. It is common to discount gender typical traits and emphasize gender atypical traits.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Gender Identity

Difficulty Level: Medium

17. Which of the following BEST represents an intersectional perspective?

A. studying how women are affected by sexism

B. examining power differences between ethnic groups

C. comparing oppression across multiple minority groups

D. researching how Black women face multiple forms of discrimination

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Intersectionality

Difficulty Level: Hard

18. Sociologist Patricia Collins (2000) argues that a matrix represents the best way to think about the social organization of intersecting identities. Which of the following most accurately describes what she means by this?

A. Every individual occupies multiple social groups with various levels of privilege and oppression.

B. Individuals can be sorted into dichotomous groups of low and high status.

C. Multiple types of experiences can be organized under a single identity.

D. Different identities are salient at different times, affecting the influence of group stereotypes.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Intersectionality

Difficulty Level: Medium

19. Which of the following terms refers to possessing high levels of both masculine and feminine traits?

A. genderqueer

B. genderfluid

C. pansexual

D. androgynous

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Masculinity and Femininity

Difficulty Level: Easy

20. Some social understandings of sex and gender show a great deal of cultural variability, such as ______.

A. the tendency to view women as more warm, moral, and appearance oriented

B. the acceptance of patriarchal versus matriarchal societies

C. stereotypes of men as more physically aggressive

D. the acceptability of third sex/gender options

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Complexity and Change

Difficulty Level: Easy

21. Which of the following is TRUE of the history of acceptance of nonbinary categories of sex and gender in Western cultures?

A. New York City issued the first intersex birth certificate in the United States in 2016.

B. In Western cultures, people who are born intersex are typically assigned to a third gender category.

C. Australia remains the only developed nation to recognize a third gender option.

D. Western cultures have historically been more open to nonbinary gender options than non-Western cultures.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Complexity and Change

Difficulty Level: Easy

22. Sex and gender are ______ or mental frameworks through which people process their social worlds.

A. schemas

B. scripts

C. stereotypes

D. prejudices

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Complexity and Change

Difficulty Level: Easy

23. Which of the following have researchers studying gender and culture NOT found?

A. People associate books more with men and film more with women.

B. Across culture certain foods, such as red meat, are considered more masculine.

C. The number 1 is considered more masculine than the number 2.

D. People in the United States tend to associate blue with boys.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

Difficulty Level: Easy

24. Which group would be least likely to recognize the influence of sex and gender in daily life?

A. cisgender men

B. Black women

C. people who are genderqueer

D. transgender men

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

Difficulty Level: Hard

25. Group based privilege refers to ______.

A. group status earned legitimately

B. social efforts to increase opportunities for marginalized groups

C. advantage that stems from favorable personality traits

D. automatic, unearned advantage that accompanies certain groups

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

Difficulty Level: Easy

26. Which of the following fits with sociologist Judith Lorber’s (1994) suggestions for combating dominant gender norms?

A. campaigns to ask female actors more substantive questions rather than focusing on looks and sexuality

B. efforts to increase diversity in science and technology fields

C. spending less time interviewing male athletes

D. attempts to rebrand feminism in order to avoid negative stereotypes

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

Difficulty Level: Hard

27. One research study by Case et al. (2014) found that exposing participants to videotaped discussions of male and heterosexual privilege had what effect?

A. prompted men to become more defensive and less open to notions of male privilege

B. caused women and sexual minorities to become even more aware of group based privilege but had no effect upon men

C. unconsciously made men less likely to employ automatic stereotypes

D. reduced sexist attitudes and increases motivation to avoid prejudice

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

Difficulty Level: Easy

28. James Wilkie and Galen Bodenhausen (2012) discovered a tendency to perceive the number 1 as more masculine than the 2. Which best describes their interpretation of this finding?

A. The number 1 is more phallic.

B. The number 1 represents a solitary, autonomous entity.

C. The number 1 is associated with finishing in first place.

D. The curvatures in the number 2 prompt perceptions of femininity.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

Difficulty Level: Medium

29. Which is FALSE regarding the role sex and gender have played in historically shaping societies?

A. In most human societies, men as a group rule and control how it operates.

B. There is evidence of several matriarchal societies in human history.

C. Many societies trace family history through the mothers’ rather than the fathers’ line.

D. There are many societies that are both matrilineal and patriarchal.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Structure of Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Easy

30. According to Social Dominance Theory, group-based social hierarchies emerge from ______.

A. fair and legitimate systems of social reward

B. certain groups being more fit to survive in their environment

C. personalities of specific groups inherently desiring more status

D. systems of discrimination that operate on the individual, interpersonal, and institutional level

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Structure of Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Medium

31. The belief that women have more nurturing qualities that are better suited towards mothering roles is an example of ______.

A. hegemonic masculinity

B. a legitimizing myth

C. group-based privilege

D. equitable gender roles

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Structures of Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Hard

32. Equality refers to treating everyone ______ while equity refers to treating everyone ______.

A. the same; differently based on group needs and disadvantages

B. differently based on group needs and disadvantages; so that they all have the same outcome

C. so that they all have the same outcome; so that they all have the same opportunities

D. so that they all have the same outcome; the same

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Structures of Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Easy

33. A local school initiates a school lunch program that provides financial assistance to students based upon need, with poorer students receiving more financial assistance. The structure of this policy represents principles of ______?

A. redistribution

B. intersectionality

C. equity

D. equality

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Structures of Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Hard

34. Which of the following is FALSE regarding the history of the women’s movement?

A. It began in 1848 at the first women’s rights convention in New York.

B. There are still a handful of nations that deny women voting rights.

C. The third wave of the women’s movement focused on intersectionality.

D. Betty Friedan’s term “the problem that has no name” refers to the dissatisfaction of middle-class women in the 50s and 60s.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Women’s movements

Difficulty Level: Easy

35. A key theme in the third wave of the women’s movement is ______.

A. a rejection of the idea that all women experience a common oppression

B. further inclusivity, extending to concern over men’s issues

C. a move towards collecting more qualitative data that better captures the experiences of women

D. a focus on women living in the rural south

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Women’s movements

Difficulty Level: Easy

36. Which of the following is FALSE of feminism?

A. Young people are often reluctant to identify as feminist despite espousing its core beliefs.

B. A number of different feminist identities have emerged throughout the women’s movements.

C. Early waves of feminism focused strongly on intersectionality.

D. It’s core goal is social, political, and economic equality among men and women.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Feminisms

Difficulty Level: Easy

37. Which of the following is NOT one of the three ways mentioned for feminisms to remain viable and healthy?

A. increase efforts to attract supporters and reduce people’s aversion to identify as feminists

B. be more inclusive of nonbinary and transgender individuals

C. endorse more traditional and commonplace conceptions of femininity

D. remain flexible and open to the updated needs of younger generations

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Feminisms

Difficulty Level: Easy

38. People tend to stereotype feminists as ______.

A. sad and depressed

B. empathetic if male

C. tolerant and inclusive

D. radical and uncooperative

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Feminisms

Difficulty Level: Easy

39. Men’s movements have typically ______.

A. focused on promoting men’s authority and denouncing same sex relationships

B. been grounded in Christianity

C. been pro-feminist

D. taken a variety of forms

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Men’s movements

Difficulty Level: Easy

40. Men and masculinity scholars have developed new theories often focusing on ______.

A. how men are strategic oppressors of women in society

B. the biological differences between men and women

C. the destructive aspects of the traditional male gender role for men’s health

D. how men are more disadvantaged than women in society

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Men’s movements

Difficulty Level: Easy

41. What event was key in prompting the American psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from its classification as a psychological disorder from the DSM-II?

A. political pressure from left-wing senators

B. the discovery of a “gay gene,” the presence of which predicted sexual orientation with incredible accuracy

C. a study showing no differences in psychological adjustment between heterosexual and gay participants

D. the acceleration of the gay rights movement during the 1980s

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gay Rights Movement

Difficulty Level: Easy

42. Researchers have found that therapies attempting to change sexual orientation are ______.

A. neither safe nor effective

B. psychologically harmless but not effective

C. effective at changing sexual orientation but at a great psychological toll

D. effective and safe

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gay Rights Movements

Difficulty Level: Easy

43. Gender dysphoria refers to ______.

A. the condition of being transgender

B. distress arising from a conflict between gender identity and gender assigned by others

C. having multiple gender identities that are salient at different times

D. having no sense of gender identity whatsoever

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Transgender Movement

Difficulty Level: Easy

44. Which of the following characterizes each of the movements discussed in Chapter 1?

A. Each has progressed from a broad set of goals to a narrower focus.

B. A common pattern is the push for greater inclusivity.

C. The radicalization of the ideologies represented.

D. All have ignored the perspective of majority and high status groups.

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Where Are We Now? Inclusivity and Intersectionality

Difficulty Level: Medium

45. ______ tend to examine how sex and gender norms shape individual thoughts, feelings, and behavior.

A. Psychologists

B. Sociologists

C. Anthropologists

D. Epidemiologists

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

Difficulty Level: Easy

46. ______ tend to examine how sex and gender are constructed within specific social and historical contexts.

A. Psychologists

B. Sociologists

C. Anthropologists

D. Historians

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

Difficulty Level: Easy

47. ______ tend to examine the roles of sex and gender in the development of human societies across cultures and time.

A. Psychologists

B. Sociologists

C. Anthropologists

D. Historians

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

Difficulty Level: Easy

48. Which is TRUE of a mixed method approach to research?

A. the use of qualitative over quantitative data

B. an increased focus on social phenomenon

C. the incorporation of multiple worldviews in understanding a topic

D. it’s been shown to have higher replication rates

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

Difficulty Level: Medium

49. Psychologists generally conduct their work at the ______ level.

A. individual

B. cross-cultural

C. societal

D. cross-historical

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

Difficulty Level: Medium

50. According to Carol Wade (2008), critical thinking consists of several mental practices including all the following EXCEPT ______.

A. avoiding emotional reasoning

B. considering other ways of interpreting the findings

C. looking for information that confirms your prior beliefs

D. evaluating underlying assumptions

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Demonstrate how to approach the textbook material in “critical thinking mode.”

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

Difficulty Level: Easy

True/False

1. Hormonal differences between men and women are stable and insensitive to social events.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Until recently there has been no record of cultures recognizing more than two sexes and genders.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Sex and Gender Binaries

Difficulty Level: Easy

3. More current conceptualizations of gender include a wider range of possible gender identities.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gender Identity

Difficulty Level: Easy

4. One of the main points of intersectionality is to recognize women as a uniform group.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Intersectionality

Difficulty Level: Easy

5. Psychological androgyny refers to the possession of high levels of both masculine and feminine attributes.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Masculinity and Femininity

Difficulty Level: Easy

6. The influence of gender in our everyday lives is often subtle and outside of awareness.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

Difficulty Level: Easy

7. It is easiest for members of high status groups (e.g., White men) to see the privileges of their own group status.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

Difficulty Level: Hard

8. According to Social Dominance Theory, legitimizing myths function to exaggerate the disadvantage of subordinate groups.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Structures of Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Medium

9. Widespread beliefs that the underprivileged are “poor but happy” would be an example of a legitimizing myth.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Structures of Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Hard

10. The final country to give women the right to vote was Saudi Arabia in 2015.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Women’s Movements

Difficulty Level: Easy

11. Since the earliest waves of women’s movements, feminism has included considerations for factors such as race and class.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Feminisms

Difficulty Level: Easy

12. Men’s movements have typically been grounded in religion and traditional values.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Men’s Movements

Difficulty Level: Easy

13. Currently, the American Psychiatric Association only diagnoses people with gender dysphoria if they experience clinical levels of distress.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Transgender

Difficulty Level: Easy

14. A study examining how cultural views towards the role of women in the workplace have changed over time at the societal level is most in line with the sociological perspective.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Men’s Movements

Difficulty Level: Hard

15. A key component of critical thinking is to ask yourself, “How can I make this new information consistent with my pre-existing beliefs?”

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-4: Demonstrate how to approach the textbook material in “critical thinking mode.”

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: One Challenge to You: Critical Thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

Short Answer

1. How do Alice Eagly (2013), as well as the textbook, suggests using the term sex and gender?

Ans: Alice Eagly suggests using “sex” to refer to male, female, and intersex as categories or groups of people. She recommends using “gender” to refer to the meanings that people give to the different sex categories.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

Difficulty Level: Easy

2. Briefly explain the differences in gender identity across cisgender, transgender, and agender individuals.

Ans: For people who are cisgender there is a mismatch between the sex they are assigned at birth and the gender with which they feel a sense of belonging. For transgender individuals there is a mismatch between their assigned and psychological sense of gender. Agender individuals do not feel a sense of belonging to any sex category.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gender Identity

Difficulty Level: Easy

3. Social dominance theory posits that society consists of hierarchical social structures containing dominant and subordinate groups. Explain what is meant by dominant and subordinate groups while providing examples of each in Western culture.

Ans: Dominant groups have greater access to education, leadership positions, and resources within social hierarchies, and subordinate groups have less access to these opportunities and resources. In Western culture, typically White, male, cisgender individuals fall into dominant groups whereas Black, transgender, women would be an example of a subordinate group.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge/Application

Answer Location: Structures of Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Hard

4. Explain the distinction between equality and equity?

Ans: Equality entails treating everyone the same, regardless of background or differences. Equity entails treating everyone fairly by taking background information and group differences into account.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Structures of Power and Inequality

Difficulty Level: Medium

5. Briefly describe the social issues that were at the forefront of each of the three waves of the women’s movement.

Ans: First wave: economic and voting rights for women. Second wave: prompted by the dissatisfaction felt by women in the 1950s and 60s when their lives were restricted to the roles of housewives and mothers, this wave expanded its focus to issue such as domestic violence, sexual harassment, equal pay, and reproductive rights. Third wave: intersectionality and issues related to race, class, sexual orientation, and gender identity.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Women’s Movements

Difficulty Level: Easy

6. What scientific finding prompted the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from its classification as a psychological disorder?

Ans: Evelyn Hooker’s (1957) study showing no difference in psychological adjustment between heterosexual and gay male participants.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Gay Rights Movements

Difficulty Level: Easy

Essay

1. Describe two reasons why it may be problematic to use the term sex to refer to the biological aspects of being male or female and gender to refer to the culturally constructed aspects.

Ans: Students’ responses should reference the difficulty in discerning the precise influence of biological and cultural variables in differences between men and women. They should also discuss how the definitions of biological and cultural influence are not always easily separated. For instance, hormonal differences are typically discussed as a biological factor but they are also influenced by social and cultural factors.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sex and Gender

Difficulty Level: Medium

2. Based on the comments of sociologist Judith Lorber (1994), describe two strategies for making sex and gender more visible along with examples of each.

Ans: Varies. Possible responses include flipping gender norms for men and women to expose how they operate. For instance, asking male athletes in sports interviews about their dating life, outfits, or recent weight gain instead of their athletic accomplishments. Students might also describe efforts to ask women actors more in-depth and achievement oriented questions during interviews. Students may also mention educators’ use of “privilege lists” to encourage members of dominant groups to recognize how their group status shapes their experiences.

Learning Objective: 1-2: Evaluate how culture, gender identity, and sexual orientation shape the experience and expression of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Ubiquity and Invisibility

Difficulty Level: Hard

3. Pick three of the disciplines involved in the study of sex and gender. Briefly explain the perspectives and levels of analysis for the three you select and provide an example of the types of research people from this discipline may conduct.

Ans: Varies. Possible fields that students might identify include psychology, sociology, anthropology, biology, history, epidemiology, and gender studies. Psychologists examine how sex and gender norms shape individual thoughts, feelings, and behavior; sociologists examine how sex and gender are constructed within specific social and historical contexts; and anthropologists examine the roles of sex and gender in the development of human societies across cultures and time. Biologists might examine the genetic and physiological factors that contribute to sex-related outcomes at the level of cells and organisms, epidemiologists might study how the incidence of disease and health outcomes differs across sex or sexual orientation within a population, and historians might analyze how meanings of sex and gender have changed across eras. Gender studies are interdisciplinary by design, drawing on content and methods from multiple disciplines to understand the complexity of gendered identities and social systems.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Explain central terminology in the study of sex and gender.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Our (Interdisciplinary) Psychological Approach

Difficulty Level: Medium

4. Describe three challenges feminism faces towards accomplishing its goals.

Ans: Varies. Students should mention obstacles feminism faces in gathering supporters and the negative stereotypes associated with both male and female feminists. Students should also mention the need to increase inclusivity for nonbinary and transgender individuals. They may also mention the need to increase considerations of how gender, race, class, and sexual orientation interact to shape experiences. Students should finally mention the need for feminism to remain flexible and adapt to the updated needs and experiences of younger generations.

Learning Objective: 1-3: Evaluate the meaning and relevance of feminisms, gender movements, and systems of power, privilege, and inequality.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Feminisms

Difficulty Level: Hard

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