Test Bank Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy 3rd Edition by Elsie Jones-Smith

$35.00
Test Bank Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy 3rd Edition by Elsie Jones-Smith

Test Bank Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy 3rd Edition by Elsie Jones-Smith

$35.00
Test Bank Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy 3rd Edition by Elsie Jones-Smith

Test Bank Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy 3rd Edition by Elsie Jones-Smith

Chapter 1: Introduction: Journey Toward Theory Integration

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

  1. Which is NOT true of psychological theories?
  2. The development of new psychotherapy theories has nearly stopped in the past few decades.
  3. Despite differences in the theories that they support, many therapists have very similar ideas about therapy.
  4. Graduate schools are now moving students toward integrated theories of psychotherapy.
  5. There are currently more than 250 theories of therapy.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify the role and purpose of counseling theory in working with clients.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Role of Theories of Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In psychotherapy, a theory provides ______ for viewing human behavior.
  2. answers
  3. ideas
  4. framework
  5. treatment

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify the role and purpose of counseling theory in working with clients.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Role of Theories of Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Therapists who see psychotherapy as a(n) ______ tend to emphasize bringing together two or more theoretical orientations to create a new theory that stands on its own.
  2. process
  3. position
  4. perspective
  5. opinion

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-2: Understand the author’s philosophical stance on integrative counseling.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Psychotherapy Integration: Position or Process?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ is used to describe a reconstructive, remedial, in-depth work with individuals who suffer from mental disorders or who evidence serious coping deficiencies.
  2. Worldview
  3. Counseling
  4. Integration
  5. Psychotherapy

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the characteristics of an effective counselor.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Definitions of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. What is evidence-based practice?
  2. a way to integrate multiple theoretical orientations in practice
  3. ability to evaluate a technique and implement with diverse clients
  4. belief that empirical research should inform therapy
  5. belief that empirical research and clinical experience should inform therapy

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory Choice and Ethical Issues in Evidence-Based Practice

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. ______ is the legal right that a client has to be informed of their treatment, techniques of the therapist, and the qualifications of the therapist.
  2. Access to client records
  3. Confidentiality
  4. Privacy
  5. Informed consent

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Ethics and Clients’ Right to Informed Consent

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Which is true of Western psychotherapy?
  2. It meets the needs of culturally diverse clients.
  3. It is not possible to integrate theories outside of the Western tradition with it.
  4. It refers to most non-Western approaches as spiritual, philosophy, or superstition.
  5. Its value is being questioned in the latest textbooks.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-3: Understand the role of diversity in counseling and psychotherapy.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Need for Cultural Diversity and Psychotherapy Integration

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Which of the following is true about worldview?
  2. All Western therapy methods present the same worldview.
  3. A therapist’s worldviews do not impact their counseling.
  4. Worldviews include beliefs, biases, and values.
  5. Worldviews cannot be changed.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-4: Explain how a counselor’s values are to be considered in the counseling relationship.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Therapist Beliefs and Values: Relationship to Choosing a Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which is NOT a consideration when developing one’s psychotherapy integration?
  2. views of ethical and moral standards
  3. views of your client’s world
  4. views of the therapist as a person
  5. views on the process of psychotherapy

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-4: Explain how a counselor’s values are to be considered in the counseling relationship.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Therapist Beliefs and Values: Relationship to Choosing a Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ is conceived as a process concerned with helping normally functioning or healthy people to achieve their goals or to function more appropriately.
  2. Counseling
  3. Psychotherapy
  4. Social work
  5. Psychiatry

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the characteristics of an effective counselor.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Definitions of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. These contain propositions about what should be ______.
  2. beliefs
  3. values
  4. attitudes
  5. behaviors

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Explain how a counselor’s values are to be considered in the counseling relationship.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Therapist Beliefs and Values: Relationship to Choosing a Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is true about advice-giving as a therapist?
  2. It can be viewed as “lecturing” by the client.
  3. It is often helpful to the client’s treatment.
  4. It fosters independence in the client.
  5. It promotes a client’s ability to work through their thoughts and feelings.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the characteristics of an effective counselor.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Definitions of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. When you meaningfully incorporate two or more theories of psychotherapy for the purpose of meeting the needs of a therapist and their clients, this is known as ______.
  2. incorporation
  3. personalizing
  4. psychotherapy integration
  5. theory construction

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify the role and purpose of counseling theory in working with clients.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychotherapy Integration: Position or Process?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. What is one value that most therapists share?
  2. being open
  3. use of evidence-based treatments
  4. advice-giving
  5. respect for clients

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Explain how a counselor’s values are to be considered in the counseling relationship. | 1-5: Describe the characteristics of an effective counselor.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Some Common Therapist or Counselor Values

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Most therapy theories have ______ type of worldview.
  2. Eurocentric
  3. Afrocentric
  4. Sinocentric
  5. Eastern centric

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-3: Understand the role of diversity in counseling and psychotherapy.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Need for Cultural Diversity and Psychotherapy Integration

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Integrated psychotherapy is based on the belief that ______.
  2. no one theory of psychotherapy has all the answers
  3. all theories of psychotherapy are equally useful
  4. patients should choose which psychotherapy theory would work best for them
  5. therapists should pick two theories to combine

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-2: Understand the author’s philosophical stance on integrative counseling.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Definition of Integrative Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Management of which of the following is a point of commonality between Western and Chinese psychotherapy approaches?
  2. anxiety
  3. depression
  4. insomnia
  5. stress

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-3: Understand the role of diversity in counseling and psychotherapy.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Need for Cultural Diversity and Psychotherapy Integration

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Integrative psychotherapists maintain that there is a(n) ______ to dialogue with colleagues of diverse theoretical orientations.
  2. professional duty
  3. ethical obligation
  4. personal preference
  5. spiritual calling

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-3: Understand the role of diversity in counseling and psychotherapy.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Need for Cultural Diversity and Psychotherapy Integration

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Jameel sometimes crosses his arms or sighs when his client says they don’t think people have an ethical obligation to help those in need. What is Jameel inadvertently doing through his reaction?
  2. thinking about something else
  3. politely disagreeing
  4. imposing his values on the client
  5. making himself more comfortable

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-4: Explain how a counselor’s values are to be considered in the counseling relationship.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Therapist Beliefs and Values: Relationship to Choosing a Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. According to the author, what should therapy be about?
  2. telling a client what is wrong with them
  3. creating good communication skills
  4. helping clients feel that there is hope for them
  5. making clients feel understood

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the characteristics of an effective counselor.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Characteristics of Effective Therapists or Counselors

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is a criticism of the EBP movement?
  2. It is too mechanistic.
  3. It takes individual differences too much into consideration.
  4. It is not integrative.
  5. It is cost-ineffective.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory Choice and Ethical Issues in Evidence-Based Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following do Welfel and Patterson identify as a common therapist mistake?
  2. view the client separate from their diagnosis
  3. mistakenly attribute social justice issue to mental health issues
  4. maintain there are only two acceptable diagnoses
  5. take into consideration the client’s cultural background

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Issues in Assessment and Diagnosis

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Which of the following are the four criteria theories compared against?
  2. clarity, consistency, comprehensive, and heuristic
  3. consistency, empiricism, clarity, and phenomenology
  4. clarity, consistency, holistic, and continuity
  5. consistency, continuity, confidentiality, and heuristic

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify the role and purpose of counseling theory in working with clients..

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Role of Theories of Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Kelsey’s client revealed to her that he intends to stalk his ex-girlfriend in order to win her back. Kelsey reached out to the woman and let her know she might need to take steps to protect herself, such as staying with a friend. Which ethical concept was Kelsey demonstrating?
  2. confidentiality
  3. privileged communication
  4. duty to warn
  5. respect for client

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Limits and Exceptions of Confidentiality and Client Records

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. If a client is struggling with a decision in their life that is causing them psychological pain, it is your role as a counselor to ______.
  2. give them advice
  3. direct them toward one of the choices over the other
  4. attempt to get their values to match yours
  5. help them discover the cause of the pain and make independent decisions

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 1-4: Explain how a counselor’s values are to be considered in the counseling relationship.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Definitions of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Medium

True/False

  1. According to Wampold (2018, 2011), effective therapists have 14 specific qualities and actions in their practice.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the characteristics of an effective counselor.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Characteristics of Effective Therapists or Counselors

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Psychotherapy is considered to be more long term than counseling.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the characteristics of an effective counselor.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Definitions of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Managed mental health-care companies do not dictate what type of therapy a client can get.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory Choice and Ethical Issues in Evidence-Based Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Once a therapist is comfortable with his or her theoretical orientation, then the process of theoretical orientation development ends.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-2: Understand the author’s philosophical stance on integrative counseling.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychotherapy Integration: Position or Process?

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Western theoretical approaches have failed to appropriately deal with the needs of culturally diverse clients.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Understand the role of diversity in counseling and psychotherapy.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Need for Cultural Diversity and Psychotherapy Integration

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Counseling and psychotherapy may be conceptualized as overlapping areas of professional competence.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2: Understand the author’s philosophical stance on integrative counseling.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Definitions of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Counseling is considered more long term than psychotherapy.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the characteristics of an effective counselor.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Definitions of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) never limit the number of therapy sessions they will reimburse during a year for each insured person.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory Choice and Ethical Issues in Evidence-Based Practice

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. While the broader world is moving toward psychotherapy integration, most textbooks on counseling theory are still stuck in the past.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-3: Understand the role of diversity in counseling and psychotherapy.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Need for Cultural Diversity and Psychotherapy Integration

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Therapists who see psychotherapy integration primarily as a position to be arrived at tend to emphasize bringing together two or more theoretical approaches to produce a new integrative theory that stands on its own.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 1-2: Understand the author’s philosophical stance on integrative counseling.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Psychotherapy Integration: Position or Process?

Difficulty Level: Easy

Essay

  1. What is the main difference between counseling and psychotherapy?

Ans: Counseling: for those who are normal functioning and desire to achieve goals or function better. Psychotherapy: for those suffering from mental illness.

Learning Objective: 1-5: Describe the characteristics of an effective counselor.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Definitions of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. What is the purpose of a theory in psychotherapy?

Ans: A theory provides a framework for understanding human behavior, mental illness, and therapeutic change. The theory helps the therapist decide what information to gather, then use that information to inform their therapy approach.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify the role and purpose of counseling theory in working with clients.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Role of Theories of Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. What is evidence-based practice?

Ans: Practiced based on the belief that solid, empirical research as well as clinical experience should inform therapy and professional decision-making regarding interventions to use.

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Theory Choice and Ethical Issues in Evidence-Based Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Psychotherapy integration is based on what key beliefs?

Ans: Psychotherapy intervention is based on the key beliefs that all theoretical and personality models have limitations; the therapeutic relationship is much more important than any specific therapy or technique; and what clients think, feel, believe and desire is more significant to therapy than any theoretical concept.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify the role and purpose of counseling theory in working with clients. | 1-2: Understand the author’s philosophical stance on integrative counseling.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Psychotherapy Integration: Position or Process?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Discuss how managed care impacts choice of theory.

Ans: Cummings (2002) has predicted that evidenced-based therapies (EBTs) will soon be mandatory for third-party reimbursement. He has stated, “EBT’s are defensible both legally and morally. . . . This emphasis on the use of empirically tested procedures fits well with the requirements of managed care mental health programs. Restricting payments to EBT’s would reduce much of what managed care regards as run-away, questionable or needlessly longterm psychotherapy” (p. 4). Therapists have received a wake-up call from both the public and the managed health-care system. If they want to be reimbursed for their services, increasingly they must show evidence of the effectiveness of their treatment.

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Theory Choice and Ethical Issues in Evidence-Based Practice

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. List the four criteria theories may be measured against.

Ans: The first criterion is clarity. Is the theorist clear in his or her outline of the basic assumptions that underlie the theory? Second, the various parts of a theory should be internally consistent and not contradict one another. Third, a theory should be comprehensive and explain as many events as possible. It should be precise, parsimonious, and contain testable hypotheses or propositions. Fourth, a theory should be heuristic and serve to promote further research. As additional research evidence is accumulated, the theory is further substantiated, revised, or rejected.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify the role and purpose of counseling theory in working with clients.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Role of Theories of Psychotherapy

Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. What are empirically supported treatments (EST)?

Ans: Support the view that therapists need to have up-to-date information on what treatments have been found to work with specific psychological disorders or problems.

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory Choice and Ethical Issues in Evidence-Based Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Define beliefs, attitudes, and values, and discuss why it is important that therapists understand these prior to the end of their formal training.

Ans: A belief can be defined as a judgment of relationship between an object and some characteristic of the object. Beliefs are cognitive constructs that can be distinguished from attitudes (positive or negative feelings toward an object) and behavior (action toward an object). Further, beliefs can be distinguished from values because beliefs merely represent how an individual perceives the world. In contrast, values contain propositions about what should be.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Explain how a counselor’s values are to be considered in the counseling relationship. | 1-5: Describe the characteristics of an effective counselor.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Therapist Beliefs and Values: Relationship to Choosing a Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Describe the difference between confidentiality and privileged communication.

Ans: Confidentiality is defined as a client’s right to privacy; it helps to create a sense of trust between the therapist and the client. Confidentiality is owned by the client and not by the counselor. A client can waive rights to confidentiality or to permit information to be shared with another person or third party. Privileged communication, on the other hand, is a legal concept that protects clients from having their confidential communications revealed in court proceedings without their permission. It is a legal term used to describe the degree to which communications made between the client and the therapist are private.

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Theory Choice and Ethical Issues in Evidence-Based Practice

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Give at least three examples of ethical challenges related to the use of technology.

Ans: Confidentiality; access to information; use of certain devices (e.g., phone, video conferencing); privacy, jurisdictional, and licensing issues.

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Theory Choice and Ethical Issues in Evidence-Based Practice

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Discuss position and process as it relates to psychotherapy integration.

Ans: A therapist who is on an integrationist journey is confronted eventually with the question of whether or not psychotherapy integration is a position, process, or a combination of the two. Therapists who see psychotherapy integration primarily as a position to be arrived at tend to emphasize bringing together two or more theoretical approaches to produce a new integrative theory that stands on its own. Some individuals who advocate that psychotherapy integration is primarily a position may even push for a single paradigm that will define the psychotherapy profession. The average integrationist will take the route of bringing together two or more existing approaches to create new integrative models. This approach to psychotherapy integration is open to criticism because it proliferates therapy approaches, and it does little to eliminate or reduce the number of therapies that already exist. Therapists who view integration as primarily a process view it as a quest that does not end. It is viewed as an ongoing process in a continual state of development and evolution.

Learning Objective: 1-1: Identify the role and purpose of counseling theory in working with clients. | 1-2: Understand the author’s philosophical stance on integrative counseling.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Psychotherapy Integration: Position or Process?

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Describe the Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California (1976) case. What legal basis did this particular case establish?

Ans: In this case, a client who was a graduate student told his psychologist that he intended to kill a girl named Tatiana Tarasoff because she had rejected his advances. Although the psychologist informed the campus police and his supervisor, he did not warn the intended victim or her family. The graduate student murdered Tarasoff. The Tarasoffs sued the UCLA Board of Regents and others for failure to notify Tatiana and her parents. After several years of appeal, the majority judges ruled that the psychologist had a duty to warn and protect an identifiable victim from the student’s violence. That court’s decision established the legal basis for duty to warn and protect.

Learning Objective: 1-6: Explain the role of ethics in counseling practice and theory integration.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Limits and Exceptions of Confidentiality and Client Records

Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Give an example of one of your own personal values that may have a negative impact on the therapy relationship.

Ans: Varies.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Explain how a counselor’s values are to be considered in the counseling relationship.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Therapist Beliefs and Values: Relationship to Choosing a Theory

Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Discuss the value of being neutral in the helping process.

Ans: Being a therapist suggests that one has a dedication to helping other people without having a vested interest in the directions they choose to take. Therapists work toward helping clients to make decisions without having investments in those decisions. They devise ways to avoid thinking about client problems during the times they are not in session with their clients. The value of being neutral in the helping process allows therapists to establish boundaries between themselves and their clients. In learning to become a therapist, you learn how to become comfortable in the presence of others’ discomfort. Clients may come to the therapy session full of rage and hurt. They may cry and scream. Therapists learn how to step back and assume a neutral posture, all the while taking the full force of the client’s emotional energy. As helping professionals adopt a neutral position, they avoid getting caught up in the client’s behaviors and dysfunctional communication patterns. Therapists who are neutral do not allow themselves to be manipulated by clients who try to get them to rescue them.

Learning Objective: 1-4: Explain how a counselor’s values are to be considered in the counseling relationship. | 1-5: Describe the characteristics of an effective counselor.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Some Common Therapist or Counselor Values

Difficulty Level: Medium

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