Test Bank Theories of Personality 9th Edition by Jess Feist A+

$35.00
Test Bank Theories of Personality 9th Edition by Jess Feist A+

Test Bank Theories of Personality 9th Edition by Jess Feist A+

$35.00
Test Bank Theories of Personality 9th Edition by Jess Feist A+

1. What is the relationship between theory and each of the following terms:

(a) philosophy, (b) speculation, (c) hypothesis, and (d) taxonomy?

Answer:

A. A theory is a set of related assumptions capable of generating hypotheses. As such, it is narrower than a philosophy and more general than a hypothesis.

B. Philosophy deals with what should be, whereas theories are built on scientific evidence. Theory relates to a branch of philosophy called epistemology, or the nature of knowledge, because theory is an essential tool of science, an important means of gaining knowledge.

C. Although theories are built partially on speculation, they do not stem from baseless speculation. Theorists combine scientifically derived data with thoughtful speculation to construct theories that will lead to further scientific experimentation.

D. A useful theory is capable of generating multiple hypotheses, or educated guesses. Scientists can test hypotheses through scientific experimentation, whereas theories are not directly testable.

E. Theories should include a careful taxonomy, or classification system. A taxonomy is merely part of a useful theory. Unlike a theory, a taxonomy is not dynamic; that is, it is not capable of generating hypotheses.

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2. What is the relationship between theory and observation?

Answer:

Theories and observations have a mutual and dynamic interaction. A newly born theory is built on tentative observations. Scientists can test hypotheses spawned by that theory, leading to new observations. As more observations become available, the theory can grow to include a greater number of hypotheses, and, in turn, scientists can test these hypotheses and provide additional observations.

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3. List and briefly discuss six criteria for a useful theory.

Answer:

A. A useful theory should generate both descriptive research and hypothesis testing. A theory that fails to spark research falls into disuse and will be discarded by scientists.

B. A theory must be open to falsifiability. It must suggest research that is capable of either supporting or refuting its major tenets. Theories that can explain opposing data are not falsifiable.

C. Theories should organize observations. A theoretical framework allows scientists to make sense of their findings.

D. A theory should guide action. It provides people with a road map for making day-to-day decisions.

E. A useful theory is internally consistent. It has a set of operational definitions that are used consistently and does not offer opposing answers to the same questions.

F. A theory should be as parsimonious as possible. Other things being equal, scientists prefer the simpler of two theories.

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4. The term “personality” comes from the Latin word “persona,” which means

A. that which one truly is.

B. the evil side of people.

C. a theatrical mask.

D. the soul.

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5. A set of related assumptions that allows scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypotheses is

A. the definition of philosophy.

B. the definition of scientific theory.

C. the definition of taxonomy.

D. an armchair speculation.

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6. Statements formed in an if-then framework are most likely

A. taxonomies.

B. philosophies.

C. theories.

D. definitions of personality.

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7. Which of the following statements highlights the role of theory within science?

A. Theories enable scientists to know how they should live their lives.

B. Theories are tools used by scientists to generate research and organize observations.

C. Theory building is the ultimate aim of science.

D. Theories play no role in scientific pursuits.

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8. Which of the following statements best characterizes the relationship between a theory and a hypothesis?

A. A theory is narrower than a hypothesis.

B. A theory is directly verifiable, a hypothesis is not.

C. A theory is logically deduced from a specific hypothesis.

D. A theory may generate one or more hypotheses.

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9. Which of the following terms is defined as an educated guess or prediction scientific enough for its validity to be tested through the use of the scientific method?

A. a theory

B. a hypothesis

C. a philosophy

D. a taxonomy

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10. _____ focused on the importance of early childhood experience and on relationships with parents as guiding forces that shape personality development.

A. Psychodynamic theories

B. Humanistic-existential theories

C. Dispositional theories

D. Biological-evolutionary theories

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11. Which of the following statements is true about psychodynamic theories?

A. They assume that negative experiences foster psychological growth and are part of the human condition.

B. They see the unconscious mind and motives as much more powerful than the conscious awareness.

C. They hold that the unique and long-term tendencies to behave in particular ways are the essence of human personality.

D. They emphasize that what people think, feel, and do is always an interaction between nature and nurture.

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12. Which of the following statements is true about humanistic-existential theories?

A. They hold that all behaviors are learned through association and its consequences, whether it is reinforced or punished.

B. They argue that the personality people have is shaped by how they think and perceive the world.

C. They assume primarily that people strive toward meaning, growth, well-being, happiness, and psychological health.

D. They suggest that there are five main trait dimensions in human personality that serve the function of making certain behaviors likely in some people.

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13. _____ assume that not only are people driven by a search for meaning, but also that negative experiences such as failure, awareness of death, death of a loved one, and anxiety, are part of the human condition and can foster psychological growth.

A. Cognitive theorists

B. Psychodynamic theorists

C. Dispositional theorists

D. Existential theorists

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14. _____ argue that the unique and long-term tendencies to behave in particular ways are the essence of human personality.

A. Dispositional theorists

B. Psychodynamic theorists

C. Biological-evolutionary theorists

D. Learning-cognitive theorists

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15. Which of the following theories emphasizes that what people think, feel, and do is always an interaction between nature and nurture?

A. learning-cognitive theories

B. biological-evolutionary theories

C. dispositional theories

D. psychodynamic theories

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16. The _____ perspective argues that how one thinks about oneself and other people, as well as the assumptions one makes and the strategies one uses for solving problems, are the keys to understanding differences between people.

A. dispositional

B. biological

C. cognitive

D. existential

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17. What is the relationship between a useful theory and research data?

A. They are mutually exclusive.

B. Several theories make up an observation.

C. Several observations make up a theory.

D. There is a mutual and dynamic interaction between them.

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18. A theory may be set aside when it

A. generates testable hypotheses.

B. explains a set of observations.

C. is proven by experimentation.

D. loses its usefulness.

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19. The personalities, cognitive processes, developmental histories, and social experiences of personality theorists help shape their theories. The discipline that deals with these factors is called

A. personology.

B. psychology.

C. sociology.

D. the psychology of science.

E. psychobiology.

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20. Which of the following statements is true about personality theories?

A. They are former principles that have been proven true.

B. They originate from the historical, social, and psychological world of their originators.

C. They are useful tools of science to the extent that they are value free.

D. They should not be open to falsification.

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21. Which of the following statements is true about descriptive research?

A. It is designed to test hypotheses.

B. It contributes to expanding a theory.

C. It is that which uses an experimental design.

D. It is expressed by if-then statements.

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22. A useful theory must be falsifiable, which means that

A. it will eventually be proven false.

B. it must be precise enough to suggest research that may either support or fail to support its major tenets.

C. it should be flexible enough to encompass opposing data into its framework.

D. it must be either true or false.

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23. Which of the following is not a function of a useful theory?

A. It will generate research.

B. It will be consistent with one’s philosophy of life.

C. It organizes observations.

D. It serves as a guide to action.

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24. Which of the following statements is true about theory?

A. A theory can be a practical guide for a psychotherapist.

B. Theory and practice are mutually exclusive.

C. Other things being equal, the more complex a theory, the better.

D. A good theory gives opposing answers to a single question.

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25. Part of the internal consistency of a theory is

A. a taxonomy.

B. a set of operational definitions.

C. its agreement with older, more established theories.

D. its empirical validity.

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26. A researcher uses the number of times a person smiles at others as a measure of friendliness. This an example of

A. an operational definition.

B. hypothesis testing.

C. parsimony.

D. internal consistency.

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27. A useful theory should be parsimonious, meaning that it should be

A. based on empirical research.

B. complex.

C. simple.

D. verifiable.

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28. Which of the following is not a dimension used by the authors to assess a theorist’s concept of humanity?

A. determinism versus free choice

B. order versus disorder

C. pessimism versus optimism

D. conscious versus unconscious

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29. Which of the following statements is true about a reliable test?

A. It is always valid.

B. It measures what it purports to measure.

C. It correlates positively with its validity.

D. It yields consistent results.

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30. If scores on an instrument that measures introversion correlate highly with a number of other measures of introversion—for example, shyness and inhibition—then that instrument is said to have

A. discriminant validity.

B. convergent validity.

C. divergent validity.

D. test-retest reliability.

E. concurrent reliability.

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31. A test that can accurately divide extraverts from introverts is said to have

A. internal consistency.

B. divergent validity.

C. convergent validity.

D. discriminant validity.

E. test-retest reliability.

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32. The extent that a test predicts some future behavior is referred to as

A. test-retest reliability.

B. predictive validity.

C. divergent validity.

D. internal consistency.

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