Test Bank Transformations Women, Gender and Psychology 3rd Edition By Mary Crawford

$35.00
Test Bank Transformations Women, Gender and Psychology 3rd Edition By Mary Crawford

Test Bank Transformations Women, Gender and Psychology 3rd Edition By Mary Crawford

$35.00
Test Bank Transformations Women, Gender and Psychology 3rd Edition By Mary Crawford

est Bank Transformations Women, Gender and Psychology 3rd Edition By Mary Crawford

Transformations: Women, Gender and Psychology, 3e (Crawford)

Chapter 1Paving the Way

1) Psychologists began to realize that most psychological knowledge about women and gender was ________.

A) created by men

B) anti-woman

C) male-centered

D) misogynistic

Answer: C

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2) In the mid-1800s in the U.S., a First Wave feminist movement emerged. It reached its peak with the ________, then lost momentum in the ________.

A) Seneca Falls Declaration of 1848; 1920s after women won the vote

B) Rochester Declaration of 1862; 1930s when women lost the ERA

C) Rochester Declaration of 1880; 1920s after women won the vote

D) Seneca Falls Declaration of 1870; 1930s when women lost the ERA

Answer: A

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3) In the late '60s/early '70s, some psychologists lobbied the American Psychological Association to form the ________, which was officially approved in 1973.

A) Association for Women in Psychology (AWP)

B) Division of the Psychology of Women (Division 35)

C) Women's Studies Program (WSP)

D) Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP)

Answer: B

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4) Thanks to considerable progress in the recognition and support of diverse women in psychology, women now earn ________ of the PhDs awarded in psychology, and ethnic minorities earn ________ the PhDs.

A) 67 percent; 19 percent

B) 74 percent; 24 percent

C) 43 percent; 32 percent

D) 50 percent; 25 percent

Answer: B

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5) A feminist who emphasizes male control and domination of women is most likely a

A) cultural feminist.

B) radical feminist.

C) liberal feminist.

D) woman-of-color feminist.

Answer: B

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6) Which of the following statements is true about feminism?

A) It is defined as the belief that men do not understand women.

B) It is defined as the belief that sisterhood is more important than any other relationship.

C) It is be defined most simply as a movement to end sexism and sexist oppression.

D) All of these answers are correct.

Answer: C

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7) A person who believes women and men should be treated equally, supports the means to achieve this, and emphasizes the similarities between the sexes is a

A) cultural feminist.

B) liberal feminist.

C) radical feminist.

D) woman-of-color feminist.

Answer: B

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8) ________ perspective stresses that qualities characteristic of women have been devalued and should be honored and respected in society.

A) Cultural feminism

B) Radical feminism

C) Liberal feminism

D) Woman-of-color feminism

Answer: A

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9) A feminist who recognizes women as valuable and who believes social changes need to occur to benefit women is a

A) cultural feminist.

B) radical feminist.

C) liberal feminist.

D) woman-of-color feminist.

Answer: D

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10) A feminist focusing on how prejudice and discrimination against women are related to global capitalism and neocolonialism is a

A) radical feminist.

B) liberal feminist.

C) global feminist.

D) cultural feminist.

Answer: C

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11) A feminist focusing on concerns like sweatshop labor conditions, unequal access to health care and education, and forced prostitution is a

A) global feminist.

B) radical feminist.

C) cultural feminist.

D) liberal feminist.

Answer: A

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12) Although Western society does not pressure women to undergo genital cutting or require them to veil their faces and bodies in public, in which of the following ways does the Western society restrict women's bodily freedom and integrity?

A) through practices like sexual harassment in public places

B) through practices like pressure to seek the perfect body through dieting

C) through practices like encouraging women to undergo cosmetic surgery

D) All of these answers are correct.

Answer: D

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13) Conservatism bases its belief of traditional roles for women on

A) biology.

B) social context.

C) religion.

D) biology and religion.

Answer: D

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14) Which of the following justifies its view of women on the grounds of biology and religion?

A) womanism

B) pro-feminism

C) conservatism

D) androcentrism

Answer: C

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15) Can men be feminists?

A) No; feminism is, by definition, a movement exclusively for women by women.

B) No; men cannot understand and appreciate women's struggles.

C) Yes; profeminist men can value women, working to reduce sexism.

D) Yes; profeminist men can support women who are working to end sexism and sexist oppression.

Answer: C

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16) Which of the following is a possible bias in the choice of research participants?

A) Relying more on college student samples

B) Selecting on the basis of age, social class, and developmental stage

C) Tendency to study males and male issues more often than females and female issues

D) All of these answers are correct.

Answer: D

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17) The proportion of male-only studies has ________ since the 1970s.

A) increased

B) decreased

C) stayed the same

D) alternately increased and decreased

Answer: B

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18) Research on ethnic minorities of both sexes is scarce EXCEPT when

A) the results are applicable to majority culture.

B) the emphasis is on ethnic individuals who have been assimilated into majority culture.

C) the focus is social problems like teen pregnancy or crime.

D) the purpose of the research is to demonstrate superiority of majority culture.

Answer: C

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19) When documenting research in journal articles, researchers state the reasons for and limitations of having a(n) ________ sample, but little explanation is given for an ________ sample.

A) all-male; all-female

B) mixed-sex; all-male

C) all-white; all-black

D) all-female; all-male

Answer: D

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20) Research documenting ________ is often overlooked, while research documenting ________ is sought and publicized.

A) gender differences; gender similarities

B) gender similarities; gender differences

C) masculinity; femininity

D) femininity; masculinity

Answer: B

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21) Although experimentation is the most respected paradigm for psychological research, it may not always be ideal for research on gender because

A) controlling for volunteer bias is particularly difficult in gender-related research.

B) interviews may yield more accurate results.

C) the researcher creates an artificial environment to manipulate participant experiences.

D) people do not always follow directions given by the experimenter.

Answer: C

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22) Although psychologists like to do experiments because they can show causation,

A) interviews tend to yield more accurate results.

B) case study methods may be more useful to researchers overall.

C) few female researchers have been trained in the experimental.

D) behavior in a laboratory may not be representative of behavior in other situations.

Answer: D

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23) Which of the following statements is true of the beliefs of the dominant groups in a society?

A) They are normative.

B) They become more visible when those outside of the dominant group question them.

C) They are not always recognized as values because they are so common in popular thinking.

D) All of these answers are correct.

Answer: D

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24) The core beliefs uniting feminist psychologists include all of the following EXCEPT the belief that

A) universal laws of behavior are necessary.

B) empirical research is important and worthwhile.

C) science can never be value-neutral or fully objective.

D) many external forces shape human behavior.

Answer: A

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25) In the context of the differences and similarities among women, which of the following statements is true of feminist psychologists?

A) They believe that one must not assume all women have much in common with each other simply because they are women.

B) They believe that women's psychology is affected by women's social and cultural backgrounds.

C) They believe that it is important to study varied groups of women.

D) All of these answers are correct.

Answer: D

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26) Feminist psychologists believe that with regard to equality with men, women

A) will never be considered equal.

B) have not yet achieved full equality.

C) have nearly achieved full equality.

D) achieved full equality in the 1960s and 1970s, but have lost many of the gains they made at that time.

Answer: B

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27) Which of the following phrases is true of the inequalities women face and/or have faced?

A) Denying women the right to vote, own property, or use public spaces

B) Denying women the right to make decisions about their own bodies

C) Sexist harassment and receiving less pay at work

D) All of these answers are correct.

Answer: D

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28) With regard to the popular belief "men are from Mars and women are from Venus," feminists believe

A) women and men are not complete opposites of each other.

B) gender similarities should always be emphasized.

C) gender differences are primarily related to biology.

D) the differences between women and men are greater than the differences among men or among women.

Answer: A

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29) A woman who is wealthy and privileged may actually have more in common with

A) poor women than with wealthy and privileged men.

B) women from ethnic minorities than with poor women.

C) wealthy and privileged men than with poor women.

D) poor women than with women from ethnic minorities.

Answer: C

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30) Which of the following statements is true about psychology?

A) It has traditionally focused on altering attitudes.

B) It has traditionally focused on increasing insight and self-understanding.

C) It has traditionally focused on reducing or eliminating self-defeating thinking and behaviors.

D) All of these answers are correct.

Answer: D

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31) The psychology of women is particularly linked to women's

A) biological instincts.

B) roles as wives.

C) place in society and culture.

D) roles as mothers.

Answer: C

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32) Identify a true statement about feminists.

A) They believe that gender equality is possible.

B) They believe that social contexts shape people's behavior.

C) They believe that social contexts limit human potential.

D) All of these answers are correct.

Answer: D

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33) Which of the following statements is true about liberal feminism?

A) It emphasizes the similarities between males and females, maintaining that given equal environments and opportunities, males and females will behave similarly.

B) It views the control of women by men as the first and most fundamental form of oppression: women as a group are oppressed by men as a group.

C) It views some gender differences in values and social behaviors as either an essential part of womanhood or so deeply socialized that they are virtually universal and unlikely to change.

D) It focuses on how prejudice and discrimination against women are related across cultures, and how they are connected to neocolonialism and global capitalism.

Answer: A

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34) According to ________, a feminist is a person who believes that women are entitled to full legal and social equality with men and who favors changes in laws, customs, and values to achieve the goal of equality.

A) radical feminism

B) liberal feminism

C) cultural feminism

D) global feminism

Answer: B

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35) The ________ perspective has fostered research on such topics as how people react to others when they violate gender norms, how children are socialized to accept gender roles, and sex discrimination in employment.

A) global feminist

B) radical feminist

C) liberal feminist

D) cultural feminist

Answer: C

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36) The ________ perspective views the control of women by men as the first and most fundamental form of oppression: women as a group are oppressed by men as a group.

A) liberal feminist

B) global feminist

C) cultural feminist

D) radical feminist

Answer: D

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37) Which of the following statements is true about radical feminists?

A) They believe that oppression on the basis of being a woman is one thing all women have in common.

B) They focus on issues of importance to minority communities: poverty, racism, jobs, health care, and access to education.

C) They stress that qualities characteristic of women have been devalued and should be honored and respected in society.

D) They focus on how prejudice and discrimination against women are related across cultures, and how they are connected to neocolonialism and global capitalism.

Answer: A

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38) People who adopt ________ perspective emphasize the effects of racial stereotyping.

A) liberal feminist

B) women-of-color feminist

C) cultural feminist

D) global feminist

Answer: B

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39) ________ views some gender differences in values and social behaviors as either an essential part of womanhood or so deeply socialized that they are virtually universal and unlikely to change.

A) Radical feminism

B) Liberal feminism

C) Cultural feminism

D) Global feminism

Answer: C

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40) Which of the following statements is true about quantitative methods of research in psychology?

A) They include methods like case study and ethnography, in which the researcher works within a community and tries to learn its customs and traditions.

B) They include methods like interviews and focus groups that are most often used in psychology and women's studies.

C) They explore a topic in an open-ended way, without trying to systematically count or manipulate behaviors.

D) They involve measuring behavior, averaging it over a group of people, and comparing groups with statistical tests.

Answer: D

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41) Identify a true statement about qualitative methods of research in psychology.

A) They explore a topic in an open-ended way, without trying to systematically count or manipulate behaviors.

B) They determine whether two or more variables are related to each other, but they fail to determine whether that relationship is causal.

C) They allow for the use of random samples, so that the results can be generalized, or applied to more people than just the few who were studied.

D) They include methods such as surveys that report the beliefs, attitudes, or opinions of groups of people.

Answer: A

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42) In a research process, a researcher should start by

A) collecting and analyzing data so that patterns of results become clear.

B) generating a question to be answered by gathering information systematically.

C) devising materials such as questionnaires or laboratory setups.

D) choosing research participants.

Answer: B

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43) Which of the following is a procedure that allows psychologists to systematically manipulate one or more variables to determine whether there is a causal relationship among them?

A) archival research

B) interview

C) experiment

D) discourse analysis

Answer: C

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44) Which of the following statements is true about womanism?

A) It stresses that qualities characteristic of women have been devalued and should be honored and respected in society.

B) It views some gender differences in values and social behaviors as either an essential part. of womanhood or so deeply socialized that they are virtually universal and unlikely to change.

C) It emphasizes male control and domination throughout history.

D) It focuses on issues of importance to minority communities: poverty, racism, jobs, health care, and access to education.

Answer: D

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45) Which of the following statements is true about cultural feminism?

A) It has been useful in understanding the importance of unpaid work contributed by women, such as caring for the young, the ill, and the elderly.

B) It endorses separatism, the idea that women can escape patriarchy only by creating their own woman-only communities.

C) It began with criticism of the White women's movement for excluding women of color.

D) It is especially concerned with issues such as sweatshop labor, unequal access to health care and education, sex trafficking, and violence against girls and women in developing countries.

Answer: A

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46) Describe how a feminist approach is employed in research. How does this approach differ from traditional ones?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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47) Give several examples of ways in which women have historically been marginalized.

Answer: Answers will vary.

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48) Define androcentrism. Give examples of androcentric biases in psychology.

Answer: Answers will vary.

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49) How is feminist psychology similar to and different from "regular" psychology?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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50) The kind of feminism emphasizing full legal and social equality for women and men is called ________, whereas the kind of feminism analyzing male control and dominance is called ________. Discuss the similarities and differences between these two perspectives.

Answer: Answers will vary.

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51) Briefly explain what is meant by the statement, "Science can never be fully objective or value-neutral."

Answer: Answers will vary.

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52) Briefly explain the origin of the psychology of women.

Answer: Answers will vary.

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53) Why is it important to include women of diverse backgrounds in studies of and theories about women?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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54) Explain how and why sexism can and should be avoided in at least three of the following stages of the research process—question formulation, research design, data analysis, and interpretation and publication of results.

Answer: Answers will vary.

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55) What values unite feminist psychologists? Why are these values important if we are to have accurate descriptions of women's and men's lives?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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56) What measures can man take to support feminist goals?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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57) If you are a feminist, or if you had to call yourself a feminist, which kind of feminism would you ascribe to and why?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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58) Compare and contrast each of the different types of feminism. What does each type of feminism stand for?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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59) How has the women's movement affected psychology? How has psychology affected the women's movement?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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60) What does AWP stand for, and what is its purpose?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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61) Briefly explain how woman-of-color feminism, or womanism, began.

Answer: Answers will vary.

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62) Radical feminism has fostered much research on ________ and ________. Why is this important?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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63) Which issue is the "third wave" of feminism dealing with?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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64) Briefly describe Mary Calkins' experience in the academic world and her contributions to early U.S. psychology. What do proponents of conservatism believe, and how have those views changed over the years?

Answer: Answers will vary.

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65) Discuss the concept of intersectionality. Give an example.

Answer: Answers will vary.

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