Test Bank Understanding Nursing Research 4th Edition

$30.00
Test Bank Understanding Nursing Research 4th Edition

Test Bank Understanding Nursing Research 4th Edition

$30.00
Test Bank Understanding Nursing Research 4th Edition

Test Bank Understanding Nursing Research 4th Edition

Chapter 1—Discovering Nursing Research

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. The primary purpose of nursing research is to:

1.

bring prestige to the discipline.

2.

promote the importance of nursing in society.

3.

generate scientific knowledge to guide nursing practice.

4.

fund nursing education.

ANS: 3

Rationale The ultimate goal of nursing research is the generation of an empirical knowledge base to guide practice.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. Although high quality research would bring prestige to nursing, that is not the reason for conducting the research. The ultimate goal of nursing research is the generation of an empirical knowledge base to guide practice.

2. Although high quality research could promote the importance of nursing, that is not the reason for conducting the research. The ultimate goal of nursing research is the generation of an empirical knowledge base to guide practice

4. Although it is possible that a research grant may provide assistance with educational expenses for persons connected with it, the research itself does not fund education, nor is funding education the purpose of the research. The ultimate goal of nursing research is the generation of an empirical knowledge base to guide practice

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 4

OBJ: 2

TOP: Importance of research in developing evidence-based practice for nursing

2. A research study investigating the benefits of ambulation following cesarean section would be an example of which type of research evidence?

1.

Description

2.

Explanation

3.

Prediction

4.

Control

ANS: 1

Rationale Description involves identifying and understanding the nature of nursing phenomena and the relationships among these phenomena.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

2. Explanation clarifies the relationships among phenomena and identifies why certain events occur. Description involves identifying and understanding the nature of nursing phenomena and the relationships among these phenomena.

3. Through prediction, the probability of a specific outcome can be estimated in a given situation. Description involves identifying and understanding the nature of nursing phenomena and the relationships among these phenomena.

4. Control can be described as the ability to write a prescription to produce the desired outcome. Description involves identifying and understanding the nature of nursing phenomena and the relationships among these phenomena.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 5

OBJ: 2

TOP: Importance of research in developing evidence-based practice for nursing

3. A research study validates the positive effect that a nursing intervention, patient journaling, has on decreasing spiritual distress during cancer recovery. This would be an example of which type of research evidence?

1.

Description

2.

Explanation

3.

Prediction

4.

Control

ANS: 4

Rationale Control indicates the ability to use a prescribed intervention to produce a desired outcome.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. Description involves identifying and understanding the nature of nursing phenomena and the relationships among these phenomena. Control indicates the ability to use a prescribed intervention to produce a desired outcome.

2. Explanation clarifies the relationships among phenomena and identifies why certain events occur. Control indicates the ability to use a prescribed intervention to produce a desired outcome.

3. Through prediction the probability of a specific outcome can be estimated in a given situation. Control indicates the ability to use a prescribed intervention to produce a desired outcome

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 6

OBJ: 2

TOP: Importance of research in developing evidence-based practice for nursing

4. A nurse who reads research articles and incorporates research findings into nursing practice would demonstrate which of the following research roles?

1.

Consumer

2.

Primary investigator

3.

Collaborator

4.

Producer

ANS: 1

Rationale A research consumer reads research reports, critiques the reports, and makes decisions about incorporating research into practice.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

2. A primary investigator leads a research team in the completion of a study. A research consumer reads research reports, critiques the report, and makes decisions about incorporating research into practice.

3. A collaborator is someone who works closely with the primary investigator in conducting a research study. A research consumer reads research reports, critiques the report, and makes decisions about incorporating research into practice.

4. Producers of research conduct studies to generate and refine the knowledge needed for nursing practice. A research consumer reads research reports, critiques the report, and makes decisions about incorporating research into practice.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 7

OBJ: 3 TOP: Your role in nursing research

5. Florence Nightingale is most noted for which of the following contributions to nursing research?

1.

Case study approach to research

2.

Data collection and analysis

3.

Framework and model development

4.

Quasiexperimental study design

ANS: 2

Rationale Nightingale is known for her data collection and analysis of the plight of injured soldiers during the Crimean War. Her research led to interventions that reduced the mortality rate from 43% to 2%.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. The case study approach is not what Nightingale is most noted for. Nightingale is known for her data collection and analysis of the plight of injured soldiers during the Crimean War. Her research led to interventions that reduced the mortality rate from 43% to 2%.

3. Framework and model development is not what Nightingale is most noted for. Nightingale is known for her data collection and analysis of the plight of injured soldiers during the Crimean War. Her research led to interventions that reduced the mortality rate from 43% to 2%.

4. Quasiexperimental study design is not what Nightingale is most noted for. Nightingale is known for her data collection and analysis of the plight of injured soldiers during the Crimean War. Her research led to interventions that reduced the mortality rate from 43% to 2%.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge REF: p. 9

OBJ: 4

TOP: Nurses’ participation in research in the past and into the twenty-first century

6. A major focus of nursing science during the 1970s was:

1.

nursing education.

2.

health care delivery.

3.

illness prevention.

4.

communication of research findings.

ANS: 4

Rationale Communication of research findings was a major issue for nursing in the 1970s. National and international research conferences were held, and several new research journals were published during this decade.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. Nursing education was focused on more in the 1950s. Communication of research findings was a major issue for nursing in the 1970s. National and international research conferences were held, and several new research journals were published during this decade.

2. Health care delivery became a focus in the 1980s and 1990s. Communication of research findings was a major issue for nursing in the 1970s. National and international research conferences were held, and several new research journals were published during this decade.

3. Illness prevention has become the focus of current research in nursing. Communication of research findings was a major issue for nursing in the 1970s. National and international research conferences were held, and several new research journals were published during this decade.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge REF: p. 11

OBJ: 4

TOP: Nurses’ participation in research in the past and into the twenty-first century

7. One major focus of nursing research during the 1980s was:

1.

increased funding for nursing research.

2.

nurses’ job satisfaction.

3.

communication of research findings.

4.

illness prevention.

ANS: 1

Rationale Most of the federal funds before this time were designated for medical studies involving the diagnosis and cure of disease.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. The conduct of clinical research was the focus of the 1980s. Most of the federal funds before this time were designated for medical studies involving the diagnosis and cure of disease.

3. The communication of research findings was a major issue in the 1970s. Most of the federal funds before this time were designated for medical studies involving the diagnosis and cure of disease.

4. Current (2000s) research focus and funding is expanding from the treatment of illness to include health promotion and illness prevention interventions. Most of the federal funds before this time were designated for medical studies involving the diagnosis and cure of disease.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge REF: p. 12

OBJ: 4

TOP: Nurses’ participation in research in the past and into the twenty-first century

8. Which of the following historical events had a major impact on the funding for nursing research?

1.

Development of local, national, and international nursing research conferences by Sigma Theta Tau

2.

Initiation of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research

3.

Formation of the National Center for Nursing Research

4.

Development of a Nursing Research Council as part of the American Nurses Association

ANS: 3

Rationale The National Institute of Nursing Research, originally the National Center for Nursing Research, is a federally funded arm of the National Institutes of Health, providing nursing with federal support for nursing research priorities.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. These conferences served to disseminate research in a much more consistent fashion. The National Institute of Nursing Research, originally the National Center for Nursing Research, is a federally funded arm of the National Institutes of Health, providing nursing with federal support for nursing research priorities.

2. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research facilitates conduct of outcomes research. The National Institute of Nursing Research, originally the National Center for Nursing Research, is a federally funded arm of the National Institutes of Health, providing nursing with federal support for nursing research priorities.

4. The National Research Council helps guide the focus of nursing research. The National Institute of Nursing Research, originally the National Center for Nursing Research, is a federally funded arm of the National Institutes of Health, providing nursing with federal support for nursing research priorities.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Knowledge REF: p. 12

OBJ: 4

TOP: Nurses’ participation in research in the past and into the twenty-first century

9. Benner (1984) emphasizes the importance of acquiring clinical knowledge and expertise through:

1.

authorities.

2.

borrowing from other disciplines.

3.

personal experience.

4.

research.

ANS: 3

Rationale Based on her research, Benner proposes that a nurse’s personal experience affects the breadth and depth of that nurse’s knowledge and expertise.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. This was not Benner’s emphasis. Based on her research, Benner proposes that a nurse’s personal experience affects the breadth and depth of that nurse’s knowledge and expertise.

2. Benner did not emphasize this approach. Based on her research, Benner proposes that a nurse’s personal experience affects the breadth and depth of that nurse’s knowledge and expertise.

3. Although research is important, it was not the focus of Benner’s description of knowledge acquisition. Based on her research, Benner proposes that a nurse’s personal experience affects the breadth and depth of that nurse’s knowledge and expertise.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 15

OBJ: 5 TOP: Acquiring knowledge through nursing research

10. An example of inductive reasoning is:

1.

moving from all chronically ill patients to a single chronically ill patient.

2.

going from a single diabetic patient to all diabetic patients.

3.

using a standard nursing care plan to care for a specific patient.

4.

using a computerized nursing care plan to care for insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

ANS: 2

Rationale Inductive reasoning moves from the specific to the general.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. This moves from the general to the specific and is an example of deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning moves from the specific to the general.

3. This moves from the general to the specific and is an example of deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning moves from the specific to the general.

4. This moves from the general to the specific and is an example of deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning moves from the specific to the general.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Application REF: p. 16

OBJ: 5 TOP: Acquiring knowledge in nursing

11. Scientific knowledge is generated through:

1.

authorities.

2.

borrowing from other disciplines.

3.

personal experience.

4.

research.

ANS: 4

Rationale Research is needed to provide a sound scientific basis for nursing. Other ways of knowing (e.g., tradition, authority, borrowing, trial and error) help to inform nursing knowledge, but knowledge based on factual information is necessary to develop scientific knowledge.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. Authorities may contribute to scientific knowledge by conducting research, but not by their “authority.” Research is needed to provide a sound scientific basis for nursing. Other ways of knowing (e.g., tradition, authority, borrowing, and trial and error) help to inform nursing knowledge, but knowledge based on factual information is necessary to develop scientific knowledge.

2. Borrowing does not generate scientific knowledge. Research is needed to provide a sound scientific basis for nursing. Other ways of knowing (e.g., tradition, authority, borrowing, and trial and error) help to inform nursing knowledge, but knowledge based on factual information is necessary to develop scientific knowledge.

3. Personal experience may lead one to conduct research, but does not by itself generate scientific knowledge. Research is needed to provide a sound scientific basis for nursing. Other ways of knowing (e.g., tradition, authority, borrowing, and trial and error) help to inform nursing knowledge, but knowledge based on factual information is necessary to develop scientific knowledge.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 17

OBJ: 5 TOP: Acquiring knowledge through nursing research

12. Quantitative and qualitative research approaches are particularly useful in nursing because they:

1.

are easy to implement.

2.

require few resources.

3.

are both process oriented.

4.

balance each other.

ANS: 4

Rationale Quantitative and qualitative research complement each other because they generate different kinds of nursing knowledge useful in practice.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. Neither type of study is particularly easy to implement; all take significant effort. Quantitative and qualitative research complement each other because they generate different kinds of nursing knowledge useful in practice.

2. All research requires resources, some more than others, but related to the particular study, not the type of study. Quantitative and qualitative research complement each other because they generate different kinds of nursing knowledge useful in practice.

3. Qualitative research is process oriented. Quantitative and qualitative research complement each other because they generate different kinds of nursing knowledge useful in practice.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 17

OBJ: 6 TOP: Acquiring knowledge through nursing research

13. Outcomes research in health care is oriented toward establishing:

1.

predictive relationships.

2.

quality and effectiveness.

3.

characteristics and description of nursing phenomena.

4.

critical indicators.

ANS: 2

Rationale Outcomes research is focused on the end results of care or determining changes in health status for patients.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. Quantitative research looks for predictive relationships. Outcomes research is focused on the end results of care or determining changes in health.

3. Outcomes research is primarily concerned with patients and their families and is focused on the end results of care or determining changes in health.

4. Critical indicators would more likely come from quantitative research. Outcomes research is focused on the end results of care or determining changes in health.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 19

OBJ: 5 TOP: Acquiring knowledge through nursing research

14. What type of research has a major focus on examining the long-term, short-term, negative, and positive results of care across a variety of settings?

1.

Ethnographic research

2.

Historical research

3.

Outcomes research

4.

Correlational research

ANS: 3

Rationale Outcomes research is focused on the end results of care or determining changes in health status for patients.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. Ethnographic research explores members of a culture. Outcomes research is focused on the end results of care or determining changes in health status for patients.

2. Historical research is a narrative description or analysis of past events. Outcomes research is focused on the end results of care or determining changes in health status for patients.

4. Correlational research examines relationships between and among variables. Outcomes research is focused on the end results of care or determining changes in health status for patients.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: p. 19

OBJ: 5 TOP: Acquiring knowledge through nursing research

15. Why can research be considered a “world” of its own? (Choose all that apply.)

1.

It is a new way of experiencing reality.

2.

It requires learning a unique language.

3.

True research is conducted in certain geographical areas of the world.

4.

It involves new rules and new experiences.

ANS: 1, 2, 4

Rationale Nursing research is a new way of experiencing reality; it requires a unique language, and it involves new rules and new experiences. These truths are included in answers 1, 2, and 4.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 3

OBJ: 1 TOP: What is nursing research?

16. What knowledge is required to fully define nursing research?

1.

An exhaustive list of what research has already been conducted in nursing

2.

Ways to perform the major descriptive and inferential statistics needed for analysis

3.

Research studies well received by other disciplines for collaborative projects

4.

A determination of what nurses need to know to provide the best patient care

ANS: 4

Rationale Defining nursing research requires determining the relevant knowledge needed by nurses.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. This is not necessary to define nursing research. Defining nursing research requires determining the relevant knowledge needed by nurses.

2. This is not necessary to define nursing research. Defining nursing research requires determining the relevant knowledge needed by nurses.

3. This is not necessary to define nursing research. Defining nursing research requires determining the relevant knowledge needed by nurses.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 4

OBJ: 1 TOP: Defining nursing research

17. What is the main purpose of studying research for a BSN student?

1.

To learn how to conduct a small research study

2.

To understand the basic principles of research

3.

To mentor associate-degree prepared nurses in research projects

4.

To learn how to generate new scientific knowledge to use in practice

ANS: 2

Rationale A BSN graduate must become a consumer of research and has a significant role in critiquing and synthesizing research findings for use in nursing practice.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

1. Although this may happen, it is not an expectation of the BSN graduate. A BSN graduate must become a consumer of research and has a significant role in critiquing and synthesizing research findings for use in nursing practice.

3. Although this may happen, it is not an expectation of the BSN graduate. A BSN graduate must become a consumer of research and has a significant role in critiquing and synthesizing research findings for use in nursing practice.

4. Generating new knowledge is the responsibility of the doctorally prepared nurse. A BSN graduate must become a consumer of research and has a significant role in critiquing and synthesizing research findings for use in nursing practice.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 7

OBJ: 3 TOP: Identify your role in nursing research as a professional

18. A doctorally prepared nurse is prepared to do which of the following? (Choose all that apply.)

1.

Seek and obtain grants.

2.

Mentor other nurses in research.

3.

Coordinate research teams.

4.

Expand the basic body of nursing knowledge.

ANS: 1, 2, 3, 4

Rationale The doctorally prepared nurse is capable of doing all of the stated activities.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Comprehension REF: p. 7; p. 8

OBJ: 3 TOP: Identify your role in nursing research as a professional

19. A study was conducted to determine which palliative care measures patients prefer. Statistical analysis revealed that most of them ranked evening back rubs and calming music the highest in helpfulness. This research would most likely fall under which of the following categories?

1.

Quantitative research

2.

Qualitative research

3.

Outcomes research

4.

There is not enough information to answer this question.

ANS: 1

Rationale Quantitative research would ask patients what they prefer from a list of possibilities or simply create a frequency distribution of their answers. These responses would then be tabulated, and descriptive statistics could be reported—thus the finding that back rubs and calming music are the most popular answers.

Rationales for Incorrect Answers

2. Qualitative research might ask the patient what is most helpful, but there would not be statistical analysis, nor would the responses be ranked. Quantitative research would ask patients what they prefer from a list of possibilities or simply create a frequency distribution of their answers. These responses would then be tabulated, and descriptive statistics could be reported—thus the finding that back rubs and calming music are the most popular answers.

3. Outcomes research would ask questions about the quality and effectiveness of health care. Quantitative research would ask patients what they prefer from a list of possibilities or simply create a frequency distribution of their answers. These responses would then be tabulated, and descriptive statistics could be reported—thus the finding that back rubs and calming music are the most popular answers.

4. In fact there is enough information to answer the question. Quantitative research would ask patients what they prefer from a list of possibilities or simply create a frequency distribution of their answers. These responses would then be tabulated, and descriptive statistics could be reported—thus the finding that back rubs and calming music are the most popular answers.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: p. 17; p. 18

OBJ: 6 TOP: Introduction to quantitative and qualitative research

20. Which of the following questions might be asked by a qualitative researcher? (Choose all that apply.)

1.

What is it like to live with a terminal illness?

2.

How does the experience of being in a car accident affect a person’s driving speed?

3.

What percentage of patients enjoys the food served to them while in the hospital?

4.

Which medication is most effective in treating pain resulting from an amputation?

ANS: 1, 2

Rationale Both questions 1 and 2 are ones that would lend themselves to qualitative research. They explore the experience of individuals and how life affects them. Answer 3 is seeking a numerical response, which is a quantitative question. It actually could be part of an outcomes research project as well. Answer 4 would be addressed with quantitative means.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive level: Analysis REF: p. 18

OBJ: 6 TOP: Introduction to quantitative and qualitative research

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