Test Bank Understanding Psychology 14th Edition By Robert Feldman A+

$35.00
Test Bank Understanding Psychology 14th Edition By Robert Feldman A+

Test Bank Understanding Psychology 14th Edition By Robert Feldman A+

$35.00
Test Bank Understanding Psychology 14th Edition By Robert Feldman A+

1) Psychology is defined as the

A) intuition-based approach to study human behavior.

B) speculative method to find answers about human cognition.

C) study of mental disorders and their treatment.

D) scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Definition of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the scope and goals of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

2) Akira has declared psychology as his major. He will be studying

A) internal medicine.

B) behavior and mental processes.

C) mental disorders and their diagnosis and treatment.

D) the disorders of the central nervous system.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Definition of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the scope and goals of psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

3) A single-sentence definition of psychology may be misleading because

A) it is very difficult to study the mind and behavior scientifically.

B) psychology is a narrower, more specific field than a general definition might suggest.

C) psychologists disagree on how broad psychology should really be.

D) the discipline of psychology really has no core or center.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Definition of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the scope and goals of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

4) In order to study mind and behavior, psychologists

A) rely on the scientific method.

B) use their intuition.

C) rely on the study of internal medicine.

D) use speculation.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Definition of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the scope and goals of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

5) In which of the following scenarios is a scientific explanation being provided to explain a phenomenon?

A) When asked if violent video games have an impact on players, Dr. Lee replies that there is substantial empirical evidence to suggest a change in the gamers' behavior.

B) When asked if mood influences social behavior, Dr. Sessler replies that he believes that it does.

C) When asked if addiction is a disease or a choice, Dr. Smith replies that he knows many addicts and he feels that they have a disease.

D) When asked if he can train his mind to not feel physical pain, Dr. Farnworth replies that he focuses on his breathing when he feels pain to increase his tolerance for it.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Definition of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the scope and goals of psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

6) Which of the following statements is true of the diverse subfields of psychology?

A) They allow psychologists to explain different types of behavior using the same techniques and experiments.

B) Though they are individually separate and distinct, they all share a common goal of understanding behavior.

C) They always lead to an MD (doctor of medicine) degree.

D) They are not related at all other than being considered a part of psychology.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

7) Dr. Alvarez is currently studying how the degeneration of certain components of nerve cells in the brain leads to Lewy body disease. Dr. Alvarez's work is most likely to be a part of the ________ subfield of psychology.

A) evolutionary

B) developmental

C) industrial-organizational

D) behavioral neuroscience

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

8) Which of the following is the focus of experimental psychology?

A) exploring the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease

B) investigating the relationship between people and their physical environment

C) studying the processes of sensing, perceiving, learning, and thinking about the world

D) analyzing how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

9) Which of the following subfields of psychology matches with its description?

A) Cognitive psychology examines the relationship between the nervous system and behavior.

B) Developmental psychology examines how people grow and change from conception through death.

C) Experimental psychology explores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease.

D) Clinical psychology focuses on the consistency in people's behavior over time and the traits that differentiate one person from another.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

10) Which of the following subfields of psychology is CORRECTLY matched with a sample topic?

A) behavioral neuroscience: the influence of chronic stress on physical health

B) developmental psychology: the effectiveness of drug therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder

C) cognitive psychology: the influence of an event on people's thinking

D) health psychology: the role that frustration plays in producing aggression

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

11) Which of the following is true of cognitive psychology?

A) It studies the inheritance of traits related to behavior.

B) It stems from Charles Darwin's arguments in his book, On the Origin of Species.

C) It is a subspecialty of experimental psychology.

D) It includes subfields such as developmental and personality psychology.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

12) ________ psychology focuses on higher mental processes, including thinking, memory, reasoning, problem solving, judging, decision making, and language.

A) Developmental

B) Personality

C) Clinical

D) Cognitive

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Cognitive Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

13) Why is the term experimental psychologist considered somewhat misleading?

A) Psychologists in every subfield use the experimental method.

B) The term is no longer in existence.

C) Most psychological topics are not suited to experimental study.

D) Experimental methods are only appropriate to the study of the biological bases of behavior.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

14) Which of the following is true of evolutionary psychology?

A) It has already led to promising new treatments for psychological disorders.

B) It considers how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.

C) It suggests that significant behaviors cannot be unfolded automatically as they are wired into the human species.

D) It is one of the subspecialties of experimental psychology.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

15) Which of the following branches of psychology focuses on the consistency in people's behavior over time and the traits that differentiate one person from another?

A) clinical psychology

B) personality psychology

C) cognitive psychology

D) evolutionary psychology

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

16) Dr. Chen studies how people grow and change during late adolescence and young adulthood. Dr. Doherty focuses on several traits that distinguish one person from another. Dr. Chen is a(n) ________; Dr. Doherty is a(n) ________.

A) experimental psychologist; cognitive psychologist

B) health psychologist; clinical psychologist

C) developmental psychologist; personality psychologist

D) clinical psychologist; counseling psychologist

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

17) Dr. Ebrahim is involved in a study that tracks the changes in peer relationships among adolescents between the ages 13 and 17. Dr. Ebrahim is a(n) ________ psychologist.

A) cognitive

B) evolutionary

C) educational

D) developmental

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

18) Matias, a five-year-old, has just started preschool. As a preschooler, he must get used to being away from his parents for a few hours and being around other children and adults. His parents feel that this change may be difficult for him. A psychologist studying Matias's case is likely to belong to the field of

A) clinical psychology.

B) developmental psychology.

C) health psychology.

D) evolutionary psychology.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

19) Identify a true statement about health psychology.

A) Health psychologists seeks to understand how humans might inherit certain healthy traits and how the environment influences whether they display such traits.

B) Health psychologists are interested in identifying ways to promote behavior that brings about good health.

C) Health psychology concentrates on such diverse topics as human aggression, liking and loving, persuasion, and conformity.

D) Health psychology stems from Charles Darwin's arguments in his groundbreaking 1859 book, On the Origin of Species.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

20) During a discussion on the psychological aspects of suicide bombers, Dr. Gerami asserts the role of strong authority figures in encouraging the actions of suicide bombers. However, Dr. Islington proposes the role of internal traits in suicide bombing. Which of the following BEST identifies the subfields in which each of them specializes?

A) Dr. Gerami: personality psychology; Dr. Islington: social psychology

B) Dr. Gerami: social psychology; Dr. Islington: cross-cultural psychology

C) Dr. Gerami: social psychology; Dr. Islington: personality psychology

D) Dr. Gerami: cross-cultural psychology; Dr. Islington: personality psychology

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

21) Enterprise City has been hard hit by a recent economic downturn. Local psychologists are holding a public workshop to help the citizens cope with the adversity. Dr. Kurutz is outlining strategies to help adults who have been laid off avoid overeating and the use of drugs or alcohol. Dr. Kurutz is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.

A) experimental

B) cross-cultural

C) social

D) health

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

22) As a program manager, Jazmin is required to sit at her computer for long hours working constantly on similar projects. As a result, she has lost all motivation to perform better. In addition, she has developed a negative attitude toward her coworkers and has stopped contributing to team efforts. To help her become a better employee, Jazmin's manager is likely to refer her to a(n)

A) cognitive psychologist.

B) experimental psychologist.

C) industrial psychologist.

D) health psychologist.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

23) Fiona helps students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) develop effective study regimens and strategies. Fiona is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.

A) health

B) experimental

C) developmental

D) counseling

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

24) Dr. Growe is reading about a research study in which psychologists investigated the effect of group size on the conformity of group members. Dr. Growe is most likely reading the Journal of ________ Psychology.

A) Developmental

B) Social

C) Counseling

D) Evolutionary

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

25) Unlike clinical psychology, counseling psychology

A) involves diagnosing and treating problems that range from the crises of everyday life to more extreme conditions.

B) unites the areas of neuroscience and clinical psychology.

C) focuses specifically on educational, social, and career adjustment problems.

D) builds on advances in the human understanding of the structure and chemistry of the brain.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

26) Victor works in a university. According to his job description, he is required to help students understand what kind of jobs they are suited for, identify the best learning practices, and resolve problems with their peers. Victor works as a ________ in the university.

A) developmental psychologist

B) personality psychologist

C) social psychologist

D) counseling psychologist

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

27) Hugo is a college student. He is unable to cope with the workload. He does not get along with his classmates. He goes to his teacher for advice. Hugo's teacher is likely to refer him to a

A) health psychologist.

B) counseling psychologist.

C) personality psychologist.

D) clinical psychologist.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

28) Which of the following is true of social psychologists?

A) They argue that our genetic inheritance determines not only physical traits but certain personality traits and social behaviors as well.

B) They are concerned with identifying ways to promote behavior that brings about good health.

C) They are also called developmental psychologists.

D) They concentrate on diverse topics such as human aggression, liking and loving, persuasion, and conformity.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

29) ________ psychologists concentrate on diverse topics such as human aggression, liking and loving, persuasion, and conformity.

A) Counseling

B) Social

C) Evolutionary

D) Clinical

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

30) Arata loses his wife in a car accident. He is unable to cope with the grief; as a result, he loses his appetite, is unable to sleep, cannot focus at work, and avoids his friends and family. His family together decides that he needs help. Arata's family is likely to refer him to a(n)

A) behavioral geneticist.

B) program evaluator.

C) industrial/organizational psychologist.

D) clinical psychologist.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

31) Which of the following is true of evolutionary psychologists?

A) They are interested in how behavior is influenced by genetic inheritance.

B) They reject the notions of natural selection and survival of the fittest.

C) They are proponents of the idea that introspection reveals the structure of the mind.

D) They argue that psychological disorders are brought about by unconscious factors.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Evolutionary Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

32) One of the arguments presented in Charles Darwin's book On the Origin of Species is that

A) it is possible to completely understand behavior by studying the environment in which individuals operate.

B) psychological disorders rarely originate from biological factors.

C) natural selection leads to the development of traits that enable a species to adapt to its environment.

D) people's environment has little effect on the traits they exhibit.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Evolutionary Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

33) In what way, if any, do evolutionary psychologists go beyond Darwin's arguments?

A) They suggest that culture influences the nature of behavioral and mental processes.

B) They argue that our genetic heritage influences our physical characteristics.

C) They argue that our genetic inheritance determines aspects of our personality and social behavior.

D) They do not go beyond Darwin's original arguments.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Evolutionary Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

34) Dr. Lin and Dr. Marino both study obesity. Dr. Lin relates the likelihood of obesity to levels of the trait of neuroticism—the tendency to experience upsetting emotions. Dr. Marino relates obesity to the frequency with which individuals eat alone, with family members, or in the presence of larger groups of friends, acquaintances, or strangers. Which of the following statements is most likely TRUE regarding the subfields in which the researchers specialize?

A) Dr. Marino is a social psychologist.

B) Dr. Lin is a social psychologist.

C) Dr. Marino is a personality psychologist.

D) Dr. Lin is a behavioral psychologist.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

35) Central State University's Department of Psychology is considering expanding its doctoral program to include an additional specialty. The department wants to focus on a "growth" area likely to attract federal research funding as well as up-and-coming new faculty and bright, passionate graduate students. Which of the following specialties should the department consider most closely?

A) personality psychology

B) evolutionary psychology

C) perceptual psychology

D) cross-cultural psychology

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Psychology's Future

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

36) What might be the most controversial aspect of the evolutionary psychology position?

A) They hold the notion that our evolutionary heritage influences our physical characteristics.

B) They promote the idea that our evolutionary heritage might influence aspects of our behavioral and mental processes.

C) Evolutionary psychologists downplay the influence of biological inheritance on thought and behavior.

D) Evolutionary psychologists minimize the role of environmental and social forces.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Evolutionary Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

37) Which of the following is true of behavioral genetics?

A) It is one of the oldest subfields of psychology.

B) It focuses on the biological mechanisms that enable inherited behavior to unfold.

C) It suggests that natural selection leads to the development of traits that enable a species to adapt to its environment.

D) It unites the areas of neuroscience and clinical psychology.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

38) Which of the following subfields of psychology matches with its description?

A) Social psychology is a subfield of psychology that is concerned with the psychology of the workplace.

B) Behavioral genetics is a subfield of psychology that deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders.

C) Clinical neuropsychology is a subfield of psychology that focuses on the biological origin of psychological disorders.

D) Industrial/organizational psychology is a subfield of psychology that focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

39) Which of the following is true of clinical neuropsychology?

A) It considers how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.

B) It builds on advances in the human understanding of the structure and chemistry of the brain.

C) It stems from the notion of survival of the fittest.

D) It focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

40) Assuming Dr. Hart is a clinical neuropsychologist, in which of the following is she likely to be involved?

A) Investigating the relation between depressive disorders and the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain

B) Studying violent dreams to understand the role of unconscious forces affecting an individual's behavior

C) Studying the effects of long-term stress on an individual's health and physiology

D) Investigating the relationship between family communication patterns and psychological disorders

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

41) Clinical neuropsychology

A) focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems.

B) considers how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.

C) seeks to understand how we might inherit certain behavioral traits.

D) focuses on the origin of psychological disorders in biological factors.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

42) Beatriz has just received her doctoral degree in psychology. All else being equal, in which of the following settings is she most likely to find employment?

A) a college/university

B) the military

C) a hospital

D) a large business corporation

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

43) The local state university has opened a new center devoted to the study and treatment of obesity, a major public health problem in the area. Dr. Nolan is researching the potential of a drug that influences the activity of hunger centers in the brain's hypothalamus. Dr. Osterman attempts to uncover the unconscious conflicts that may spur compulsive eating. Which of the following statements best describes the orientations of these two psychologists?

A) Dr. Nolan is a clinical neuropsychologist; Dr. Osterman is a psychodynamic psychologist.

B) Dr. Nolan is a clinical neuropsychologist; Dr. Osterman is a counseling psychologist.

C) Dr. Nolan is a social psychologist; Dr. Osterman is a humanistic psychologist.

D) Dr. Nolan is a behavioral psychologist; Dr. Osterman is a psychodynamic psychologist.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

44) In the context of the proportion of psychologists in the United States, which of the following is a true statement?

A) The numbers of minority individuals entering the field of psychology have significantly reduced in the last decade.

B) Psychologists in the United States make up between 30 percent and 34 percent of the world's psychologists.

C) Women outnumber men in the field of psychology in the United States.

D) The majority of psychologists in the United States are Hispanics and Asians.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

45) As a minority, Rwanda works as a clinical psychologist in Atlanta, Georgia. Given the current situation in her field of psychology in the United States, which of the following scenarios is likely to hold true for Rwanda?

A) Rwanda is outnumbered in her field by her male counterparts.

B) Rwanda is among the 50 percent of all professionally active psychologists belonging to racial minority groups.

C) Rwanda is likely to get more female patients belonging to the same ethnic group or race as hers.

D) Rwanda is likely to be paid more than her male counterparts.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

46) Which of the following statements concerning the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among American psychologists is TRUE?

A) The number of minority members entering the field is about the same as it was 10 years ago.

B) The number of minority members entering the field is higher than it was 10 years ago.

C) The increase in the number of degrees awarded to minority members has outpaced the growth of the minority population.

D) The number of minority members entering the field has decreased over the years.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

47) How is the diversity of psychology limited in the United States?

A) Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among psychologists.

B) The majority of psychologists are male.

C) Psychologists in the United States far outnumber those in all other countries combined.

D) Most research is conducted outside the United States.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

48) Which of the following individuals is LEAST likely to be a psychologist?

A) Dionne, who holds a PhD degree

B) Everett, who has an MD degree

C) Fallon, who graduated with a PsyD degree

D) Melinda who has written a dissertation on drug abuse and is now teaching at a university

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

49) Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the difference between PhD and the PsyD degrees?

A) A PhD requires more years of study than a PsyD.

B) A PhD requires a dissertation based on an original investigation.

C) Fewer people earn a PhD than a PsyD.

D) A PhD is obtained by psychologists who wish to focus exclusively on the treatment of psychological disorders.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

50) Psychiatrists

A) most often use treatments involving the prescription of drugs.

B) must submit a dissertation based on an original investigation to obtain a degree.

C) lack a medical degree.

D) have a PsyD, or doctor of psychology, as their highest degree.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

51) Callie works in the field of psychology. All else being equal, the chance of her highest degree being a Master's degree is

A) one-fifth.

B) one-fourth.

C) one-third.

D) one-sixth.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

52) Kristen is a psychology major. Immediately following graduation, she will most likely

A) join the workforce.

B) feel that her job is unrelated to her psychology background.

C) continue to graduate school.

D) remain unemployed.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

53) Psychology majors are highly valued by employers in business, industry, and the government because psychology majors

A) are trained to be empathetic.

B) provide counseling to their coworkers as and when required.

C) can synthesize and evaluate information well.

D) develop good intuitive skills.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

54) The most common employment sector for students graduating with a bachelor's degree in psychology is

A) education.

B) business.

C) the local government.

D) social services.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

55) The field of phrenology is associated with

A) Gall.

B) Wundt.

C) Descartes.

D) Ebbinghaus.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: History of Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

56) ________ believed that children were born into the world with minds like "blank slates" and that their experiences determined what kind of adults they would become.

A) Locke

B) Plato

C) Wundt

D) Descartes

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: History of Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

57) The phrase tabula rasa may be translated as

A) red tablet.

B) raised table.

C) new table.

D) blank slate.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: History of Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

58) The formal beginning of psychology is associated with

A) Wundt.

B) James.

C) Descartes.

D) Ebbinghaus.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Structuralism

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

59) When Wilhelm Wundt established the first experimental laboratory devoted to psychological phenomena in 1879, his goal was to

A) examine the function of the emotion of fear in preparing people to deal with emergency situations.

B) study the structures of the mind and their relationship to conscious experience.

C) unite the areas of neuroscience and clinical psychology.

D) study how people consider individual elements together as units or wholes.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: History of Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

60) Which of the following is a contribution of Wilhelm Wundt to the field of psychology?

A) He initiated the functionalist movement.

B) He established the psychodynamic perspective.

C) He pioneered the approach of structuralism.

D) He developed the gestalt psychology approach.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: History of Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

61) The 150th anniversary of a historic event will be commemorated at the American Psychological Association in the year 2029. Which of the following events is being commemorated?

A) Wundt's operation of the first psychology laboratory, 1879

B) Charles Darwin's publication of the On the Origin of Species, 1859

C) G. S. Hall's founding of the American Psychological Association, 1892

D) Pavlov's discovery of classical conditioning, 1904

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: History of Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

62) Dr. Leleux asserts that psychologists should attempt to identify the fundamental attributes of mental experience. Dr. Leleux appears most sympathetic to the ________ perspective in psychology.

A) functionalist

B) prescriptive

C) structuralist

D) humanistic

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

63) Ricardo is a victim of domestic abuse. His therapist, Dr. Shania Johnson, tries to build his confidence and help him regain his trust in people. She wants Ricardo to realize his potential and to not let his past define him. She believes that Ricardo is already on the path to recovery because he sought help of his own free will. Dr. Shania Johnson is most likely a supporter of the ________ perspective in the field of psychology.

A) functionalist

B) prescriptive

C) humanistic

D) structuralist

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

64) Seo-yeon is a psychologist. In one of her experiments, she shows her subjects an image of an infant playing with a puppy and asks them to describe what they experienced when viewing the image. In this scenario, Seo-yeon is attempting to understand how basic sensory processes shape an individual's understanding of the world using the method of

A) trephining.

B) introspection.

C) internal observation.

D) information processing.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Structuralism

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

65) Lassandra takes a sip of cola. "Sweet...cold, wet, tingly...slightly bitter," she reports. Lassandra is

A) introspecting.

B) demonstrating functionalism.

C) defining umami.

D) taking an intelligence test.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Structuralism

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

66) Identify a true statement about structuralism.

A) It brought about the union of functionalism and gestalt psychology.

B) It involved the use of a method known as information processing.

C) It was pioneered by German scientists Hermann Ebbinghaus and Max Wertheimer.

D) It focused on uncovering the fundamental mental components, states, and activities.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Gestalt Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

67) Which of the following was a disadvantage of introspection?

A) Introspection was a complicated process.

B) Introspection was time-consuming.

C) Introspection was too simplistic.

D) Introspection was not truly scientific.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Structuralism

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

68) Which of the following statements is TRUE of the structuralist perspective of psychology?

A) The structuralist perspective was supplanted by other views.

B) The structuralist perspective triumphed over alternative ones.

C) The structuralist perspective continues to coexist with other views in psychology.

D) The structuralist perspective has waned somewhat, but it still remains influential today.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Structuralism

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

69) As a psychologist, Feng is interested in studying the effects of anxiety on an individual's efforts to deal with a stressful situation. Which of the following perspectives does Feng advocate?

A) structuralism

B) behavioral genetics

C) functionalism

D) Gestalt psychology

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Functionalism

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

70) Identify a true statement about functionalism.

A) It was derived from the notion of survival of the fittest.

B) It focused on the role behavior plays in allowing people to adapt to their environments.

C) It involved the use of introspection to understand the structure of the mind.

D) It was first suggested by William Wundt in 1879.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Functionalism

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

71) A time travel mishap lands you at one of the first psychology conferences ever held, sometime at the dawn of the 20th century. The graying older scientists slowly losing their grip on the field are most likely ________, whereas the passionate young up-and-comers are probably ________.

A) structuralists; functionalists

B) functionalists; developmentalists

C) humanists; structuralists

D) humanists; functionalists

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Functionalism

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

72) In the context of the psychology of emotion, William James and John Dewey would be most interested in

A) the contribution of unconscious memories to one's emotional experience.

B) the basic nature of an emotional feeling or experience.

C) how behavior aids one's adaptation to the environment.

D) the organization of perception and thinking in a "whole" sense.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Functionalism

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

73) Which of the following movements was led by the psychologist William James?

A) functionalism

B) social psychology

C) structuralism

D) Gestalt psychology

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Functionalism

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

74) According to ________, the human perception, or understanding, of objects is greater and more meaningful than the individual elements that make up these perceptions.

A) structuralism

B) forensic psychology

C) functionalism

D) gestalt psychology

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Gestalt Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

75) The Gestalt psychologists made substantial contribution to our understanding of

A) memory.

B) perception.

C) emotion.

D) motivation.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Gestalt Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

76) Which of the following statements describes the basic idea of Gestalt psychology?

A) It emphasizes the process of introspection.

B) It emphasizes the process of natural selection.

C) It emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior.

D) It emphasizes the organization of perception.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

77) Donna-Lynn is preparing a visual display of psychology's early history. One panel is headed "The Gay '90s." It portrays developments in the 1890s. Another panel is titled "The Roaring '20s." It is devoted to the 1920s. Which theoretical perspectives in psychology should appear in each of these panels?

A) Gay '90s: functionalism; Roaring '20s: Gestalt psychology

B) Gay '90s: behaviorism; Roaring '20s: structuralism

C) Gay '90s: psychodynamic perspective; Roaring '20s: behaviorism

D) Gay '90s: Gestalt psychology; Roaring '20s: structuralism

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

78) Which of the following figures best approximates the number of major perspectives in psychology?

A) one or two

B) about five

C) a dozen or so

D) as many as there are psychologists

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

79) Which of the following is true of the neuroscience perspective of psychology?

A) The neuroscience perspective has little appeal because every behavior ultimately can be broken down into its biological components.

B) Proponents of the neuroscience perspective rejected psychology's early emphasis on the internal workings of the mind.

C) The origins of the neuroscience perspective are linked to Sigmund Freud.

D) The neuroscience perspective includes the study of heredity and evolution, which considers how heredity may influence behavior.

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Neuroscience Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

80) The neuroscience perspective

A) suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior.

B) focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world.

C) considers how people and nonhumans function biologically.

D) argues that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little awareness or control.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Neuroscience Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

81) Which of the following statements describes the behavioral perspective of psychology?

A) It emphasizes that behavior is influenced by an individual's way of thinking about the world.

B) It emphasizes that every behavior ultimately can be broken down into its biological components.

C) It emphasizes that observable, external behavior, which can be objectively measured, should be the focus of study.

D) It emphasizes that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which an individual has little control.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Behavioral Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

82) Noreen asserts that our behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little awareness or control. This viewpoint is most consistent with the ________ perspective in psychology.

A) psychodynamic

B) humanistic

C) cognitive

D) neuroscience

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Psychodynamic Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

83) To many people who have never taken a psychology course, psychology begins and ends with the ________ perspective.

A) neuroscience

B) behavioral

C) cognitive

D) psychodynamic

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Psychodynamic Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

84) Which of the following is an argument that proponents of the psychodynamic perspective are likely to present?

A) Human thinking is similar to the workings of a computer, which takes in information and transforms, stores, and retrieves it.

B) Every behavior ultimately can be broken down into its biological components.

C) Behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which an individual has little awareness or control.

D) The focus of a psychological study should be on external behavior that can be observed and measured objectively.

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Psychodynamic Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

85) Penny is a recovering drug addict. Her treatment program emphasizes the influence of her environment—"people, places, and things"—on her use of her drug of choice. Her program reflects the ________ perspective in psychology.

A) psychodynamic

B) behavioral

C) cognitive

D) neuroscience

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Behavioral Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

86) Dr. Greenway argues that psychology should focus on observable, measurable behavior. Dr. Cech suggests that psychology should study how people think about and understand the world. Which option below CORRECTLY identifies their respective perspectives?

A) Dr. Greenway—behavioral perspective; Dr. Cech—cognitive perspective

B) Dr. Greenway—cognitive perspective; Dr. Cech—behavioral perspective

C) Dr. Greenway—behavioral perspective; Dr. Cech—humanistic perspective

D) Dr. Greenway—psychodynamic perspective; Dr. Cech—humanistic perspective

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

87) Which of the following psychologists is associated with the psychodynamic perspective?

A) William James

B) Sigmund Freud

C) Karen Horney

D) Leta Stetter

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

88) Which of the following is a contribution of the psychologist B. F. Skinner?

A) He was the first psychologist to study the different aspects of child development.

B) He was a pioneer in the field of behavioral perspective.

C) He was the founder of the American Journal of Psychoanalysis.

D) He was the first male president of the American Psychological Association.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Behavioral Perspective

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

89) The cognitive perspective is said to have evolved in part from the ________ perspective in early psychology and to represent a reaction to ________.

A) structuralist; humanism

B) structuralist; behaviorism

C) humanist; behaviorism

D) humanist; functionalism

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Cognitive Perspective

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

90) Driving to work one day, Owen suspects that drivers talking on their cell phones pay less attention to the road than do other drivers. This hypothesis would most likely be tested by a ________ psychologist.

A) behavioral

B) humanistic

C) cognitive

D) psychodynamic

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Cognitive Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

91) Which of the following is true of the cognitive perspective of psychology?

A) It has evolved in part from structuralism and in part as a reaction to behaviorism.

B) It was championed by B. F. Skinner.

C) It suggests that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which an individual has little control.

D) It provides a means to understand everyday phenomena such as prejudice and aggression.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Behavioral Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

92) The humanistic perspective rejects the view that behavior reflects biological forces, unconscious processes, or the environment. In other words, it rejects the ________, ________, and ________ perspectives, respectively.

A) cognitive; psychodynamic; behavioral

B) neuroscience; cognitive; behavioral

C) cognitive; psychodynamic; neuroscience

D) neuroscience; psychodynamic; behavioral

Answer: D

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Humanistic Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

93) The emphasis of the humanistic perspective is on

A) free will.

B) environmental determinism.

C) natural selection.

D) unconscious motives.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Humanistic Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

94) Which of the following ideas stands in contrast to the notion that behavior is caused primarily by choices that are made freely by the individual?

A) naturism

B) structuralism

C) determinism

D) functionalism

Answer: C

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Humanistic Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

95) Dr. Petrovic tries to help his clients see how their behavior reflects choices they have made. He is most likely a ________ therapist.

A) psychodynamic

B) clinical neuroscience

C) humanistic

D) gestalt

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Humanistic Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

96) Recall Watson's quote: "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors." If 1 = extreme nature and 10 = extreme nurture, where would you place Watson on the nature vs. nurture issue?

A) 1 or 2

B) 3 or 4

C) 5 or 6

D) 9 or 10

Answer: D

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Behavioral Perspective

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

97) Dr. Quinones studies the achievement motivation of junior high school students. He asserts that such motivation mainly reflects the parenting and educational practices the students have experienced. This statement is most directly related to the ________ issue; Dr. Quinones' position is toward the ________ end of the continuum.

A) nature vs. nurture; nature

B) nature vs. nurture; nurture

C) observable behavior vs. internal mental processes; observable behavior

D) observable behavior vs. internal mental processes; internal mental processes

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

98) Dr. Reynolds believes that depression reflects aspects of a patient's early relationship with her parents of which she may be completely unaware. Dr. Smith, by contrast, argues that depression stems from a patient's negative self-talk. The two psychologists appear to disagree on the ________ issue.

A) nature vs. nurture

B) conscious vs. unconscious causes

C) free will vs. determinism

D) structuralism vs. functionalism

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

99) Which of the following is an argument presented by psychologists adhering to the behavioral perspective of psychology?

A) They contend that the only legitimate source of information for psychologists is behavior that can be observed directly.

B) They contend that psychological disorders are brought about by unconscious behaviors.

C) They contend that behavioral disorders are largely the result of faulty thinking processes.

D) They contend that human behavior is influenced by genetics.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Behavioral Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

100) Which of the following arguments is likely to be made by a proponent of the humanistic perspective of psychology?

A) People make intentional choices and those who display so-called abnormal behavior should be considered responsible for their actions.

B) Psychological disorders are brought about by unconscious factors.

C) The only legitimate source of information for psychologists is behavior that can be observed directly.

D) It is possible to gain a complete understanding of behavior by studying the environment in which an individual operates.

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Cognitive Perspective

Learning Objective: Name and summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

101) Emma is the sole earning member of her family. She wants to study further but is forced to give up on her dreams to support her family. Which of the following ideas explains Emma's behavior?

A) functionalism

B) structuralism

C) determinism

D) factualism

Answer: C

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

102) Individual differences are to universal principles as the ________ perspective is to the ________ perspective.

A) neuroscience; humanistic

B) cognitive; behavioral

C) humanistic; neuroscience

D) behavioral; cognitive

Answer: C

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

103) Rob is a 16-year-old American student; Yoon-Sook is a 16-year-old Asian student. Rob and Yoon-Sook, respectively, are likely to attribute academic success to ________ and ________.

A) unchanging causes; situational factors

B) effort; natural ability

C) effort; situational factors

D) natural ability; unchanging causes

Answer: A

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

104) Race is to ethnicity as ________ is to ________.

A) the individual; biology

B) biology; culture

C) culture; biology

D) the individual; culture

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

105) Which of the following is a trend in the near future of psychology?

A) Psychology's influence on issues of public interest, such as violence and terrorism, is likely to reduce.

B) The branches of psychology are likely to be increasingly influenced by neuroscientific approaches.

C) Psychology is likely to become an increasingly unified discipline.

D) The relevance of diversity in psychology is likely to decrease.

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Psychology's Future

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

106) Pablo is taking part in a psychology experiment. He watches two political campaign ads—one highlighting the candidate's positive attributes and another emphasizing the opponent's negative features. During each ad, Pablo's brain is scanned. This experiment is most likely conducted by a ________ neuroscientist.

A) clinical

B) social

C) behavioral

D) counseling

Answer: B

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Psychology's Future

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

107) Lukas is unhappy with the way he is being treated at work. He plans to quit as he believes his boss is undermining his efforts. His colleague, Marie, encourages him to examine his assumptions, evaluate the situation, and think more carefully about his decisions. In this scenario, which of the following approach is Marie encouraging Lukas to employ to make an informed decision?

A) visualization

B) description-based thinking

C) determinism

D) critical thinking

Answer: D

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

108) ________ explores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease.

Answer: Health psychology

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

109) Dr. Thibodeaux examines sensory, learning, and cognitive processes. She is a(n) ________ psychologist.

Answer: experimental

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

110) ________ focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems.

Answer: Counseling psychology

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the scope and goals of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

111) ________ applies psychology to athletic activity and exercise.

Answer: Sport psychology

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

112) Ursula is interested in helping students develop effective study practices and manage test anxiety. Her advisor suggests that she consider a career in ________ psychology.

Answer: counseling

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

113) Consider the fields of evolutionary psychology, behavioral genetics, and clinical neuropsychology. Of these three fields, ________ is the least specific in its focus.

Answer: evolutionary psychology

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Evolutionary Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

114) Of the two degrees, PhD and PsyD, the less research-oriented is the ________.

Answer: PsyD

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

115) Evolutionary psychology stems from the arguments presented by ________ in the book On the Origin of Species.

Answer: Charles Darwin

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Evolutionary Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

116) Wilhelm Wundt's approach focuses on understanding the fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other kinds of mental states and activities and is known as ________.

Answer: structuralism

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Psychodynamic Perspective

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

117) Sigmund Freud was a proponent of the ________.

Answer: psychodynamic perspective

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Behavioral Perspective

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

118) The ________ suggests that the focus of psychological study should be on external behavior that can be observed and measured objectively.

Answer: behavioral perspective

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Cognitive Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

119) According to the cognitive perspective, thinking is similar to ________ by a computer.

Answer: information processing

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Cognitive Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

120) The ________ suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior.

Answer: humanistic perspective

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Cognitive Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

121) Wanda is a humanistic psychologist who believes that behavior reflects an individual's own choices—that is, she endorses the notion of ________.

Answer: free will

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Cognitive Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

122) The humanistic perspective is explicit in its rejection of ________, the notion that behavior is caused by factors outside the individual's control.

Answer: determinism

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Humanistic Perspective

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

123) While neuroscientists tend to seek universal principles of behavior, humanistic psychologists are more interested in ________.

Answer: individual differences

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

124) ________ adopting a psychodynamic perspective argue that psychological disorders are brought about by unconscious factors.

Answer: Clinical psychologists

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

125) The idea that behavior is caused primarily by choices that are made by an individual without restrictions is known as ________.

Answer: free will

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

126) Dr. Young activates social stereotypes his participants might hold; simultaneously, he records changes in the brain's electrical activity. Dr. Young is part of an evolving field known as ________.

Answer: social neuroscience

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Psychology's Future

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

127) The idea that people's behavior is produced primarily by factors outside of their willful control is known as ________.

Answer: determinism

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Psychology's Future

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

128) Dr. MacGyvers is a developmental psychologist, Dr. Cooper is a cross-cultural psychologist, and Dr. Breaux is a cognitive psychologist. For each of these psychologists, briefly define the subfield in which he or she specializes and suggest one issue or question in which he or she might be especially interested.

Answer: Students' suggestions may vary.

Developmental psychology—examines how people grow and change throughout the life span. Sample issue or question: how children's problem-solving abilities change through the elementary and middle-school years.

Cross-cultural psychology—examines the similarities and differences in psychological functioning among various cultures.

Sample issue or question: whether depression is experienced and expressed differently in Asian cultures than in western cultures.

Cognitive psychology—studies higher mental processes, such as memory, thinking, problem solving, decision making, and language. Sample issue or question: how memory of an event is influenced by subsequent experiences.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Definition of Psychology; Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.; Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

129) Evolutionary psychology, behavioral genetics, and clinical neuropsychology are three growing fields on the frontiers of today's psychology. Briefly describe each of these fields and suggest a topic that a psychologist in each might investigate.

Answer: Students' suggestions may vary.

Evolutionary psychology—examines how behavior reflects our genetic heritage. Sample issue or question: the evolutionary basis of gender differences in mate selection preferences.

Behavioral genetics—explores the genetic mechanisms that allow inherited behavior to unfold. Sample issue or question: the chromosomal abnormalities that might underlie certain learning disabilities.

Clinical neuropsychology—focuses on the origin of psychological disorders in biological factors. Sample topic: brain chemistry abnormalities underlying bipolar disorder.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Subfields of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

130) Briefly, in one to two paragraphs, discuss the underrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities among psychologists in the United States and the significance this may have on the field as a whole. Please provide one possible example that illustrates the effects this may have.

Answer: Students' examples may vary.

The vast majority of psychologists in the United States are white, limiting the diversity of the field. Only 6 percent of all psychologists are members of racial minority groups. Although the number of minority individuals entering the field is higher than a decade ago, the numbers have not kept up with the dramatic growth of the minority population at large. The underrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities among psychologists is significant for several reasons. First, the field of psychology is diminished by a lack of the diverse perspectives and talents that minority-group members can provide.

Furthermore, minority-group psychologists serve as role models for members of minority communities, and their underrepresentation in the profession might deter other minority-group members from entering the field. Finally, because members of minority groups often prefer to receive psychological therapy from treatment providers of their own race or ethnic group, the rarity of minority psychologists can discourage some members of minority groups from seeking treatment.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

131) Briefly discuss what types of education level, or degree, different types of psychologists have and how many years one might expect to invest earning said degrees. Does the area of psychology one is interested in working in dictate the level of schooling required? Please provide two examples that relate area of work interest and degree necessary to illustrate your statements.

Answer: Students' examples may vary.

Most psychologists have a doctorate, either a PhD (doctor of philosophy) or, less frequently, a PsyD (doctor of psychology).

The PhD is a research degree that requires a dissertation based on an original investigation. The PsyD is obtained by psychologists who wish to focus on the treatment of psychological disorders. (Psychologists are distinct from psychiatrists, who have a medical degree and specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders, often using treatments that involve the prescription of drugs.)

Both the PhD and the PsyD typically take 4 or 5 years of work past the bachelor's level. Some fields of psychology involve education beyond the doctorate. For instance, doctoral-level clinical psychologists, who deal with people with psychological disorders, typically spend an additional year doing an internship.

About a third of people working in the field of psychology have a master's degree as their highest degree, which they earn after 2 or 3 years of graduate work.

These psychologists teach, provide therapy, conduct research, or work in specialized programs dealing with drug abuse or crisis intervention. Some work in universities, government, and business, collecting and analyzing data.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

132) What are the career options available to psychology majors?

Answer: Although some psychology majors head for graduate school in psychology or an unrelated field, the majority join the workforce immediately after graduation. Most report that the jobs they take after graduation are related to their psychology background.

An undergraduate major in psychology provides excellent preparation for a variety of occupations. Because undergraduates who specialize in psychology develop good analytical skills, are trained to think critically, and are able to synthesize and evaluate information well, employers in business, industry, and the government value their preparation.

The most common areas of employment for psychology majors are in the social services, including working as an administrator, serving as a counselor, and providing direct care. Some 20 percent of recipients of bachelor's degrees in psychology work in the social services or in some other form of public affairs. In addition, psychology majors often enter the fields of education or business or work for federal, state, and local governments.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 1: Psychologists at Work

Topic: Profession of Psychology

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

133) Briefly describe Gestalt psychology and functionalism in one paragraph each. Also, compare and contrast these two approaches.

Answer: An important reaction to structuralism was the development of Gestalt psychology in the early 1900s. Gestalt psychology emphasizes how perception is organized.

Instead of considering the individual parts that make up thinking, gestalt psychologists took the opposite tack, studying how people consider individual elements together as units or wholes. Led by German scientists such as Hermann Ebbinghaus and Max Wertheimer, gestalt psychologists proposed that "The whole is different from the sum of its parts," meaning that our perception, or understanding, of objects is greater and more meaningful than the individual elements that make up our perceptions. Gestalt psychologists have made substantial contributions to our understanding of perception.

The perspective that replaced structuralism is known as functionalism. Rather than focusing on the mind's structure, functionalism concentrated on what the mind does and how behavior functions. Functionalists, whose perspective became prominent in the early 1900s, asked what role behavior plays in allowing people to adapt to their environments. Led by the American psychologist William James, the functionalists examined how behavior allows people to satisfy their needs and how our "stream of consciousness" permits us to adapt to our environment.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

134) You have been invited to participate in a program aimed at encouraging high school girls to pursue scientific careers. You wish to tell the girls that despite formidable obstacles, women made many important contributions to the science of psychology in its earliest days. Outline several points you might make in support of your argument.

Answer: Students' answers may vary.

At the turn of the 20th century, women were often barred from pursuing advanced degrees in psychology. Nevertheless, many women made key contributions to the field, including:

Margaret Floy Washburn: She was the first woman to receive a doctorate in psychology and contributed to our understanding of animal behavior.

Leta Stetter Hollingworth: She focused on child development and women's issues and refuted the notion that women's abilities decline during portions of the menstrual cycle.

Mary Calkins: She studied memory and was the first female president of the American Psychological Association.

Karen Horney: She focused on the sociocultural foundations of personality.

June Etta Downey: She spearheaded the study of personality traits and was the first woman to head a psychology department at a state university.

Anna Freud: She contributed to the treatment of abnormal behavior.

Mamie Phipps Clark: She performed foundational work on how children of color come to recognize racial differences.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: History of Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

135) List and briefly describe three major perspectives in contemporary psychology. Identify one or two prominent psychologists associated with each of the perspectives you list.

Answer: Psychodynamic perspective—the approach based on the view that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which the individual has little control; Freud, Jung

Behavioral perspective—proposes that observable, measurable behavior should be the focus of study; Watson, Skinner

Humanistic perspective—proposes that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior; Maslow, Rogers

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Remember

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

136) Describe a behavioral or mental phenomenon in which you are especially interested. Discuss how the phenomenon might be approached from at least two of the following perspectives: neuroscientific, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic.

Answer: Any behavioral or mental phenomenon might be mentioned as long as it is plausibly connected to two of the perspectives as they are defined in the text.

Example: Depression—the neuroscientific approach would seek the biological basis of depression, as well as physiologically oriented treatment, whereas the cognitive perspective would focus on the type of thinking that contributes to depression, such as irrational beliefs that nothing good will ever happen and that one is bound to fail in any endeavor. Treatment from the cognitive perspective would focus on changing negative thought patterns.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

137) Describe a current event or topic of public interest. Suggest how at least two of the major perspectives in contemporary psychology might shed light on the topic.

Answer: Any event or topic can be mentioned as long as it is plausibly connected to two of the perspectives as they are defined in the text.

Example: School violence—a behavioral approach might focus on a history of being reinforced for aggressive behavior, or on having witnessed media models being reinforced for aggressive behavior. A humanistic approach might suggest that violent students are often loners and relatively low status or powerless in their peer group and thus resort to drastic measures to gain power or control, or respect.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 2: A Science Evolves: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

138) The text describes the role of psychology in addressing such current social should be concerns as (a) the fallibility of eyewitness memory; (b) economic recession; (c) obesity; and (d) terrorism. Select two of these issues and describe how psychologists in several different subfields might approach them. In your answer, make explicit reference to at least three of the following subfields: cognitive psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, and cross-cultural psychology.

Answer: Students' answers may vary.

Examples might include the following:

Eyewitness memory: Cognitive psychologists might study the role of anxiety or arousal on eyewitness memory. Social psychologists might examine the influence of suggestion by such authorities as police officers and attorneys on eyewitness testimony.

Economic recession: Cognitive psychologists might look at the influence of economic adversity on consumer decision making.

Personality psychologists might investigate the role of such traits as resilience and optimism in coping with economic downturns.

Obesity: Social psychologists might examine how other people influence one's eating behavior. Personality psychologists might explore the role of such traits as neuroticism in overeating, or conscientiousness in maintaining a diet regimen.

Terrorism: Social psychologists might examine the role of charismatic leaders in encouraging terrorist behavior. Cross-cultural psychologists might look to cultural factors such as religion in promoting terrorism.

Many other applications are possible.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Identify areas of specialization and careers in psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

139) Identify and briefly describe any two of the key issues or controversies in psychology discussed in the text. Suggest how each of the issues or controversies you describe might surface in one or more areas of study in today's psychology.

Answer: The answer should identify and briefly define two of the following issues:

Nature vs. nurture—concerns the extent to which our behavior reflects heredity.

Conscious vs. unconscious causes—concerns the extent to which our behavior reflects causes of which we are completely unaware.

Observable behavior vs. internal mental processes—concerns the extent to which it is possible to study internal mental processes scientifically and the extent to which such processes are an appropriate focus for psychological study.

Free will vs. determinism—concerns the extent to which we freely choose the behaviors we perform.

Individual differences vs. universal principles—concerns the extent to which our thought and behavior is universally human.

The answer should provide a plausible instantiation of two of the above issues in a topic of interest to contemporary psychology. Example—Sexual orientation: Debates regarding the "gay gene" or anatomical brain differences between gay and straight men might be seen as reflecting nature vs. nurture, while the issue of whether homosexual behavior is a choice reflects free will versus determinism.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Key Issues and Controversies

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

140) Compare and contrast several major perspectives in contemporary psychology with respect to at least three of the key issues or controversies in psychology that your text outlines.

Answer: The answer should briefly describe or define at least three of the following key issues:

Nature vs. nurture-concerns the extent to which our behavior reflects heredity.

Conscious vs. unconscious causes—concerns the extent to which our behavior reflects causes of which we are completely unaware.

Observable behavior vs. internal mental processes—concerns the extent to which it is possible to study internal mental processes scientifically and the extent to which such processes are an appropriate focus for psychological study.

Free will vs. determinism—concerns the extent to which we freely choose the behaviors we perform.

Individual differences vs. universal principles—concerns the extent to which our thought and behavior is universally human.

The answer should then compare and contrast several major perspectives in contemporary psychology with respect to these issues. For example:

Nature vs. nurture—the behavioral perspective tends to endorse nurture, while neuroscience and evolutionary perspectives are more sympathetic to the notion that our behavior reflects heredity.

Conscious vs. unconscious causes—the psychodynamic perspective suggests that the roots of our behavior are often unconscious, while the cognitive perspective focuses on conscious thought processes.

Observable behavior vs. internal mental processes—the behavioral perspective suggests that psychologists should focus on behavior; the cognitive perspective argues that mental processes are an important focus of study.

Free will vs. determinism—the humanistic perspective champions free will, while the neuroscience perspective argues that much of our thought and behavior is biologically determined.

Individual differences vs. universal principles—the humanistic perspective is interested in the uniqueness of each individual; the neuroscience perspective looks for the basis of thought and behavior in our biological architecture, which is more or less universal.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Perspectives in Psychology

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Understand

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

141) It is the year 2031, 10 years since you received a doctorate in psychology, and twenty since you took that first test in introductory psychology. Now a professor yourself, you wish to tell your own students how the field has changed since you began your study of psychology. Based on your text's discussion, which developments in science might you highlight?

Answer: The answer should mention some of these potential developments:

a. Psychology has become increasingly specialized.

b. Social neuroscience has flourished, becoming a thriving subfield in psychology.

c. Psychologists have become increasingly influential in shaping society's response to issues of public interest.

d. Psychology has become more diverse, and issues related to diversity have assumed increasing importance.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Psychology's Future

Learning Objective: Describe the history and early foundations of psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

142) You wish to help an aging family friend who is showing early signs of Alzheimer's disease. You hear about an inexpensive nutritional supplement that is supposed to slow or even reverse some of the memory losses associated with the onset of the disorder. Describe some of the steps you might take in thinking critically about the potential value of the supplement.

Answer: The answer should contain the following elements:

a. Evaluate the credentials of the individuals attesting to the supplement's effectiveness.

b. Search for high-quality, scientific research that might support or refute the value of the supplement.

c. Be aware that the low cost of the supplement may be "too good to be true." Can a low-cost supplement really help solve a difficult problem like the onset of dementia?

d. Maintain a healthy skepticism regarding any claims you might hear about the supplement's effectiveness.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Section: 3: Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies

Topic: Psychology's Future

Learning Objective: Summarize the key characteristics of the major approaches to psychology.

Bloom's: Apply

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

+
-
Only 0 units of this product remain

You might also be interested in