Test Bank Victimology and Victim Assistance 1st Edition by Yoshiko Takahashi

$35.00
Test Bank Victimology and Victim Assistance 1st Edition by Yoshiko Takahashi

Test Bank Victimology and Victim Assistance 1st Edition by Yoshiko Takahashi

$35.00
Test Bank Victimology and Victim Assistance 1st Edition by Yoshiko Takahashi

Test Bank Victimology and Victim Assistance 1st Edition by Yoshiko Takahashi

Chapter 1: Historical Perspectives of Victimology and Victim Assistance

Test Bank

Multiple Choice

  1. The plight of crime victims in the United States to be recognized and have access to services following victimization emanates from ______.
  2. enormous efforts made by social movements during the mid-to-late 2000s
  3. the political will that has recognized the advantage of reintegrating victims into the criminal justice system
  4. understanding the impact of victimization, making laws, and reaction toward those who break the law
  5. the expanding body of victim legislation

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Introduction

Answer Location: Knowledge
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The framework for the acknowledgement and advancement in services offered to victims has developed from ______.
  2. the study of victimology
  3. the expansion of state compensation programs
  4. the expanding body of victim legislation
  5. social movements made during the mid-to-late 1900s

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Introduction
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. History reveals that before written law existed, when a person or property was harmed, the victim and/or his or her family were responsible for obtaining justice through ______.
  2. traveling judge
  3. jury of peers
  4. retaliation
  5. any civilized means

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Introduction
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Victimologists are interested in ______, while criminologist focus on ______.
  2. rationality and free will; the impact of crime
  3. controlling criminal matters; public interests
  4. understanding the impact of victimization; making laws, breaking laws, and reacting toward those breaking laws
  5. recognizing social movements; victims’ rights during criminal proceedings

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Introduction
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Lex talions is a system of justice in which the principle of an-eye-for-an-eye means ______.
  2. when a victim has been physically harmed, it is a punishable offense
  3. criminals would be dealt punishment equal to that of the harm caused
  4. the victim has a right to retaliate when physically harmed
  5. justice is what the victim views justice should be

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Once society moved from the victim and/or family being responsible for obtaining justice to the state assuming control over criminal matters and public interest ______.
  2. the interest of the victim became secondary, excluding them from formal proceedings of the justice system
  3. the principles of retribution, restitution, and retaliation were written into law
  4. the death penalty and imprisonment were most strongly emphasized
  5. this era became known as The Golden Age of the Victim

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The move away from the theoretical approach of classical school to criminal law began a new direction in the philosophy of science called ______.
  2. the Golden Age of the Victim
  3. Era of Enlightenment
  4. positivism
  5. normative guidelines

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Proponents of positivism, a new way of approaching science, in criminal law included ______.
  2. Benjamin Mendelsohn and Frederick Wertham
  3. Ur-Nammu and Hammurabi
  4. Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham
  5. Cesare Lombroso, Rafaele Garrafalo, and Enrico Ferri

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. ______ were instrumental in advocating for greater awareness of the needs of minorities, women, and children and how the criminal justice system reacts to them.
  2. The civil rights and women’s movements in the 1960s and 1970s
  3. Positivistic research
  4. Policy recommendations
  5. State compensation programs for victims

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The WSV brings together a network of victimologists that encourages the advancement of research and cooperation between ______.
  2. victimologists who are researchers and criminologists who study applied criminal behavior
  3. international, national, regional, local agencies, and other groups who are concerned with the problems of victims
  4. post graduates from Croatia, Japan, and South Africa
  5. no one entity brings together a network of victimologists that encouraged the advancement of research and cooperation

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. During the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s, relationships between African American and law enforcement were strained and many did not report their victimizations to the police. For those who did report their victimization, the treatment given was notably different to that of white people. The civil rights movement was important in influencing the focus on the needs of victims because it paved the way for
  2. the use of civil disobedience to challenge the discrimination taking place in society
  3. the powerless in society to show that with social action, social change is possible
  4. exposure to issues of inequality in education, housing and employment
  5. ending the lack of political and economic power for African Americans and other American minorities.

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Civil Rights Movement
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. The women’s movement during the 1960s and 1970s contributed to the development of victimology and the continued recognition and growth of assistance offered to female victims of crime by ______.
  2. advocating and fighting to change the social norms in society that led to the poor recognition and treatment of women in the justice system
  3. ending the lack of political and economic power for women
  4. decreasing government intervention significantly through the passage of laws related to domestic violence, the repeal of marital exemption laws, and so on
  5. educating on the lack of political and economic power for women

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Evaluation

Answer Location: The Women’s Movement
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Following the case of Mary Ellen Wilson, which brought attention to the issues of abuse and cruelty to children by parents and/or guardians, all the following were implemented, except ______.
  2. the NYSPCC
  3. 300 nongovernmental child protection agencies in both large cities and rural areas
  4. the first juvenile court
  5. the book, The Battered-Child Syndrome, was published

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Children’s Movement
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. In 1962, Dr. Henry Kempe published his seminal work The Battered-Child Syndrome, which highlighted ______.
  2. the problem of child abuse and how the medical community is in a position to recognize and report instances of child abuse
  3. the fact that when mothers leave an abusive relationship, children often accompanied the mothers to the shelters, which left them at higher risks of child abuse
  4. that non-governmental child protection agencies throughout the United States were mainly in the big cities, with no formal child protection existing in rural areas
  5. juvenile courts had the jurisdiction to intervene in cases of abuse and neglect

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Children’s Movement
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Margret Fry was instrumental in the development of compensation programs, where the activism for these programs began in the 1950s in the United Kingdom. Her argument was ______.
  2. the idea of victim compensation was a pressing concern and one that was beginning to develop around the world
  3. every country in the world should commit to the compensation of victims and the United Kingdom should lead by example
  4. there were many inadequacies in how the state secured and/or made available compensation for victims of crime
  5. people should be compensated when they suffer a criminal injury

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Programs for Crime Victims
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The Federal Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) funded and piloted three victim/witness programs in district attorney’s office in the 1970s as a response to ______.
  2. court appearances being a crisis inducing situation for victims
  3. criminal plea bargains, dismissals, and parole hearings
  4. the many inadequacies in how the states secured and distributed compensation for the victims of crimes
  5. prosecution failure due to the loss of cooperative witnesses—victims—and a system that was indifferent to their most basic needs

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Early Programs for Crime Victims
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. In 1984, the federal government enacted the Victims of Crime Act (VOCA). VOCA authorizes ______.
  2. states to require restitution from criminals to victims of crimes
  3. crisis intervention and social service referrals
  4. compensation when federal crimes are committed and monetary assistance to state compensation programs
  5. notifications beyond court dates, which includes bail determinations, continuances, plea bargains, dismissals, sentencing, parole hearings, and so on.

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Early Programs for Crime Victims
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. While the energy and growth of the victims’ movement ignited into victim assistance during the 1970s, the families and loved ones of homicide victims were an isolated and overlooked group of victims. Once this was recognized, several victim assistance organizations were developed to provide assistance. These organizations included all, except ______.
  2. Families and Friends of Missing Persons established in 1974
  3. Victims of Crime established in 1984
  4. Parents of Murdered Children established in 1978
  5. Mothers Against Drunk Driving established in 1980

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehend

Answer Location: Development of Victim Assistance Organizations
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The purpose of the National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA) today is to ______.
  2. advocate for changes in laws and federal policies to bring greater awareness to needs for victims of crime
  3. provide better notification to victims about dates and processes relating to a victim’s case
  4. promote the networking between victim assistance organizations, provide training opportunities to those who work with victims, and ensure passage of various laws to assist crime victims
  5. confront issues that challenge the peace and security of people around the world

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Development of Victim Assistance Organizations
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. One of the most significant international documents the UN prompted that resulted from the reemergence of the victim and the recognition that the criminal justice system needed to evolve and adapt to the increasing need for safety and well-being of victims was ______.
  2. the Declaration of the Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power
  3. the Declaration of Human Rights
  4. the International Declaration on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice
  5. the Magna Carte of Victims’ Rights

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: UN Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. The President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice was created in 1965 in the United States because ______.
  2. of measures that were being taken on behalf of victims that did not improve access to justice, fair treatment, restitution, compensation or assistance
  3. the increase in public fear of crime, heightened by the media, led to a philosophy that not only emphasized harsher punishment and greater efficiency in seeking justice, but also revealed the neglect of victims
  4. of the law and order movement that developed as part of the rising social unrest and increasing crime rates
  5. basic principles needed to be formed as the basis of all local and international protocols of victims’ rights

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: U.S. Legislation and Policy
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. One of the first federal legislations to be enacted following the creation of the President’s Task Force on Victims of Crime was ______ in 1984. This legislation established the Crime Victims Fund, which was made up of federal criminal fines, penalties, forfeitures, and special assessments, for state compensation programs and local victims’ assistance programs.
  2. Violence Against Women’s Act
  3. Law Enforcement Assistance Act
  4. Victims’ of Crime Act
  5. Human Rights Act

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: U.S. Legislation and Policy
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The ____ was enacted as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, acknowledging domestic violence and sexual assault crimes, along with providing federal resources to encourage community-coordinated responses to combating violence against women.
  2. Law Enforcement Assistance for Women Act
  3. Women Victims’ of Crime Act
  4. Human Rights Act
  5. Violence Against Women’s Act

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: U.S. Legislation and Policy
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) has been reauthorized and expanded on three times since 1994–2000, 2005, and 2013—and some of these expansions to the act included all the following, except ______.
  2. the development and implementation of two national conferences on violence against women to provide networking, training, and the advocacy for various laws that support the security and safety of women
  3. housing protections for victims of domestic violence in federally subsidized housing programs
  4. protection for dating violence on college campuses and for victims of stalking over the internet
  5. protection for LGBT victims from discrimination in receiving services

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: U.S. Legislation and Policy
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Despite the adoption of legislation and amendments to state constitutions for crime victims’ rights, there have been problematic issues identified with victims’ rights that include all the following, except ______.
  2. victims’ rights create administrative issues and by trying to facilitate these rights it may result in delays in trials and add expenses to an already overburdened system
  3. issues with court delays due to the right to consult with court officials before plea bargains are entered and/or offenders are released from custody
  4. providing victims certain rights may tip the balance between the rights of the offender and the victim
  5. the enforcement of rights, i.e., what happens when victims’ rights are not protected

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Common State Victims’ Rights
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Victim advocates are ______.
  2. trained law enforcement officers who support victims of crime
  3. trained nursing professionals who support victims of crime
  4. people who are trained to support victims of crimes
  5. people who are seeking political office

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Types of Victim Services
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Victim advocates can be found in ______ to assist victims by providing information, emotional support, resources, filling out paperwork, and accompanying victims to court.
  2. bus stations
  3. correctional institutions
  4. for profit organizations
  5. educational institutions

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Types of Victim Services
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. Forensic examinations for victims of sexual assault, rape, or child abuse are performed by ______.
  2. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANE)
  3. Sexual Assault Response Team (SART)
  4. Sexual Assault Response Units (SARU)
  5. Sexual Assault Victims Advocates (SAVA)

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Victims’ Services in the Health Care System
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. The ______, passed in 1990, provides guidelines for how and when victims of federal crimes will be assisted by U.S. Attorney’s Offices.
  2. Victims’ Rights and Restitution Act
  3. Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act
  4. Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act
  5. Mandatory Victims’ Restitution Act

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Other Types of Victims’ Services
Difficulty Level: Easy

  1. In addition to victims’ assistance programs in the criminal justice system and nonprofit organizations, specialized services can also be found in which one of these?
  2. religious organizations
  3. dentist office
  4. fire stations
  5. city offices

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Victim Services in Religious Organizations & Other Types of Victim Services
Difficulty Level: Easy

True/False

  1. Victimology, as a scientific discipline, has drawn its knowledge from research from a variety of backgrounds, such as law, social work, nursing, psychology, and medicine, with the most significant influence coming from criminology.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Some professionals argue that victimology is a discipline on its own and not a subfield of criminology and as such these two fields of study cannot be complimentary.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The term victimology is attributed to Benjamin Mendelsohn, who first used it in a set of papers presented in Bucharest, Romania in 1947.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. While Frederick Wertham is attributed with first using the term victimology, it was Benjamin Mendelsohn who was said to have first published this term in his book The Show of Violence.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The move away from viewing crime against the victim to crime against the state began in the Middles Ages and was fully in place by the Industrial Revolution.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. During the Era of Enlightenment, Beccaria and Bentham focused on eliminating the tyrannical nature of criminal law—where they advocated on the side of the victim (the powerless), from the indifference and ignorance of the rich and powerful.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The first international symposium on victimology was held in 1957, in the United Kingdom, in mutual cooperation with the United States over the concern for victims.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. At the third international symposium on victimology, in 1979 in Germany, the World Society of Victimology (WSV) was founded.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. The aim of the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power in 1985 has been to improve victims’ access to justice, fair treatment, restitution, compensation, and support, as well as taking steps to prevent victimization linked to the abuse of power.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. For those African Americans who were brave enough to report their victimizations to law enforcement during the 1950s and 1960s civil rights movement, the treatment given to them was equal to that of their White counterparts, further confusing the need for more compassionate and humane approaches to the problems of those fighting for equality.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: History of Victimology
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Poor recognition and treatment in the criminal justice system of women who had suffered sexual abuse and domestic violence was a direct result of a lack of women advocates in assisting these women.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Women’s Movement
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Even though Mary Ellen Wilson’s child abuse case was a high-profile case, just before the turn of the 20th century, there were approximately 300 non-governmental child protection agencies throughout the United States to protect children from abuse and cruelty by parents and/or guardians.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Children’s Movement
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. In the 1970s, the criminal justice system began to notice that the biggest reason for prosecution failure was the loss of cooperative witnesses—victims—and a system that was indifferent to their most basic needs. This led to the funding and piloting of three victim/witness programs in district attorney’s offices that were designed to provide better notification about their cases and separate waiting areas in court and to encourage participation.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Early Programs for Crime Victims
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Victim assistance organizations supported and provided resources for women of domestic violence, child protection, and families/loved ones of homicide victims all about the same time to ensure there were no isolated victim groups and all organizations provided services that were readily available to the victims.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development of Victim Assistance Organizations
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. The Violence Against Women Act was established in 1994 and was enacted as part of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, acknowledging domestic violence and sexual assault crimes, along with providing federal resources to encourage community-coordinated responses to combating violence against women.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: U.S. Legislation and Policy
Difficulty Level: Medium

Essay

  1. What does the old saying “Victims are the forgotten actors in the criminal justice system” mean? Why is this saying slowly beginning to no longer apply?

Ans: This is because much has been done to bring attention to and assist those who have been harmed by crime. The plight of crime victims in the United States to be recognized and have access to services following victimization emanates from enormous efforts made by social movements during the mid-to-late 1900s, along with the political will that has recognized the advantage of reintegrating victims’ into the criminal justice system. Today, there exists an expanding body of victim legislation that affords victims’ rights during criminal proceedings, has seen the creation and expansion of state compensation programs, and provides funding for victim assistance programs (Office for Victims of Crime [OVC]). These developments have significantly influenced the recovery of individuals who have suffered the emotional and psychological trauma, physical injuries, and/or financial losses of crime.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Introduction
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. How did the social movements and the rising social consciousness during the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s influence the recognition of the needs of crime victims? What were the most salient results of these social movements in terms of resources and assistance for victims?

Ans: The civil rights movement during the 1950s and 1960s was the first in modern American history to use civil disobedience to challenge the discrimination that was taking place in society. The movement concerned itself with ending the lack of political and economic power for African Americans and other American minorities. It took on the issues of inequality in education, housing, employment, and the criminal justice system. The movement’s influence on the criminal justice system was of particular significance. During this time, African Americans’ relationship with law enforcement, which was predominately White and male, was very strained. Because of the tension between the two communities, many crime victims would not report their victimizations to the police, limiting their access to needed assistance and justice. For those who did report their victimizations and enter the criminal justice system, the treatment given was notably different to that of White people. This led the movement to challenge law enforcement and the criminal justice system to adopt of more compassionate and humane approach to the problems of those fighting for equality. The movement paved the way for the powerless in society to show that with social action social change is possible. Arguably, the most influential of the movements during the 1960s and 1970s was the women’s movement. It was in this period where many brave women who had personally suffered the effects of sexual abuse and domestic violence, along with feminist groups advocated against the poor treatment they received in society. It was argued that the inequality women experienced in education and in the work place was the result of a patriarchal society. Poor recognition and treatment of women was also seen in the criminal justice system. This led early female victim advocates to set up shelters and counseling centers to assist these victims. Dove tailing off the women’s movement was the children’s movement. Like women, children were often ignored in society, despite crimes such as abuse and neglect occurring throughout history. Just before the turn of the twentieth century, the first high profile case, Mary Ellen Wilson, brought attention to the problem of child abuse and that there were no laws to protect children from abuse and cruelty by parents and guardians. Following the case of Miss Wilson, the New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NYSPCC) was created. This society was dedicated entirely to the protection of children. By 1922, there were 300 nongovernmental child protection agencies throughout the United States.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: History of Victim Assistance
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. Describe the connection between the early programs for crime victims and the development of victim assistance organizations. In what ways did the early programs for crime victims influence the development of victim assistance organizations? Was this a positive or negative influence?

Ans: As victimology was growing in the 1970s and bringing greater attention to the victim being the neglected party in the criminal justice system, the system, too, began to notice that the biggest reason for prosecution failure was the loss of cooperative witnesses—victims—and a system that was indifferent to their most basic needs. To counter the problem of prosecution failure, the Federal Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), funded and piloted three victim/witness programs in district attorneys’ offices. These programs were designed to provide better notification to victims about dates and processes relating to their cases, along with separate waiting areas in the courts, and encourage victim participation in the criminal justice system. Succeeding more victim/witness programs started and began to expand on the services provided to victims. These services included prosecutor-based staff training in crisis intervention (because court appearances can be crisis inducing for victims), social services referrals, assistance with compensation programs, and notification beyond court dates, i.e., bails determinations, continuances, plea bargains, dismissals, sentences, restitution, protective measures, and parole hearings. These programs continue today, offering the same services to crime victims.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Early Programs for Crime Victims and Development of Victim Assistance Organizations
Difficulty Level: Hard

  1. How do criminology and victimology differ and how are they similar?

Ans: Criminologists have concentrated a large portion of their work to analyzing criminal victimization and ways to prevent it. This has led some to argue that victimology is a subfield of criminology and not a discipline on its own. Irrespective of this debate, criminology and victimology are complementary areas of study. Where criminologists focus on studying criminal behavior, which includes the process of making laws, breaking laws, and reacting toward those breaking of laws, the focus for victimologists is the opposite. Victimologists are interested in understanding the impact of the victimization on victims and how best they can be restored to their previctimization state; victimologists, too, analyze how the criminal justice system accommodates and assists victims and how society, along with the media and the internet, react to criminal victimization and victims. Victimology, then, is the scientific study of victims, victimizations, and the social reaction to both of these.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction
Difficulty Level: Medium

  1. Discuss the role the United Nations has played in ensuring victims’ rights for all people. How has the United Nations influenced the victims’ rights in the United States? What specific legislation and/or policies have been established as a result of the Declaration of Human Rights?

Ans: The United Nations (UN) was established in 1945, as an intergovernmental organization, committed to promoting peace, security, and strengthening of friendship between nations. The UN began with 50 countries, known as member states, which signed the Charter of the UN detailing the organizations purposes and principles, which include helping solve economic, social, and humanitarian problems. One of the most significant international documents the UN prompted was the Declaration of the Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power. The declaration resulted from the reemergence of the victim and the recognition that the criminal justice system needed to evolve and adapt to the increasing need for safety and the well-being of victims. Globally, it was the work of many individuals, organizations, governments, and international bodies that fought to restore the plight of victims into the legal system and improve the quantity and quality of assistance available to victims. The idea for the declaration was to create national and international standards for how victims of crime needed to be treated in the criminal justice system. The declaration also provides recommendations on measures to be taken on behalf of victims to improve access to justice, fair treatment, restitution, compensation and assistance. It, too, outlines steps to assist to prevent victimization linked to abuse of power and to provide remedies for the victims. After 31 years, the declaration is still a fundamental document and recognized as the “Magna Carte of victims’ rights.” The principles the document contains form the basis of all local and international protocols on victims’ rights.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Legislative and Policy Development of Victims’ Rights

Difficulty Level: Hard

+
-
Only 0 units of this product remain

You might also be interested in